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The Rajah Saheb of Chettinad (Frontispiece) 

1. The Rajah Sir S.Rm.M. Annamalai Chettiar 

2. Father and Brothers 

3. The Rajah Saheb and the Rani Saheba of Chettinad 

4. The Rajah Saheb of Chettinad in LL.D. Robes (Madras 


5. The Rajah Saheb on his walk in the garden 

6. Kumararajah Sir M. A. Muthiah Chettiar, B.A. 

7. Kumararajah in Mayoral Robes 

8. Kumararajah M. A. Muthia Chettiar as Pro- Chancellor, 

Madras University 

9. S, Rm. M. Rm. Ramanathan Chettiar, Under- Sheriff. 


10. M. A. Chidambaram Chettiar, 3rd son of the Rajah 

Saheb of Chettinad 

11. The River View of the Palace at Adyar 

12. The Rajah Saheb's Palace at Kanadukathan 

13. Proposed Chettinad Palace at Chettinad 

14. Proposed Chettinad Palace at Chettinad (Another View) 

15. The Rajah Saheb's Rest House at the Chettinad 

Railway Station 

16. The Rajah Saheb's Bungalow at Ootacamund 

17. Aerodrome Building, Chettinad 

18. The Rajah Saheb of Chettinad at the opening of the 

Chettinad Aerodrome 

19. A Group Photo at the Chettinad Aerodrome 

20. The Rajah Saheb at the Chettinad Aerodrome 

21. Lady Pentland Women and Children Hospital, Chettinad 

22. The Rajah Saheb of Chettinad 

23. Pro-Chancellor, Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor (in 

Academic Robes, 1931) 

24. H. E. Lord Erskine, G. C.S.I. (Chancellor, Annamalai 

University, 1934-39) 

25. H. E. The Hon'ble Sir Arthur Oswald James Hope, 

G.C.I.E., M.C., Chancellor, Annamalai University, 
from 1939 



26. Diwan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan M.A., I.E.S. 

(Retd.), Vice-Chancellor from 1929-1935 

27. The Right Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P.C., C.H., 

LL.D., Vice-Chancellor from 1935-1940 

28. Rai Bahadur Sir Kurma Venkata Reddy Nayudu Garu, 

K. C.S.I., D.Litt., Vice-Chancellor, Annamalai 
University from 1940 

29. Library and Administrative Buildings 

30. Interior View of the Srinivasa Sastri Hall 

31. Annamalai University Convocation, Rajah Sir Annamalai 

Chettiar presiding 

32. Arts College 

33. Arts College 

34. Science College 

35. Oriental College 

36. Music College 

37. Gokhale Hall Union Hall 

38. The All-India Economic Conference, 1934 

39. Hostel 

40. Women Students' Hostel 

41. The Park and the Bandstand 

42. Sports Pavilion 

43. Guest House and Staff Club 

44. Hospital 

45. Posts and Telegraph's Office and Professors' Quarters 

46. Ladies Club 

47. Vice-Chancellor's Bungalow 

48. Acting Vice-Chancellors 

49. Sri Pasupatheswarar Temple Annamalainagar 

50. Nagarathar reception to Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar 

at Koilur on April, 1930. 




Rajah Sir Annamalai Chetliar was born at Kanadu- 
kathan on the 30th of September 1881. He was the third 
son of Muthiah Chettiar, a man distinguished for his practical 
piety and benevolence. Muthiah Chettiar was a greatly 
respected member of the Nagarathar community of which 
he was, in his day, the undisputed head. He was thorough- 
going in his benefactions. He renovated the temple of Sri 
Nataraja at Chidambaram at a cost of several lakhs of rupees 
and also established a choultry where pilgrims could find 
iood and shelter. In the cold weather, at the time of the 
Arudhra Darsanam, the choultry is thick with pilgrims from 
all over the country and gets the appearance of a little town. 
He also repaired and renovated the famous shrine at Karur, 
which has since been in an excellent state of preservation. 

Muthiah Chettiar's piety was profound. He undertook 
a pilgrimage to Benares and for half the distance he went on 
foot. While at Benares, at the desire of his community, he 
began the construction of the Nagarathar choultry a spaci- 
ous and richly-endowed rest-house on the Dasaswamedha 
Ghat, where hundreds of pilgrims congregate everyday all 
the year round. 

Muthiah Chettiar had three sons, Chidambaram, Rama- 
swami and Annamalai. Chidambaram Chettiar, a forceful 
personality, was the first among the Nagarathars to make 
roads in Chettinad. Cart-tracks and pathways began to 
give place to metalled roads over which one could pass in 


comfort and safety. He had two sons, Sir M. C. T. Muthiah 
Chettiar, who attained considerable prominence in the social 
life of Madras and Pethachi Chettiar, who died com- 
paratively early. This branch is represented now by Sir 
M. C. T. Muthiah Chettiar's son, the Hon'ble M. C. T. 
Chidambaram Chettiar. 

Ramaswami Chettiar, the second son, was a man of great 
probity and public spirit. He was nominated to the Legis- 
lative Council constituted under the Morley-Minto Reforms 
and was the first member of his community to receive that 
distinction. He built and endowed a school at Chidambaram, 
which is now flourishing as the Ramaswami Chettiar High 
School. He was Chairman of the Chidambaram Munici- 
pality for many years and was President of the Taluk Board. 
For his many services, the distinction of Dewan Bahadur 
was conferred upon him. 

Annamalai the subject of this sketch was the third 
son of Muthiah Chettiar and is said to have been his father's 
favourite, probably from being the youngest of his sons. 
His was a normal childhood and youth with little to dis- 
tinguish them from those of his contemporaries. Proba- 
bly a distaste for what was merely mamul and conventional 
and a more than ordinary propensity to get into mischief 
were the main features of his early youth. 

Annamalai Chettiar's early years were years of pre- 
paration. His father was keen upon giving him a good up- 
bringing. He personally supervised his studies and gave him 
a thorough grounding in the family business. From early 
in his career, Annamalai Chettiar, studied different systems 
of banking and, in time, came to be acknowledged as an 
expert in that field. 



Muthiah Chettiar died when Annamalai was nineteen. 
After his death, his sons effected a partition of the family 
properties among themselves and began to conduct their 
several businesses separately. Chidambaram, the eldest 
and Annamalai, the youngest, stayed on at Kanadukathan 
while Ramaswami Chettiar chose Chidambaram for his resi- 
dence and stayed there, more or less permanently, visiting 
Kanadukathan at intervals. 

For about ten years Annamalai Chettiar devoted him- 
self entirely to his business and family affairs. He was very 
careful in his choice of agents to conduct his firms abroad 
and he avoided the not uncommon mistake of leaving too 
much to them. System, regularity and attention to detail 
marked his way of doing business. With slackers he had 
no patience at any time and such was his driving power and 
force of example that his firms and businesses were run 
without a hitch. 

The results of his methods were seen in the returns. 
His business prospered exceedingly. With fuller profits he 
decided to lead, not an easier, but a fuller life. The ances- 
tral family house, big as a barn, was not exactly to his taste 
and he built himself a commodious house at Kanadukathan. 
It is a gracious edifice built in the conventional Nagarathar 
style but planned on liberal lines, with larger halls and 
ampler verandahs than is common in Chettinad. It is a 
house with character. In that palatial abode more than one 
Governor has been an honoured guest. Men of light and 
leading from all over the country have enjoyed the Rajah's 
princely hospitality within its halls, 

Annamalai Chettiar toured extensively in India, 
Burma, Ceylon and Malaya. He was always fond of seeing 
" cities of men, manners and governments," and acquired 


by personal study a remarkable degree of varied knowledge. 
In 1 910, in company with his nephew, the late Sir M. C. T. 
Muthiah Chettiar, he toured over Europe. He was also 
accompanied by Mr. and Mrs. Miller of the American Mis- 
sion. They were old friends of his and it was his appre- 
ciation of their devoted services that was largely respon- 
sible for his gifts to the American Mission. He spent 
many months in England and saw a good deal of the country. 
Annamalai Chettiar was deeply interested in local self- 
government and took advantage of his stay in England 
to study the administration of parishes and county councils. 
To this tour, Annamalai Chettiar says he owes much. He 
was impressed by the efficiency of the day-to-day administra- 
tion of affairs in the west, the highly-developed civic sense 
of the people and wondered why, in this respect modern 
India should not follow the example of the west. 

On his return to India, he enlarged the sphere of his 
activities. He desired to give practical expression to his in- 
terest in local affairs and got a chance to do so when he be- 
came the Chairman of the Karaikudi Union. He did not 
regard his job as a sinecure; he took his responsibility 
seriously and, in his time, things began to hum. People still 
talk of the days it was before the discovery of the internal 
combustion engine when Annamalai Chettiar used to 
drive up to Karaikudi, all the way from Kanadukathan, in 
his landaulette drawn by a magnificent pair of iron-grey 
horses, go round the town, giving orders and seeing them 
carried out and return to Kanadukathan, while to the rest 
of the townfolk, the day was just beginning. Spacious days 
they were and, in his own heart, I feel certain Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar looks back with longing to the days 
of the streamlined landaulette, on which the most luxurious 
Daimler or Buick, he asserts, is not a patch. 


He was Chairman till 1913. His tenure of the Munici- 
pal Chair gave him a lot of insight into the problems of 
Municipal administration, the ways of men who will help 
and those who will hinder, and he learned at firsthand when 
wheels move and when they get stuck. He was also a mem- 
ber of the District Board and, in this capacity also, he 
bestowed careful attention to parochial problems. He was 
so great a believer in self help that he induced his native 
village of Kanadukathan to form itself into a voluntary 
union without waiting for the government to confer that 
status on it. 

Annamalai Chettiar was ever ready to do everything 
in his power to serve the interests of law. On one occa- 
sion His Majesty's mails were waylaid and stolen. Infor- 
mation was sent to Annamalai Chettiar who, with a hand- 
ful of men, scoured the country in person and finally suc- 
ceeded in running the offenders to earth at an out-of-the 
way spot, just as they were in the process of dividing the 
' swag '. At the sight of the ' intruders ' they bolted, leav- 
ing the larger part of the loot behind. Annamalai 
Chettiar recovered the properties and duly forwarded 
them to the District Magistrate. The Police were soon 
on the tracks of the runaway robbers. Those were the 
days of highway robberies and dacoities and Annamalai 
Chettiar's pluck and determination came in for cordial 
appreciation. Here was another proof of his public spirit 
and soon afterwards he received the sanad and badge of 
Rao Bahadur. They say that "a good launch is half the 
voyage" and there can be no gainsaying the fact that Rao 
Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar made his launch into public 
life in a most favourable wind. 


In 1916, Rao Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar was nomi- 
nated to the Madras Legislative Council, and from this 
time he divided his time between Chettinad and Madras. 

From a very early period, Rao Bahadur Annamalai 
Chettiar was deeply interested in education. Education, he 
was convinced, was the prime need of this country and he 
made liberal contributions whenever possible. In 1915, he 
provided a hostel for the students of the American College 
at Madura, a gift which was greatly appreciated. The sister 
institution, known as the Madura College, was languishing 
for lack of funds. Rao Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar was 
approached for financial aid and he readily contributed 
about 30,000 rupees, being one half of the amount needed 
for acquiring a site for the location of the College. The 
other half was contributed by the Government. 

The family had already to its credit the High School 
established by Dewan Bahadur Ramaswami Chettiar at 
Chidambaram. Rao Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar desired to 
extend the family benefactions so as to cover the field of 
higher education as well. His ambition was to build and 
endow a College. He consulted his old friend and colleague 
on the Legislative Council, The Right Hon'ble V. S. Srini- 
vasa Sastriar who enthusiastically supported the idea. The 
two called in Mr. P. A. Subramauia Aiyar, Headmaster of 
the Hindu High School, a veteran educationist, and took 
counsel together. They discussed details, ways and means. 
The idea grew and took shape in Annamalai Chettiar's mind. 
The question was where the proposed college should be 
located. At ope time, Annamalai Chettiar thought of 
Madura but the rival claims of Chidambaram could not 
easily be brushed aside. He had not come to a decision 



when his brother, the Dewan Bahadur, died. It was patent 
that he would have to take some practical interest in the 
conduct of the High School and it struck him that the best 
plan under the circumstances would be to locate the Col- 
lege also at Chidambaram, Doubts were raised whether the 
South Arcot District was the most suitable area for the 
establishment of a college. It was said that the experience 
of the past was against it, as twice previously a College had 
been started at Cuddalore, but had been allowed to languish. 
Annamalai Chettiar was unconvinced. What were the rea- 
sons for the failure, he kept asking. In his own mind, he 
knew the answer. Lack of funds, a Micawber-like waiting 
on hope, and slackness in management should have been 
the reasons why the College did not take root. He thought 
over the matter deeply and came to the conclusion that 
Chidambaram was, on the whole, best suited for the pur- 
pose and decided in its favour. The reasons which weighed 
with him were, firstly, Chidambaram's historic and religious 
associations which qualified it to be the seat of a University, 
and secondly, the family's age-long connection with the town 
and its devotion to Sri Nataraja, under whose divine care 
and protection they had prospered in the past. 

The idea once formed, there was no delay in carrying it 
out. With Rajah Sir Annamalai, to decide is to act. A 
staff of brilliant men was collected and the work was taken 
in hand. The College had started work by 1918. The 
absence of a suitable building was not allowed to stand in 
the way. Necessary extensions were made to the High 
school to accommodate the classes newly formed. At the 
same time plans for the building of a College were maturing. 
A suitable site was selected and the work of construction 
began in right earnest. Annamalai Chettiar threw himself 


into the work heart and soul and spared no pains for the 
early completion of the project. He had expert assistance 
but he went over every inch of the ground himself. In 
purely academic matters, he trusted implicitly to his educa- 
tional advisers. On the practical side, he held easy sway. 
In planning the buildings, in providing funds and seeing to 
their proper application, Rao Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar 
took the utmost interest. Not a stone was laid and not a 
rupee spent which had not met with his previous approval. 
Though the Rao Bahadur looked to most things in person, he 
took care not to get into people's way. His own views and 
suggestions were so sensible and practical that his advice 
was sought at every turn. On the academic side, he was 
ably assisted by Mr. K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, the first Princi- 
pal of the Sri Minakshi College. In the work of construc- 
tion he had the benefit of the willing assistance of such 
engineering experts like Dewan Bahadur A. V. Ramalinga 
Aiyar, Dewan Bahadur Duraisingam and Dewan Bahadur 
N. Swaminatha Aiyar. 

No suitable contractor was locally available. Materials 
had to be brought down from great distances but this was 
not allowed to deter or delay the work which had been 
undertaken. He worked hard, and his employees worked 
hard. The Rajah acts on the principle that the labourer is 
worthy of his hire. And the labourers in turn reacted 
so splendidly to the prevailing mood that work became a 
pleasure. The construction proceeded like clockwork and 
the new Sri Minakshi College was completed and fit for 
occupation in 1923. 

While engaged in advancing the cause of higher educa- 
tion, Rao Bahadur Annamalai Chettiar had not been un- 
mindful of his other obligations. In 1920, he stood for elec- 


tion to the Council of State and was returned at the top of 
the polls. In the same year, the Viceroy appointed him one 
of the Governors of the Imperial Bank of India. In both of 
these capacities, he had increased opportunities of serving 
the country. His vast experience of banking made him ex- 
tremely valuable on the Bank's Governing Board while, as 
an elder statesman, he expressed himself with moderation 
and good sense. To the Council of State he was elected 
thrice consecutively, and was always returned at the head 
of the polls. 

To him honours were not slow in coming. In 1922, he 
was made Dewan Bahadur and in 1923, a knighthood was 
conferred upon him. Never were honours more deservedly 
bestowed. Apart from the record to his credit crowded 
with achievement, his courtesy and charm of manner had 
obtained for him a large and ever-increasing circle of friends 
belonging to all parties and spread all over the country. 

The Sri Minakshi College was prospering. With the 
years, it grew in reputation and popularity. So good was its 
work and so high its standing in the educational world that 
Sir Annamalai conceived the idea of making it the nucleus 
of a University. He took counsel with his numerous friends, 
both academic and lay, and they welcomed and supported 
the idea. Lord Goschen, who was Governor of Madras, and 
whose interest in the Sri Minakshi College was keen and 
constant, gave the proposal his instant blessing. An Anna- 
malai University Bill was drafted and was passed into law. 
And the University came into being in 1929, 

The inauguration of the University was hailed with 
universal satisfaction in our province. Sir Annamalai, 
the Founder, is the Pro-Chancellor of the University. 


The Right Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar was appointed 
Vice-Chancellor but, because he had to go away as the 
Agent to the Governor General in South Africa, he could 
not take up the appointment. Dewan Bahadur S. E. Runga- 
nadhan was appointed Vice-Chancellor in 1929 and he held 
the office till 1935. Dewan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan's 
unremitting care and attention helped to increase the use- 
fulness of the University. He was succeeded by the Right 
Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar who was Vice-Chancellor 
for five years and by the distinction of his personality and 
his devoted work enhanced the status and reputation of the 
University. For reasons of health Mr. Sastriar had to resign 
in 1940, and Sir Kurma Venkata Reddi Garu, Ex-Governor 
of Madras, with a distinguished record of public service suc- 
ceeded him as Vice-Chancellor. 

Annamalainagar, as the University area is called, is 
a lovely creation. Beautifully designed colleges and halls, 
comfortable quarters for the staff, broad and shady parks, a 
magnificent cricket pitch and spacious playing grounds make 
it an ideal spot for the dissemination of education. The place 
is packed with all the amenities of life. Rowing facilities, 
clubs for men and women, temples and tanks give the Uni- 
versity its distinctive charm. Sanskrit, Tamil and Music 
stand out prominently in the University courses, a matter of 
deep significance from the cultural point of view. Students 
from the Tamil country flock to it in thousands and receive 
the education which is so readily imparted in ideal 
surroundings. And they are deeply appreciative of the 
bounty of the founder who saw the " seed of learning " 
imbedded within the young and enabled "its flowered 
future" to unroll, The Founder's Day is a sort of minor 
annual carnival at Annamalainagar. 



In 1929, the high and unique distinction of a hereditary 
Rajah was conferred upon Sir Annamalai Chettiar. A 
magnificent thrill of delight went through the country. The 
Nagarathars were overjoyed and organised what was a regu- 
lar carnival to express their joy. The celebrations were 
held at Kovilur, the traditional meeting-place of the ninety- 
six villages of Chettinad. Thousands of fairy lamps, gleaming 
in the evening in the streets, gay with bunting and green- 
ery, turned the sleepy little township into a veritable fairy- 
land. The Right Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar presided 
on the occasion. His close friendship with Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar and the mutual regard which was known to 
subsist between them pointed to him as the person most 
fitted to take the chair. ' Numerous friends of the Rajah, 
representing all communities and all shades of opinion, 
were present. In a magnificent speech, The Right Hon'ble 
V. S, Srinivasa Sastriar showed how eminently the Rajah 
was fitted for the regal rank bestowed on him. 

The University of Madras marked their appreciation 
of the Rajah's services to education by conferring on him 
the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

In 1935, Rajah Sir Annamalai visited England at the 
head of a delegation whose purpose was to obtain the neces- 
sary safeguards in regard to the position of Indians in a 
separated Burma. The Rajah Sahib interviewed the Secre- 
tary of State, Sir Samuel Hoare, Mr. R. A. Butler, Lord 
Winterton and other leading members of Parliament. It 
was, on the whole, a successful trip and valuable concessions 
were obtained. Separation, however, has forced into promi- 
nence other outstanding matters all of which Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar handles with his accustomed energy and 
determination. The Indo-Burma Immigration Agreement 


which has been exercising the public mind considerably, is 
engaging his attention at the moment. 

From England, the Rajah paid a flying visit to the 
United States of America. He was accompanied by Rani 
Lady Annamalai Chettiar and both of them appeared to have 
enjoyed the visit greatly. Their only regret was that they 
had to return very quickly to keep their various engage- 
ments in Great Britain. While in England, the Rajah 
visited the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. In 
Oxford, he met the Master of Balliol who showed him over 
the University. He discussed problems of University 
Administration with, it was said, "considerable insight." 
He also visited the several slum areas as he is keenly interest- 
ed in the housing conditions of the poor. His visits were 
not intended to fill a dull hour; he was serious and purpose- 
ful in making them, he was u like a chiel, takin notes". Sir 
Annamalai had the knack of turning all his experiences to 
practical account. He personally designs the quarters which 
he provides for his numerous employees and dependants, 
and these are invariably airy and comfortable. 

Before returning to India, Sir Annamalai visited Belgi- 
um, France and Germany. In Paris he was able to dp a real 
good turn to his country. The Government of French Indo- 
China were beginning to look upon Indians with dis- 
favour and had actually expelled some of them. Sir 
Annamalai took the matter up with the French Govern- 
ment. The India Office put him on to the British Embassy 
in Paris, who arranged a meeting with M. Rollin, the Minister 
for Colonies. M. Rollin recognised the force of Sir 
Annamalai's contentions and promised to remedy the 
situation, which he did v/ithout loss of time. In this 
connection the Rajah remembers with gratitude the help 


willingly given among others by M. Outrey, an exceedingly 
genial and helpful member of the Chamber of Deputies, 
and M. Eugene Simoneau, a cultivated and charming young 
Frenchman, employed as Secretary to M. Rollin and who 
has since joined the administration at Morocco as a mem- 
ber of the Cabinet of General Nogues. 

If the Rajah has a hobby, it is building. It may be said 
of him that he has given much and built much. In England, 
and all over the Continent, he studied novel building designs 
with a practised eye. His houses are models of elegance and 
comfort. His home at Chettinad is commodious, well-light- 
ed and airy and Chettinad House at Adyar is a lovely piece 
of architecture. With the Adyar on one side and the sea on 
the other, in a spacious park, it stands, a fabric in white, 
which looks like fairy gossamer at dawn in a December mist. 
The Palace which he is now engaged in building at Chettinad 
is certain to surpass similai edifices in grandeur and com- 

And in hall, grange and park, Rajah Sir Annamalai 
loves to dispense hospitality. His visiting list is long and his 
geniality and princely hospitality have won all hearts. 
He is lucky in his helpmate. Rani Lady Annamalai 
Chettiar is an ideal wife, and has won all hearts by her 
piety and charitable disposition. 

In his house at Chettinad he has been honoured by the 
visits of successive Governors of the Province. Lord 
Pentland stayed with him in 1916 and was struck by the 
Rajah's standing in his District. 

In 1932, Lord and Lady Willingdon visited Chettinad 
and greatly enjoyed their stay at his house. Lord Goschen 
was his guest in 1925. The Stanleys spent a day with him in 


1934 and recently in March last, the Rajah had the honour 
of entertaining His Excellency Sir Arthur Hope at Chettinad. 
Rajah Sir Annamalai's services to his community have been 
marked by careful attention to their interests here and 
abroad. He has been the President of the Nattukkottai 
Nagarathars' Association for many years and has secured 
for the Association valuable rights and privileges. 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar's paramount claim to 
public esteem lies in the abundant charities which he has 
founded. Apart from the University which is the biggest 
endowment ever made by a single individual in these parts 
and by all accounts one of the first four or five leading 
endowments in all India, he has given large sums for 
schools, hospitals and similar benefactions. It is a safe 
estimate that his numerous benefactions have, so far cost 
the Rajah over a crore of rupees a truly magnificent re- 
cord indeed. 

One may safely prophesy that the future of the family 
and the family charities is assured. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar's sons are sure to carry on the family tradition. His 
eldest son Kumararajah Sir M. A. Muthiah Chettiar has 
already distinguished himself in the public life of the Presi- 
dency by his great gifts or organization, and leadership. As 
Mayor of Madras, as a Minister of State, as the leader of the 
Justice Party and as a businessman he has won laurels. The 
Rajah's younger sons, Mr. Ramanathan Chettiar and 
Chidambaram Chettiar are in business. The former is also 
Deputy Sheriff of Madras. 

In his own personal habits the Rajah is extremely simple. 
He adheres resolutely to the Tamil maxim which exhorts 
one to rise before the dawn. He is generally up at four in 
the morning, has a bath and has an early cup of coffee. He 



is at his desk by six and by about ten contrives to get through 
the bulk of the day's work. He walks about a great deal and 
is happiest when sauntering on his grounds directing a path 
to be made here or a tree to be planted there. Of music 
he is passionately fond, and often, while at work, he turns 
on the wireless to listen to his favourities. He has taken in 
hand the resuscitation of Tamil music and it is the prayer 
of his numerous friends that he should live long to enjoy 
the sweet strains he is doing so much to revive. 


Governor of Madras 

I am very pleased to hear that the University is cele- 
brating in a fitting manner the Shastipurti of Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar, and to add my own warm congratula- 
tions. The Rajah's munificence has been widespread, but 
it is above all for his magnificent contribution to the cause 
of education in South India by the founding of Annamalai 
University that his name will be remembered among future 
generations with affection and respect. 




As a philanthropist, Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar 
stands foremost in South India. The munificent gifts that 
he has made for the cause of education, medical aid, and 
women welfare all over India and elsewhere, not to speak 
of his other charities, distinguish him as the most generous 
hearted gentleman of the present generation. In particu- 
lar, the University at Chidambaram founded by him with 
departments of Science, Tamil, Sanskrit and Music, the first 
residential teaching University in South India, is a boon to 
the rising generation. The University town has sprung, as 
if by magic, into a centre beaming with intelligent faces and 
pursuing academic work of a high order. That part of the 
town in which the University is situated has been fittingly 
named after the Founder, having been converted from a 
dry waste into a model town with all modern amenities. 
Thus the University with its colony stands to the credit of 
Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar as a monument of his 
educational munificence. We heartily congratulate him on 
the happy function of the celebration of the completion of 
his 60th year and wish him long life and prosperity. 


President, Theosophical Society 

It is with very great pleasure that I add my congratu- 
lations to all those with which I am Sure Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar will be inundated on the occasion of his 
Shashtiabdapurti a notable spiritual event in his life and 
the herald, I am sure, of that added fineness of stature with 
which the new period will bless him. 

The Rajah Saheb has been in the public eye almost 
from the beginning of his career, and it was not long before 
he entered the public service in the Councils of this Presi- 
dency and of India. Indeed, this very year marks the 
twenty-fifth anniversary of his association with the Madras 
Legislative Council, while on each occasion that he stood 
for election to the Council of Stale he was returned at the 
top of the poll, thus receiving a notable token of the esteem 
in which he has always been held both by the general 
public and by his own community. His Majesty the King- 
Emperor has fittingly recognised the outstanding worth of 
Sir Annamalai by conferring upon him honour after 
honour, and worthily have these been worn. 

As a business man he has achieved success which few 
even among his peers have reached, largely because his 
benefactions have always increased as his worldly pros- 
perity has grown. But the crown of them all has been the 
great Annamalai University at Chidambaram a verita- 
ble monument to his public spirited patriotism and kingly 
generosity. Most rightly did the Rajah Saheb say in 1926, 
a few years before the actual establishment of the Univer- 

Since days long past, Chidambaram has been a great 
centre of culture in South India and has enlisted the 


devotion alike of her warriors and kings, philosophers 
and poets. It has often struck me that at Chidam- 
baram, if anywhere in South India, there is a great 
opportunity fur working on chosen lines and to noble 
ends that synthesis of the great cultures of the East and 
the West which is the prime task of our country and 
of her educational institutions at this hour. 

Chidambaram is indeed a sacred spot fragrant with 
the splendour of noble lives and with the dedication of 
mighty saints, and there could be no better setting for 
the education of India's young citizens in the true 
spirit of their Motherland. 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar has thus sought to make 
available to these modern days of India's life the very soul 
of India's spiritual greatness that her young sons and 
daughters of to-day may be greatly inspired to build a future 
worthy of her incomparable past. 

Surely the blessings of Bharata Mata must be upon 
him for this signal act of filial homage to her and will 
gladden his way as he passes this sixtieth landmark of his 
present incarnation. 

May he be spared many years to continue his great 
services to India and to this Presidency. 

MR. T. AUSTIN, C.I.E., I.C.S., 

Adviser, Government of Madras 

I gladly add my best wishes to the commemoration 
volume which is to mark the completion of Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar's sixtieth year. The list of his benefactions 
is long and varied: in the great generosity shown towards 



educational institutions and the welfare of women, he has 
taken the direction where help is so much needed. I wish 
the Rajah Sahib many more years of useful life. 


The 61st birthday celebration of Dr. Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar of Chettinad appeals to me not only as the 
worthy public recognition of the truly royal munificence of 
one of India's most distinguished sons and benefactors, but 
also as an event of national importance, occurring as it does 
at the very time when the world suffers, as it has rarely suf- 
fered before, from the inhuman machinations of ruthless 
malefactors. This horrifying background of fierce war and 
bloodshed involving in its destruction peaceful and harmless 
citizens even more than the armed forces, sets out by con- 
trast, as nothing else would, this admirable life of peaceful 
endeavour so generously and so unassumingly spent in the 
one object of doing good and being good to others and 
making people happy. 

The benefactions of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai have be- 
come a household word not only in South India but in the 
North and in Burmah as well; and what, to my mind, makes 
their chief value is the high purpose which we discover be- 
hind each one of them. They are either charitable endow- 
ments seeking to relieve the misery of the poor, or religious 
endowments which clearly indicate his high spiritual motives 
and reveal that sense of service to man for God's sake which 
is so different from mere humanitarianism; or, lastly, but 
not the least, educational endowments which he has spread 
so lavishly throughout the length and breadth of India and 
Burmah. If I stress this last proof of his genuinely gener- 


ous and kindly heart it is because by his munificent largesses 
in this field he has shown the high value he sets on the pro- 
motion of education and learning in India, In this he is per- 
fectly right, since obviously a nation of illiterates is bound 
to lag behind in every form of improvement and progress. 
And though India cannot certainly be called an illiterate 
country when we consider the quality and the numbers of 
those of India's sons who, in the field of learning and science, 
can proudly stand any comparison with those of other coun- 
tries, nevertheless the hundreds of millions who still await 
their chance of receiving even a fairly adequate elementary 
education, reveal perhaps one of the chief factors which 
account for the slow march of all-round progress in India. 
For it is by the brains of its citizens that a nation ultimately 
develops and prospers. 

It is the peculiar merit of Dr. Kajah Sir Annamalai to 
have keenly realized this fundamental need of India and to 
have come forward to meet it on so magnificent a scale. It 
is, moreover, a peculiar trait of his enlightened generosity 
that by the crowning foundation of the Annamalai University 
he has opened up new vistas of higher learning and efficiency 
to many a poor student who, but for this institution and the 
free scholarships with which it is endowed, would have been 
unable to rise from their humble surroundings and to take 
place among the builders of India's future. 

I feel deeply honoured to have been invited to associate 
myself with the many admirers of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
in expressing in however imperfect a manner, my personal 
esteem, respect and admiration for him on this auspicious 



On the occasion of the Sastyabda-poorti of Dr. Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, I have great pleasure 
in wishing him many more years of happy and useful life. 

My son was a student of the University of which Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar is the founder, and the glowing 
accounts he has given me of the University will ever remain 
fresh in my memory. 


Art Adviser to the Government of Travancore ; 
Head of the Department of Fine Arts, University of Travancore 

I have watched the career of the Honourable the Rajah 
of Chettinad, with deep appreciation of the princely manner 
in which he put the material results of his genius in the 
affairs of the outer life into the creation of a great institution 
for the development of the powers of the inner life of the 
young men and women of South India. I have also been 
much gratified by his continued fostering of the Annamalai 
University, and trust that the institution will have the 
benefit of his guidance for many fruitful years to come. 


Barrister-at-Law, President, Council of State 

I am very glad to state that I had come in close contact 
with my friend Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chetti- 
nad for many years in our capacity as members of the Coun- 
cil of State, and I had always entertained very high opinion 
of his business ability and his noble and spotless character. 
He was well respected by all the members of the Council of 


State and his debates in that House were full of information, 
sober thought and sound judgment. His business capacity 
is very much respected in the town and Presidency of 
Madras. He is an ornament of his community and I pray 
that he will be spared for many years to render good and 
substantial services to his country which for many years 
he has so faithfully discharged. 


Presidency College, Madras. 

The foundation of the Annamalai University the first 
real residential University in the South, through the vision 
and munificence of one single individual, is unique in the 
annals of education in this Presidency, and the beneficial 
work of the University with its high standard of efficiency 
is slowly becoming known throughout the country. 

My close association with the University even from its 
inception, and particularly with the Chemistry department 
which has been built up so efficiently by my friend Dr. S. N. 
Chakravarthi has made me familiar with the work of the 
Science Departments and particularly with the research 
activities in Chemistry and in Physics, which would do 
honour to any of the old Universities in this country. 

I send my best wishes for success of the celebrations of 
the event. 

Ex-Governor of Madras. 

I send my best wishes to the Rajah of Chettinad on 
the occasion of his sixtieth birthday. The Annamalai 



University will remain a lasting symbol of his love for 
learning and culture. The Tamil country should ever be 
grateful to Sir Annamalai as one of the leading educational 
benefactors of South India. May he be with us for many 
more years. 

Presidency College, Madras 

It is extremely pleasing to me to render my tribute on 
the occasion of the celebration of the Shashtiabdapurthi 
(61st birthday), of the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad for the 
invaluable services he has rendered to the cause of higher 
education in this country. 

Apart from the traditional and free-handed generosity 
for which his family has been noted, his own benefactions 
for the relief of suffering, the uplift of the poor, the renova- 
tion of our ancient temples and the promotion of indigenous 
culture have been immense. Besides, one cannot but be 
struck with his pioneer achievement in a new and most fruit- 
ful direction, namely, the starting on a magnificient scale, 
of the first Unitary Residential University in South India. 
This is but the beginning of the realisation of the idea of 
establishing Residential rather than merely Examining, 
Universities, at the principal centres of culture, within the 
jurisdiction of the overgrown University of Madras and the 
Rajah Saheb deserves to be congratulated on taking the 
first step in this direction. 

It was on the sub-structure of the Sri Minakshi College 
at Chidambaram which the Rajah had started in 1920 and 
which had developed into a vigorous and popular Honours 
College, that the Annamalai University was founded. It 


not only embodies the idea of a University of the Residen- 
tial type but also serves as a centre in which the genius of 
Tamil culture can be fostered. For over two decades the 
Rajah has assiduously watered and anxiously watched the 
tender plant that had been set in the soil of hallowed 
Chidambaram. The sapling has now become a big and leafy 
tree spreading its foliage over a number of branches 
of learning, one of which we may note with pride, is 
South Indian Music and another the department devoted to 
the revival of Tamil Literature and Culture. 

The Rajah Saheb's many-sided philanthropy has thus 
reached its acme in the Annamalai University. This will 
perhaps be the most serviceable and enduring of all his 
charities. It is, my sincere prayer that he may be long 
spared to us to see his work thrive and prosper and if possi- 
ble, to render yet other valuable services to South India. 


"I would wish the Rajah Saheb many a long year of 
useful service." 


It is but right and fitting that the Annamalai Univer- 
sity is celebrating in a fitting manner the 60th year of its 
great founder Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar. His many 
sided charities are well-known throughout India and have 
earned the esteem of his fellow countrymen. My esteemed 
father the late Mr. V. V. Jogiah Pantulu, and myself have 
known the Rajah Saheb for nearly two decades and we 
always appreciated his services to the country. His sacrifice 


for establishing the University will ever be remembered. I 
wish the Rajah Sahib long life, happiness and prosperity to 
continue his great work of putting the University on a sound 


Chief Justice of India and Vice -Chancellor, Delhi University 

The princely benefactions of Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar of Chettinad are known over the whole of India, 
and it is difficult to say which we have admired the more, 
the magnificence of his gifts or the breadth of his sympa- 
thies, for no good cause has ever appealed to him in vain. 
Education owes him an inestimable debt, not only for what 
he himself has done, great though that is, but for the noble 
example which he has set to others. 

It is not given to many men at their Shashtiabdapurthi 
to look back on a life so full of liberality and beneficence ; 
and all those who labour in the field of education will join 
in offering their most hearty congratulations to the Rajah 
Saheb upon this anniversary and their earnest prayers that 
he may live to enjoy many more years of happiness and 


Editor. Madras Mail. 

Nearly a hundred years divide Annamalai Chettiar 
from Pachaiyappa, but it is significant that the century 
which opened with the founding of a school and college by 
one great South Indian should have closed with the esta- 


blishment by another of a university. Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar will be best remembered for the university 
which bears his name, but that only partially represents his 
benevolence. From the temples he has built or renovated 
and endowed for the benefit of his fellow religionists to the 
hospitals and other public institutions, big or small, that he 
has supported his charity has flowed into many channels, 
helping those less favourably circumstanced than himself. 

A genial, wise and uncommonly shrewd personality, 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar has made friends in many 
places and in different walks of life. They join his col- 
leagues and fellow- workers in wishing him continued hap- 
piness and prosperity. 

C.J.E., B.L., M.L.A., 

Vice-Chancellor, Calcutta University 

On the happy day when the Hon'ble The Rajah of 
Chettinad, the Pro-Chancellor of the Annamalai University 
completes his sixtieth year I recall the great service which 
he has rendered to the cause of education and social wel- 
fare of the people of the province of Madras. The Anna- 
malai University stands most pre-eminently as the monu- 
ment of his great work. He has given a new incentive to 
the cultural life of the people cf the Annamalai area and 
I am sure that a time will come when under the auspices 
of the University, Annamalai will stand second to none 
in the cultural progress of India. The Rajah has been 
closely associated with many aspects of public life and the 
people all over India must always feel gratitude for all 
that he has done for the people of this country. 



President, H.E.H. The Nizam's Executive Council 

I have had the privilege of knowing Dr. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar for a number of years and of being 
aware of the great charities dispensed by him for public 
benefit and utility, the most monumental endowment being 
the Annamalai University itself which derives its name from 
its most generous donor. The example set by this great 
philanthropist is one which may well be copied by others 
who have the good fortune of possessing wealth and the 
spirit and the heart to use it for the benefit of mankind. 


It is with genuine pleasure that I avail myself of this 
opportunity to convey my hearty felicitations to Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar on the completion of his sixtieth year, 
and to wish him many years of happiness and usefulness to 
his fellow-citizens. 

Sir Annamalai Chettiar's record as a philanthropist is 
one of which any man may be proud. As the Founder of 
the Annamalai University, his name will ever be remem- 
bered. That University will stand for all time as the 
noblest record of his munificence and his public spirit. 

A most obliging friend, a generous host, a successful 
business man, Sir Annamalai is a most prominent and popu- 
lar figure in the social and commercial life of this Province. 

Let me wish him once more every good fortune in the 
years to come. 



I count it a privilege to send a message for the Com- 
memoration Volume to be presented to Dr. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad on his 61st birthday. 

Few men acquire great riches; fewer still use those 
riches for the common weal. The Rajah has done both. 
He must indeed be a happy man when he contemplates the 
many monuments of his generosity and particularly the 
spectacle of that University which was founded and 
endowed by him, and so fittingly perpetuates his name. 

Titles have rightly been bestowed upon the Rajah; but 
I have no doubt that on this day his heart will be warmed, 
not by their decorative dignity but by the gratitude and 
affection of all classes in his and succeeding generations. 

When I wish him many happy returns of his birthday 
anniversary, it is not the usual formal greeting. It 
expresses the sincere wish of one of his many friends that 
he may long be spared to continue his charitable activi- 
ties and to share, with his family, the satisfaction and re- 
ward of years of distinguished public service. 


In any part of the world to find a man who devotes his 
wealth to discriminating charities, bringing great institu- 
tions into existence for the benefit of his fellow subjects, is 
rare. Such a man is Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, 
whom the whole of India in general, and the Madras Pro- 
vince in particular, will congratulate on his 61st birthday. 
He will ever be remembered in his Province as the Founder 
of a great University and as a great patron of Art and 


Young men of the Province of Madras will for genera- 
tions be grateful to the man who helped to educate them. 
May all the educational institutions founded by him help to 
produce Indians who will be an honour to their country. 

It is a pleasure to know the Rajah Saheb personally, a 
most unassuming man who, having amassed a fortune, 
delights in helping those who are not so fortunate as himself. 
May he continue to add to the good works that have distin- 
guished his whole career. 

Minister for Home Affairs & Leader of the State Council, Ceylon 

I have been invited to associate myself with the cele- 
brations which the Annan) alai University proposes to hold 
in connection with the sixty-first birthday of Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar, the Founder and Pro-Chancellor of the 
University. I respond with sincere pleasure, and send this 
brief message in order to express my high appreciation of 
the great services Sir Annamalai Chettiar has rendered to 
his country, notably in the sphere of education. 

Last December it was my good fortune to visit the 
Annamalai University and see for myself the magnificent 
work that is being done in that unique institution. Dur- 
ing that visit I had also the opportunity of gaining some 
idea of the generous liberality with which Sir Annamalai 
is maintaining religious and charitable institutions in that 
part of the country. 

"Data jagati durlabhah" (a giver is rare in this world) 
is an ancient and true saying. Sir Annamalai Chettiar has 

by his munificence earned the right to be enrolled among 


those rare beings who spend their wealth nobly for the wel- 
fare of humanity. 

MB. T. J. KEDAR, B.A., LL.B., M.L.A., 
Vice -Chancellor, Nagpur University 

It is with the greatest pleasure that I associate myself 
in the celebration of the Diamond Jubilee of the Founder 
Pro-Chancellor of the Annamalai University. 

Unique among the educational benefactions in Modern 
India, the princely donation of the Hon'ble Rajah Dr. Sir 
S. R. M. Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad laid the founda- 
tion of a new teaching University in India. And it has been 
given to him, as it has been given to few, to nurse and bring 
up the most favourite child of his own charity and to set 
it going on the path of progress under his paternal guid- 

May the noble Rajah live a hundred years and may his 
great example inspire others and bear thousandfold fruit ! 


Additional Secretary to the Government of Madras, Public Department 

I am glad that the Annamalai University is intending 
to celebrate the Sashtiabdhapoorthi of its Founder-Pro- 
Chancellor. It is very meet that it should do so. The 
attainment of the Sixtieth year is an auspicious event in 
the life of every Hindu ; but in the case of the Rajah of 
Chettinad, who has dedicated such a substantial part of his 
wealth as he has done for the benefit of the Annamalai 



University, the event is one for national celebration and 

The name of the Rajah of Chettinad will be promi- 
nent in the roll of the honoured names of great Kings, 
Noblemen and others who have encouraged learning and 
Arts. In one sense, his work is greater than that of many of 
tKem, as he has not been content merely with patronising 
one or more individual poets or musicians, but has created 
a whole University with its many-sided activities which in 
course of time would bring forth a whole host of poets, 
philosophers, economists, scientists, musicians and' leaders 
of men. 

The Rajah of Chettinad is an example of what is 
expected of rich and wealthy men in these days. ThougK 
the inheritor of a vast fortune, he is one who has not been 
content to sit idle and enjoy himself, but his life has been a 
great example of active work, diligence and devotion to 

Even as regards this University, but for his persever- 
ence and resolve, it would not have come into being. After 
its coming into existence, the constant care and attention 
he has been bestowing on its welfare and progress are truly 

His original endowments and gifts to the University 
which are already fabulous have constantly been added to, 
every time when the University was in need of help. 

But the University is no longer the Rajah's property 
but is a national institution specially intended for the 
benefit of the Tamil land. It is the duty of all of us to see 
that the institution does not languish for want of support 
and that it becomes truly and in effect a magnificent 
Temple of Learning for the whole of the Tamil land. 


Chidambaram is situated in the heart of the Tamil 
country. It is known in our ancient books as the 
centre of the Universe. It has hoary traditions of learn- 
ing; but the glory of the ancient traditions of this town 
will, I hope, be nothing as compared with the glory which 
ought to be its future. 

Being a Residential University, it has special 
facilities to enable the students tc learn the greatest of 
all Arts, and so far as India is concerned, also the most diffi- 
cult of all Arts, namely, the art of living together. It can not 
only help in the creation of a cultured and intelligent 
society, but to build up a fraternity which will replace the 
strife of classes by social peace. 

Now that an Andhra University has come into ex- 
istence for the Andhradesa, a Travancore University for 
the Malayalam speaking peoples, a Mysore University for 
the Kannada-speaking people, this University must be 
treated by the Tamilians as the embodiment of their aspira- 
tions and the realisation of their unity. 

It is the prayer of every citizen in this Province 
that the Raja of Chettinad will be spared to us for many 
many years to come and that he and his children and chil- 
dren's children will be happy and prosperous from genera- 
tion to generation. 


Advocate General, Madras 

I rejoice in the opportunity that you have so kindly 
afforded me to send my most cordial and affectionate 
greetings to Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, the 
Founder and Pro-Chancellor of the University on his 61st 


birthday. The event represents according to our Hindu 
notions a significant mile-stone in one's life and it is singu- 
larly appropriate that the University which he founded and 
has been nursing with such devotion should organise the 
celebration with felicite' and goodwill. 

The Annamalai University is by far the most outstand- 
ing contribution to the cause of University education by 
any private benefactor in this part of India. To the Rajah 
of Chettinad belongs the credit of giving a new direction 
to the well-known philanthropy and the public spirit edness 
of the Nattukottai Chettiar community. Not content with 
founding the University the Rajah has been taking a sustain- 
ed, living atid parental interest in the work of the University 
and has add^d largelv to ihe original foundation bv the 
institution of new scholarships and studentships. 

it is not \\ f \rovL( Signincance that the University is 
located in the heart of the Tamil country sanctified by the 
shrine of Lord Sri Nataraja, "The Kovil" of Saivite 
Literature. At Chidambaram Patanjali and Vyagrapadha 
performed their great tapas and Nandanar in later times 
attained his beatitude. I have no doubt that Sanskrit and 
Tamil culture will radiate from this University and that 
votaries of science and humanities will gather within its 
walls and spread knowledge to the different parts of India. 

It is my fervent hope and prayer that the Rajah may be 
long spared in health and happiness to be of service to the 
country and to the cause of education, that the institution 
which he has founded and nursed may grow from strength 
to strength and that from its walls may go forth men and 
women filled with the sense of the text of the great Upani- 




Om. From the unreal lead me to the Real. 
From darkness lead me to Light. 
From death lead me to Immortality. 

MB. V. N. KUDUVA, M.A., I.C.S., 
Collector, South Arcot, 

For generations, Nagarathars have been weJI-known 
for their charities. The temples renovated and en- 
dowed by them are innumerable, and they are by no 
means confined to the Tamil Nad. A healthily conserva- 
tive community, their charities, while they are extensive, 
had till recently a tendency to run in time-honoured and 
traditidnal grooves. It was given to the Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar of Chettinod the auspicious occasion of whose 
sixtyfirst birthday, has evoked expressions of gratitude from 
his countrymen, to strike a new channel of philanthropy by 
devoting a considerable portion of his wealth to the creation 
of a new University which perpetuates his name. 

".' H 
Chidambaram is singularly fortunate to have attracted 

the attention of the Rajah Sahib's family and to have been 
the recipient of their benefactions. For over three genera- 
tions, members of his family have spent a fortune in the 
stupendous task of renovation of the great Sabhanayaka 
shrine including the rebuilding of the gopurams, manta- 
pams, and fine-pillared corridors of the inner enclosures of 
the Sri Nataraja Temple, a shrine which was for over fifteen 




centuries a great centre of South Indian culture, 
which attracted the devotion of the Chola Kings and a 
large number of saints, philosophers and poets who have 
left an indelible mark and shaped the culture of the Tamil 
people. The action of the Rajah Sahib in completely and 
effectively renovating the dilapidated shrine of Sri Govinda- 
raja is characteristic of his catholicity of mind in view of the 
age-long disputes between the followers of the Vaishnavite 
and Saivite faiths which had marred the harmony of the 
great shrine. Chidambaram has also to be specially grateful 
to the Rajah Sahib's elder brother, the late Dewan Bahadur 
Ramaswami Chettiar, for its two great amenities, a flourish- 
ing High School which provides for the education of its 
youth, and its protected water-supply which has to a large 
extent minimised the ravages of cholera arid filaria. 

The nucleus of the University, Sri Minakshi College 
was founded by the Rajah Sahib in 1920, and by rapid and 
successive stages, it has been developed into a University of 
a unitary teaching and residential type which is unique in 
South India. The purpose and aims of this University in 
the words of the Rajah Sahib are "to embody and work for 
the synthesis of the great cultures of the East and the West 
which is the prime task of our country and her educational 
institutions at this hour/' Provision has been made for re- 
search, and a unique feature of this University is a well- 
endowed faculty of oriental studies including a school for the 
training of the youth in the art of Carnatic and Tamil music. 

The University is still in the stage of development, and 
it is essential for its development as a residential University 
that its authorities should endeavour to promote the social 
and corporate life of its students in a healthy manner. One 
of the objects of its Founder Pro-Chancellor is to satisfy, 


after the inauguration of the Mysore and Andhra Universi- 
ties, the desire of the people of the Tamil Nad to have a Uni- 
versity of their own. It is therefore natural that educa- 
tion should be imparted in a manner to promote the highest 
ethical and cultural wealth of the Tamil race. It is hoped 
that this University will build up a healthy and noble tra- 
dition and give scope for the full expression of the Tamil 
genius without restricting it to the barriers of provincia- 


Chief Justice of the Madras High Court 

Ine Sixtieth anniversary of the birtn oi Dr. Kajah 
Annamalai Chettiar oi Chetlinad, the Bounder and Jb^ro- 
Chancellor oi the Annamalai University provides a tilting 
opportunity for the members oi Ihe University to acknow- 
ledge the deep debt oi gratitude which they owe to him. The 
debt is not, however, confined to the members oi the Uni- 
versity. It is a debt wnich all in South India owe. The 
public benefactions oi Or. Kajah bir Annamalai Chettiar 
have been many, but the greatest benefaction oi all has been 
the foundation of the Annamalai University. It is impossi- 
ble to conceive of a more useful object to which wealth 
could be devoted in times of peace. 

It may not be possible to express adequately in words 
the gratitude which is felt for the magnificent public spirit 
which the Founder has shown, but the feeling of gratitude 
is there and all will join in offering him their sincere con- 
gratulations on this happy occasion and in the prayer that 
he be granted many more years of life to watch and aid the 
development of the University which he has founded. 



Vice-Chancellor, Osrnania University and Educational Member, 
Hyderabad, Dcccan. 

The foundation and munificent endowment of the 
great Annamalai University by its Founder Pro-Chancellor, 
the Hon'ble Rajah of Chettinad, has marked him as a true 
benefactor of his country. The University will be a peren- 
nial fountain of learning, to which the youth of India will 
come in great numbers and drink deep of the springs for 
generations to come. On this the 60th Anniversary of the 
birthday of the Founder, thousands of his grateful country- 
men join in paying him a tribute of admiration for his pious 
and selfless act of which the Annamalai University is an 
enduring monument. 

Vice-Chancellor, University of Bombay 

I am very glad to hear that it is proposed by your Uni- 
versity to celebrate the completion of 60 years of the life of 
the Hon'ble the Rajah of Chettinad, Founder Pro-Chancellor 
of the Annamalai University, and that as a part of the cele- 
brations it is proposed to present a Commemoration Volume 
to the Rajah Saheb on the 28th September 1941. You are 
thereby honouring one who has taken a very keen interest 
in the promotion of higher education and rendered it possi- 
ble by his munificent donation to found a residential 
university, I have much pleasure in sending to your Univer- 
sity, and through you to the Rajah Saheb also, my cordial 
greetings and best wishes. 




I consider it a privilege to be asked to send a message 
to be incorporated in the Commemoration Volume that it 
is proposed to present to Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar 
of Chettinad on his completing his Sixtieth year. It is a 
happy thought on this occasion to recognise the many 
extremely valuable services that Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
has rendered to the Southern Presidency, to the cause of 
Education and to Hindu Religion, and its Shastras. His 
charities have been on a princely scale and have been both 
catholic and enlightened. The founding of the splendid 
University in Annamalainagar both Teaching and Residen- 
tial will be a lasting monument to the public spirit and 
generosity of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar and of his 
distinguished family, as lasting as the famous temples of 
Chidambaram which he has renovated at great cost. That 
Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar will be long spared to 
continue his useful public services and his generous chari- 
ties for many years to come must be the fervent hope of 
every friend and well-wisher of his. 

White Lodge, Coonoor, The Nilgiris, S. India 

It is with real pleasure that I add my tribute and 
hearty congratulations to Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar 
of Chettinad, whose friendship I have enjoyed for more 
than thirty years, on having completed sixty years of life so 
satisfactorily for himself and others. 


To few has it been given and made possible to do so 
much for others as he has done and I hope he may live for 
many more years to do even greater service for humanity. 

In 1910 it was my privilege to help in preparing him and 
his nephew the late Sir M. C. T. Muthiah Chettiar, for a visit 
to Europe and to the coronation of our late good King 
George the Fifth and to accompany them on the voyage 
and trip through Europe. 

This visit I am sure did much in awaking these gentle- 
men to a realisation of India's needs to their own ability to 
help meet them and our Madras Presidency has benefited 
greatly from their gifts and public service. 

In 1913 a gift from the then Rao Bahadur Annamalai 
Chettiar made possible a hostel for our Pasumalai Normal 
Training School and a few years later he gave a generous 
donation towards our fund for the installing of our water and 
Electric lighting plant and he has since given to other good 
causes at Pasumalai. 

It was also the privilege of Mrs. Miller and myself to 
assist him in entertaining at his Chettinad home three of our 
Madras Presidency Governors, beginning with H. E. The 
Right Honourable Lord Pentland and on these occasions to 
see the laying of foundation stones for numerous schools and 
hospitals in Chettinad. 

I have watched with' interest the work of Dr. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai and of his children, who are following in his steps 
and finding ample opportunity for service of mankind. 

With every good wish for a long and happy life for him- 
self and family I subscribe myself as one who is his true and 
loyal friend. 


SIB B. L. M1TTEB, Kt., K.C.S.I., M.A., B.L., BAB-AT-LAW, 

Advocate General of India, 

Possession of wealth may be a blessing or a curse. In 
India material wealth has never been given the dominant 
value which it possesses in western civilization. Here the 
value is measured by the use made of it. The place of the 
owner of wealth in society is conditioned by the extent to 
which he regards his ownership as a trust. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai has always acted up to the Indian ideal and, 
hence, the high estimation in which he is held by his coun- 
trymen. He has used his great wealth for the spread of edu- 
cation, relief of distress and other acts of charity. I recall 
an occasion when I appealed to him for help to Lady Irwin 
Girls' School at Simla and Delhi. He said little, but, in 
about an hour's time, I received from him a cheque in five 
figures. The amount so generously given formed the 
nucleus of a building fund. The school now possesses a 
magnificent building and it is one of the foremost educational 
institutions in New Delhi for the benefit of Indian girls of 
all provinces and all communities. I have known Rajah Sir 
Annamalai for many years and I know how completely he 
is inspired by the Indian ideal of the union of Lakshmi and 
Saraswati. I offer my hearty felicitations on his completing 
his sixtieth year. 


I have heard of the great efforts of the Hon'ble 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar has made in favour of educa- 
tion in this country. Myself, as a pioneer of education and 
as the opener of a new field of discoveries, am deeply mov- 
ed by those who open the possibilities to human beings of 


obtaining the development which should be due to every 
human spirit. To him, therefore, I convey my congratula- 
tions on the attainment of his Sixtieth Birthday. I hope 
that his life may last long and that his figure may long 
remain an example to the rest and a living monument of 
those who have deserved well from India and from the rest 
of humanity. 


Principal, Loyola College, Madras 

It gives me great pleasure to have this opportunity of 
adding my voice to the general chorus of congratulations to 
Rajah Sir S. R. M. Annamalai Chettiar. It is easy without 
exaggeration to speak in terms of high praise of the Rajah's 
manysided character, with its lotus-like development against 
a background of utter simplicity of life. Success sits lightly 
on his shoulders and the black care which the poet Horace 
foretells for such eminence as the Rajah has attained can 
never be his familiar. Its approach would be denied by the 
royal spirit of lavish generosity which has been so constant a 
companion in all his undertakings. Religion, Education and 
the poor are his special beneficiaries and together they form 
a strong buckler to protect him from harm. May God grant 
him many years of useful life for their benefit. 


Ph.D. (LONDON), 

University of Madras 

Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, in 
whose honour this volume is issued on the occasion of his 


sixtieth birthday is known throughout India and Greater 
India as the founder of the Annamalai University and also 
a number of charitable institutions. The Tamilnad, in 
particular, can never forget this magnificent and liberal 
patron of learning who has made Chidambaram a centre 
of light and leading. Although there are several munificent 
men in this great country, the Rajah Sahib, is, I think, 
the first person to specially pay attention to the promotion 
of learning on modern lines by founding a University which 
is named after him. 

The Rajah Sahib has shown a rare devotion to Dravi- 
dian languages and culture. At a critical time in the his- 
tory of the Tamil language he has come to its rescue. He 
has endowed special prizes for the study of Tamil and has 
thus inaugurated a new era of Tamil learning. 

The Rajah Sahib's beneficence is so great that many 
towns and cities derive advantage from his charity. His 
charities stand out as a brilliant example of what a single 
individual with his own unaided resources can achieve. He 
is imbued with a spirit of such great self-sacrifice as is rarely 
met with in a man. 

South India may well feel proud that it has produced 
such a noteworthy person who has done so much to quicken 
the intellectual life of this part of India. May he live long 
and continue to provide facilities for the development of 
culture and enlightenment. 

University of Madras 

I was for some time closely associated with some of the 
numerous benefactions which have made the Rajah's name a 






household word in South India; and I had many opportuni- 
ties of observing and admiring his great qualities of indus- 
try, clearness of mind, far-sightedness and, most import- 
ant of all, promptness in well-doing. I have the pleasantest 
recollections of my association with the Rajah Sahib who 
in building up a great educational institution conceived 
policy on large and generous lines and gave his Principal 
and staff the widest academic and administrative freedom 
in carrying it out. 

I wish him many years of life full of happiness to him- 
self and his family and of service to the country. 

MR. H. C. PAPWORTH, M.A., I.E.S., O.B.E., 
Principal, Presidency College, Madras 

I greatly appreciate the invitation to write a short tri- 
bute on the occasion of the sixtieth birthday of Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, Founder and Pro-Chan- 
cellor of Annamalai University. I do so with special plea- 
sure, as it has been my privilege to be a member of Anna- 
malai University from its foundation. 

Many colleges in English universities and many univer- 
sities in America owe their foundation to private benefac- 
tors. In some cases these foundations assumed and still 
retain the name of the benefactor as their title; in other 
cases, especially in some of the older foundations, the origi- 
nal name has given place to another dedication. In India 
the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad has the honour of being 
a pioneer in this munificent work, for it was his bounty plac- 
ed at the disposal of the State which made possible the 
foundation of the University which bears his name. 


All educationists and all who prize the inestimable 
benefits of knowledge and sound learning will remember his 
munificence with gratitude, and offer him their felicitations 
at the ensuing commemoration of his birthday. 


It gives me profound pleasure to offer my hearty con- 
gratulations to Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chetti- 
nad on the occasion of his Sashtipurthi, the completion of 
a period of life unique with abundant feelings of philan- 
thropy and rare aptitude for the creation of colossal chari- 
ties like the Annamalai University. May God spare him for 
many more years with blessings of prosperity and healthy 
life to do further useful service to our great country INDIA 
and her people. 


I have known my dear friend the Rajah of Chettinad 
for a very long time. A gentleman of charming manners, 
he makes his visitors feel quite at home from the outset. It 
is indeed a pleasure to converse with him. His hospitality 
is proverbial. Possessing business talents of an extraordi- 
narily high order he works hard day and night. That he 
should work so assiduously, though endowed by Providence 
with immense wealth, is truly praiseworthy. This is a 
quality worth acquiring, as it enables one to spend more 
money for charitable purposes. His manifold philanthropic 
activities cover a very wide and varied field. He thus sets 
a noble example. The most outstanding of his charities is, 


of course, the famous Annamalai University. He has been 
rendering meritorious services to the country. Many are 
the poor that are benefited by the munificence of this gene- 
rous Rajah. Most heartily do I congratulate my esteemed 
friend on this auspicious occasion of his "Shastipurti". May 
God grant him long life, happiness and prosperity! 


Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad is one 
of those rare men in India who have used their riches for the 
benefit of their fellow men. He is the founder of the only 
Unitary, Teaching and Residential University in South 
India, the Annamalai University of Annamalainagar. Other 
educational, charitable, religious and social institutions 
have benefited largely from his open-hearted generosity. 

It is right and proper that his countrymen should do 
him honour not only as a munificent benefactor of learning 
but as setting a worthy example to others of the right use 
of great wealth. 

I join with others in wishing him many more years of 
beneficent service to his province and country. 


On such an occasion as the 61st Birthday of one who 
has so notably benefited Tamilnad as Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar, it gives me great pleasure as Ruler-to-be of the 
only Tamil State to send a message to the Vice-Chancellor 
of the splendid University which Sir Annamalai's generous 

munificence brought into being. 


Many a Pudukkottian already has reason to bless the 
name of the Rajah Saheb and his now famous institution, 
and doubtless thousands more will do so. So it is in their 
name as well as my own that I send my sincere wishes for 
the continued prosperity and happiness both of the Founder 
and of his foundation. 

Vice -Chancellor, Benares Hindu University 

I am glad to know that your Pro-Chancellor the Hon'ble 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, Rajah of Chettinad, will be 
completing his Sixty years on the 28th of September, 1941. 
The only University in the country founded by a single 
individual is yours. And for years it has been doing very 
valuable work. I have no doubt that the Rajah Saheb will 
continue to take an affectionate interest in the institution. I 
wish him many years of useful and happy life. 


Barrister-at-LaW' Bangoon 

I beg to send from Burma a message of congratulation 
to Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar on his completing the 
60th year of his life. The Rajah's name is remembered with 
respect in this country where many educational institutions 
have benefited by his gifts. In India his charities have been 
simply colossal. The Annamalai University alone, which 
constitutes a landmark in the history of education in South 
India, will for ever remain a monument to his kingly gene- 
rosity, his love of culture, his ardent desire for the spread of 
education, more enduring than any commemorative present 


that we may offer him. We are not all born for great things, 
but let us not deny ourselves the greatness of appreciating 
things that are great. May the Rajah live long will be the 
prayer of all his friends and admirers among whom I count 
myself, on this happy occasion. 

Ex- Chief Minister, Madras 

I appreciate the courtesy that prompted you to send 
me intimation of the Sashtipurti celebration of Sir Anna- 
malai. My son forwarded me your letter. To the numer- 
ous messages and greetings that will surely grace the 
pages of the Commemoration Volume, let me add a sincere 
tribute from one of his own generation, whom wide-gaping 
differences in political creed and practice have not prevented 
from appreciating the outstanding ability and virtues of the 
Rajah. But for the unfortunate abnormality of our national 
status and the struggles imposed on us, who can doubt but 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar would have been to all of us one of 
the safest and most successful leaders in our public life? I 
first met him twenty-two years ago when I was in the fever 
of the newly-discovered creed of Non-Co-operation and I 
remember how deeply I was impressed by the manner in 
which he took my answer to his request for a vote in the 
Council of State elections. That impression has continued 
unmodified by anything that has happened since then. In 
him we can see one who knows by instinct how to move 
among men of differing views, how to be big and powerful 
yet preserve untarnished one's courtesy and humility of 
mind and speech, how to be a gentleman in the difficult 
sense of the term. I join his other friends in congratulat- 
ing him on the jubilee day and send up the wish and prayer 


that all his virtues may flourish in the younger men that 
wait to reach his age, round about him in Chettinad. 


I am glad the Diamond Jubilee of Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar is to be celebrated in a worthy manner. Not 
merely because he is a Rajah or a Knight but because he is a 
great man who is also a good man. Greatness and goodness 
do not always go together. There are many great men, men 
who make a great impression on the public mind, but in 
whom goodness is not very conspicuous goodness of heart, 
goodness of disposition, a desire to do good to others and to 
find their own happiness in the happiness of others. It is the 
presence of these moral qualities in a man who has immense 
means and opportunities cf doing good which distinguishes 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar from other rich men. It is 
not enough to own riches: what makes riches a blessing is to 
know how to use it for the good of others. This knowledge 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar possesses in an abundant 
quantity. I remember how before making an endowment 
which constitutes the foundation of the Annamalai Univer- 
sity he consulted more than one Educationist, Indian and 
European, and discussed details with them so that the 
money he invested might prove most beneficial might bear 
fruit, tenfold, thirtyfold arid a hundredfold. It is this pain- 
staking thoughtfulness, so characteristic of the man, which 
endears him to all who know him. There is so much self-for- 
getful dignity about the man that his benefactions seem a 
natural expression of his inner disposition, and are acceptable 
as such. We have all heard the saying "Noblesse oblige" 
Nobility has its obligations and responsibilities. This is 


applicable not only to mere titular nobility but also to 
wealth and influence which when properly used make a 
man truly noble. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar takes his 
rank with Tata, the founder of the Tata family who earned 
money through business but used that money for the 
benefit of his people and his country. In establishing the 
Annamalai University, Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar has 
given an impetus to the progress of education in Tamil Nad 
which will continue for endless generations. In this 
stream of educational progress we of the Depressed Classes 
will be caught up and carried to new realms of happiness 
and prosperity for which we shall ever remember Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar as a real benefactor of our community. 

I have compared Sir Annamalai Chettiar to Tata. Per- 
haps a more appropriate and closer analogy and nearer home 
is to be found in Pachaiappa the founder of Pachaiappa 
Charities. This gentleman also earned and amassed a large 
amount of wealth, and endowed it all for the good of the peo- 
ple as religious benefactions, in the shape of free feeding 
and temple worship. These benefactions only fed the 
priests and did not bring any return of lasting good to the 
people at large. Certain wise men, however, of a later 
generation realised the comparative fruitfulness and barren- 
ness of these charities, and rescued a portion of the funds for 
the purpose of educating the people. Thus we have tlv* 
Pachaiappa Schools in Madras, Conjeevaram, Chidambaram 
and other places, and among these Pachaiappa's College 
stands as a prominent monument of his charitable disposi- 

But Sir Annamalai Chettiar did not require the wisdom 
of a later generation to direct his benefactions. He has had 
not only the heart to give but also the head to direct his 


gifts into fruitful channels so that they may irrigate the 
homes and happiness of thousands of people in the country. 
The application of charities to Educational Institutions is 
like introducing electric lighting and electric power into a 

Sir Annamalai Chettiar's community was always noted 
for making large benefactions but these had for generations 
taken the form of building temples and choultries and feed- 
ing pilgrims on festival occasions. And it was only in 
recent times that some of them under the influence of 
enlightened public opinion added the starting and financing 
of schools to the list of their benefactions while still the chief 
item of their charitable dispositions was in the direction of 
religious endowments. In Sir Annamalai Chettiar's own 
family some younger members endowed local schools which 
are conducted in their names. But it was given to Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar to conceive a larger project which will 
cover the needs of the whole presidency and benefit genera- 
tion after generation and become part and parcel of the 
intellectual moral and spiritual legacy of this presidency. 
His is not a one-sided endowment intended to benefit one 
community rather than another. In keeping with the 
spirit of the times and needs of the country the doors of the 
Annamalai University are thrown open to students of 
all communities; and on its staff and council are 
men belonging to Brahmin, Non-Brahmin Hindu, Christian 
and Mohammedan communities. This is in keeping with 
the largeness of heart and the breadth of vision of its 

It is not without significance that the University is in 
a holy city, sacred to the memory of the Panchama Saint 
Nandanar. To me this circumstance is an augury of the 


bright future which awaits my community. Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar's name will go down in history associated with the 
moral, social and intellectual progress of the community of 
which Saint Nandanar was the Prophet and shining star. 


New Delhi 

A handsome tribute was once paid to Baron Rothschild 
that needy Jews sometimes prayed to God but more often 
wrote to the Rothschilds. The tribute will apply better to 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, as no deserving social cause 
has ever appealed to him in vain. His munificent charities 
to religious and educational institutions have been instru- 
mental in reviving our great cultural heritage as represent- 
ed in Sanskrit* and Tamil philosophical works, in music and 
in other arts. He is a true Rajah, one who has endeared 
himself with the public as the prince of givers. The many 
beneficent institutions which he has founded in India, 
Burma and Ceylon are standing monuments of his philan- 
thropy and of his desire to serve his fellow-men. May the 
Rajah Saheb be spared long to continue his elevating acti- 
vities, is a prayer which will be echoed by thousands of his 

SIR C. V. RAMAN, KT., F.R.S., M.A., Ph.D., Hon. D.Sc., Hon. LL.D., 

Nobel Laureate, 
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 

A unique place in the esteem and affection of his 
countrymen has been established for himself by Dr. Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar by his unparalleled stervices to the 
cause of learning, culture and religion in Southern India for 


over a quarter of a century. Generations yet unborn will 
have cause to feel grateful to him for the opportunities he 
has created for the acquisition of the knowledge, alike of the 
East and of the West, by the youth of Tamilnad. He has 
saved for posterity the highest traditions of our language 
and our music and ensured their permanence by transmis- 
sion from teacher to the taught in the institutions created by 
his princely benefactions. In the Annamalai University, 
he has established a centre of learning of a distinctive kind 
whose achievements have justly been a cause of pride to his 
countrymen and which will keep his name and fame green 
for all time. We rejoice that he has reached the sixtieth 
year of his age in full enjoyment of his health and strength. 
We pray that he may long be spared to continue his life of 
generous solicitude for the welfare of the younger genera- 
tion and for the promotion of the cause of learning and cul- 
ture in our country! 



I am delighted to learn that the completion of the 60th 
year of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar is going to be 
celebrated shortly. 

The Rajah Saheb is a brilliant Gem of Tamil Nad. He 
is a Karma Veerar. Men of such keen intelligence, untiring 
energy and profound ability are very rarely found in this 
land. In his capacity for earning money and in his large- 
heartedness in utilising it for the welfare of humanity he 
stands unequalled in this Province. 

It is a well-known fact that his charities are many- 
sided and innumerable and thousands are benefited by 


In short, this Great Vallal has has given about one crore 
of rupees for charitable purposes. To-day, there is no equal 
to him in Southern India in munificence and philanthropy. 
It is but proper that the completion of the 60th year of this 
great benefactor should be celebrated in a fitting manner. 

On this happy occasion, I have great pleasure in wish- 
ing him long life, sound health, great fame and prosperity. 

K. C.S.I., LL.D., 

Dewan of Travancore 

It is but appropriate and fitting that the Annamalai 
University should celebrate the bnasntiabdapurti ol its 
founder, the Hon'ble Rajah Sir Annamaiai Chettiar. 

The community of which he is tne most famous repre- 
sentative has been noted for centuries tor iis businesslike 
habits, frugality and simplicity oi living ana equally noted 
for the benefactions made by ine INagarathars from out 
of the wealth that they have amassed by the exercise of 
these qualities. Until quite recently, the community con- 
centrated on the performance of various functions in South 
Indian temples; and their zeal for the renovation of temple 
buildings is a well-known feature. It was left to Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar to conceive the idea of starting a 
teaching and residential University in one of the most sacred 
and holy spots in South India. To the genius loci has 
been added the inspiration and stimulus of men like the Rt. 
Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastri who was, for some time, 
the Vice-Chancellor and who has been succeeded by my old 
friend Sir K. V. Reddy. The University can do a great deal 
not only in the matter of general studies but for maintaining 
and cherishing those great and ancient traditions of which 


South India is so proud, namely, those of Sanskritic lore and 
Dravidian scholarship. As a nucleus of Sanskrit and Tamil 
learning and scholarship, the Annamalai University has a 
definite role to fill. 

I join the University in wishing Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar many more years of beneficent activity. 


Commerce Member, Government of India 

I am glad to learn that the public of the Madras Presi- 
dency have decided to celebrate the Shashtiabdhapurthi the 
occasion of completing the sixtieth year by Dr. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar in a suitable manner and that, in parti- 
cular, the Annamalai University is bringing out a Commemo- 
ration Volume which will be presented to the Rajah Saheb. 
I have had the privilege of knowing Sir Annamalai Chettiar 
for nearly a quarter of a century and of being fairly intimate- 
ly acquainted with his numerous activities in the field of 
politics, education and religion. No one has done more in 
the Province than the Rajah in finding funds for the promo- 
tion of higher education, religious education and the fine 
arts. Temples, schools, colleges and other charitable insti- 
tutions have equally benefited by his large hearted dona- 
tions. A side of his activities which may not have attracted 
equally prominent attention is the help he has given to the 
promotion of the cause of women. The main Ladies* Club 
in Madras and several similar institutions in the mofussil 
owe not a little to his magnificent donations. These princely 
charities of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar will be a 
standing monument to the nobility, characteristic of his 
family and of himself in particular. It is needless to add that 
not by his charities alone but by his innate gentlemanliness 


and sweetness of disposition that Rajah Sir Annamalai has 
endeared himself to every one who has had the privilege of 
knowing him. May the blessings of Providence be vouchsafed 
unto him and may he be spared for many decades to continue 
his great work and to be an asset to the community! 


I am glad to know that you are proposing through an 
influential Committee celebrating the completion by 
Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, of his 
sixtieth year on the 28th of September, 1941 in a fitting 

I thank you very much for the honour you have done 
in asking me to send a message of appreciation of his noble 
acts of piety, charity and great munificence, on this happy 
occasion. I am sure one more competent than myself will 
be better able to pay tribute to his various acts of charity 
and benevolence which are wide and varied. 

His one ambition in life seems to be to strive, save and 
serve for the benefit of his fellowmen which is well exempli- 
fied by the charitable and educational institutions of great 
help and usefulness to humanity. His benefactions are 
varied and many but the highest monument of his benefi- 
cent works is the founding, equipping and endowing of the 
great and unique Residential University at Annamalai- 
nagar, more fittingly named after him. 

I am sure his great name will ever be cherished with 
esteem and gratitude by posterity. 

May God bless him with a further long life of continued 
prosperity to be of still greater service to humanity. 



It is indeed a kindly thought that should have prompt- 
ed the University authorities to celebrate the Founder's 
Day, that will recall to the memory of one and all, the munifi- 
cent benefaction of my esteemed friend and our illustrious 
countryman, Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar. And this year's 
function has a special significance in that it happens to be 
his 61st birthday Sashtiabdapurti year. The Rajah be- 
longs to a rare order typifying in himself, the aristocracy of 
Brain, Heart and Bullion in happy harmony. True to the 
dictum, noblesse oblige, he has taken upon himself the 
sovereign task of founding a University by his solitary and 
magnificent efforts a University in the true Oriental style, 
intended to foster our Art and Culture and our own Mother 
tongue, Tamil studies. It truly recaptures the genius and 
splendour of our former times, and stands in grandeur as 
the seat of modern Indian renaissance, even as Nalanda and 
Taxila of ancient days. 

Situated at Chidambaram, the holy spot where Lord 
Nataraja with his Divine dance attunes the Universe to 
spiritual height, the Annamalai University radiates a sublime 
charm partaking of His all-pervasive spiritual grace. Its 
atmosphere is permeated by Sath, Chit, Anand, brightening 
the body and mind and sweetening the soul 

The career of the Founder is a chapter not only in India's 
commercial and industrial history but also in the educa- 
tional history thereof. May the university flourish in the 
chosen path of its Founder, and may the Rajah Saheb and 
his successors live for long, long years brightening the pages 
of his University and those of India. 



Vice-Chancellor, Andhra University, Waltair 

I associate myself most heartily with the movement to 
celebrate the Shashtipurti of Rajah Sir Annamalai Chetti in 
a befitting manner. The Rajah Saheb might be justly re- 
garded as a national asset. No merchant or industrialist 
of South India has spent such large amounts on public 
benefactions. For a parallel to his philanthropy we have 
to go to Bombay. He started by making benefactions in 
the orthodox traditional style of the Hindus. Some of the 
most expensive and elaborate improvements of the famous 
Chidambaram and other temples are to be credited to his 
religious spirit. There are choultries or Dharmasalas built 
for the accommodation and comfort of travellers which be- 
speak his sense of humanity. Every project for public good 
organised in South India has found in him an exemplary con- 
tributor. But by far his greatest achievement is the Univer- 
sity which very rightly bears his name. Contemporary India 
and posterity will note how this is the first University found- 
ed by private benefaction and how the entire extent of the 
benefaction rested on the limitless generosity of one single 
individual, the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad. There is no 
parallel to this, as far as my knowledge goes, anywhere in the 
world excepting one, the Rockfeller University of Chicago, 
founded and maintained by the monetary contributions of a 
single family. Though the Annamalai University cannot 
be regarded either from the point of view of the courses or 
standards organised to be anywhere near the world famous 
institution in Chicago, still it is the best that has ever been 
done by an individual in India and is notable furthermore as 
an example to other millionaires. 

It is not merely by these outward achievements that the 
Rajah Saheb has made himself famous and endeared, but 


by his personality. I had the pleasure and privilege of being 
his guest more than once. No host could have shown more 
personal attention to the comforts of a guest than the Rajah 
Saheb whose custom, in accordance with the best tradi- 
tions of India, has always been to attend personally, though 
he could easily have appointed deputies. The lavishness 
of Chettinad hospitality is well-known and is not inferior to 
that for which some Indian States have become famous. 
The Rajah Saheb, in spite of his wealth and high dignity and 
position, is simple in his life and dress; modest in his manner 
and most considerate in his dealings with others. He makes 
no distinction between the different linguistic divisions in 
the Presidency. He has Aridhra affiliations as the owner of 
an extensive Estate in Chittoor District. His possessions in 
Burma and interests in Ceylon and Indo-China mark him 
out not only as a national but as an inter-national figure. 
And wherever he has property, he has also exercised philan- 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chetti ranks among the worthiest 
in the country. Most successful as a maker of money, he 
has been still more noteworthy as a spender thereof on right 
good causes and progressive projects. 

If the service of the country, if the advancement of its 
material and moral prosperity are amongst the objectives of 
a University, then the Annamalai University cannot have 
a better example before it or a nobler inspirer than its own 
illustrious Founder. 

Adviser to The Secretary of State for India 

Heartiest congratulations Rajah Sahib's 61st Birth- 
day. His wise benefactions have earned him India's homage 






and gratitude. May his University flourish and promote 
country's unity and progress. God bless him. 

P.C., K. C.S.I., M.A., LL.D. 

I am greatly obliged to you for your letter of the 5th of 
August. I note with pleasure that Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar of Chettinad, the Founder Pro-Chancellor of the 
Annamalai University, will soon be completing his 60th 
year. I also note with pleasure that the Annamalai Uni- 
versity has decided to celebrate the event in a fitting manner. 

On this occasion I desire to convey to the Rajah Saheb 
my heartiest congratulations and best wishes for a long life. 
The Rajah Saheb's name is an honoured name throughout 
India as a munificent benefactor of education and culture. 
If it is a great thing to earn so much wealth, it is a still 
greater thing to make such good use of wealth. The 
younger generation in your presidency has every reason to 
feel grateful to him for what he has done for them, but more 
than that the entire country has reason to be grateful to him 
for being one of the very limited number of our wealthy 
men, who have set such fine example to others. Long after 
the names of those, who are so much in the public eye at 
present, have been forgotten the names of men like Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar, Jamshedji Tata, Tarak Nath Palit, 
Rash Behary Ghose and some others, will continue to be 
remembered with affection and gratitude by succeeding 
generations of their countrymen and will serve as beacon 
lights on our onward journey. I, therefore, send him 
through you my best congratulations and wishes for a long 
life and I could also ask you, as Vice-Chancellor, to con- 
vey to the University, of which he is the founder, my best 


wishes for its success and continued service to the cause of 
knowledge and culture. 


Hyderabad, Deccan 

In adding my felicitations to Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar on his 61st birthday, I am happy to have this 
opportunity of expressing my appreciation of his many and 
far-reaching benefactions. 

To the long family record, almost an hundred years old, 
of pious charities in their chosen city of Chidambaram, Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar has added a rich chapter by his per- 
sonal and princely gifts to all fine causes to promote and 
foster ancient and modern learning, to encourage literature, 
music, art and sport, to further movements for social service 
and social progress, to establish inter-provincial and inter- 
national friendship. The Annamalai University is in itself 
an enduring tribute to his splendid generosity. 

Not often in our generation has great individual wealth 
like his been devoted to public welfare and progress with a 
philanthropy so discriminating in its quality and so catholic 
in its range. 


I have had the pleasure and the privilege of knowing 
him intimately for many years now. The highest tribute, I 
can pay to him, is that he is every inch a gentleman. I have 
not met a more polished, courteous, or thoughtful gentle- 
man. To have renovated the renowned temple of Sri Nata- 


raja, is by itself an imperishable monument to the Rajah's 
distinguished family. 

The Rajah Sahib has done still a greater service to 
the country by founding the Annamalai University. From 
inside knowledge, I know his paternal care and solicitude 
for the welfare and the progress of the Institution. 

His recent contribution towards the development of 
Tamil Music may, I hope, mark a turning point in the history 
of Tamil Culture. People earn a good deal, but give very 
little. But the Rajah Sahib has given over a crore of Rupees 
for charities. May God Sri Naiaraja bless him. May he 
and his family live long, prosperous, and happy lives and 
serve the cause of the country. 

Minister ot Agriculture and Lands, Ceylon Government 

I am obliged to Sir K, V. Keddi and his Committee for 
giving me the opportunity oi paying my own humble tribute 
to a personality whose radiating imiuence nas cheer ed many 
thousands oJc iauman beings in South india and Ceylon. My 
wife and I have vivid recollections of the lavishness of the 
hospitality of the Rajah of Chettinad during our brief so- 
journ in his city. That hospitality, shown to strangers 
within the gates, is but the gleam of one facet of a gem whose 
lustre shines in and illumines the darkest recesses of a struc- 
ture of society which, alas, is still not without its dark 
places. We in poor Ceylon gasp in wonderment at the 
fabulous tales of untold wealth among our neighbours which 
at times reach our ears: we thrill with a sense of indefinable 
pleasure when we hear that a few, at least, of the possessors 
of that wealth are not content unless they disburse that 


wealth for the common good. The founding, equipping, and 
endowing of an entire University by one single individual 
seems a miracle to us in this country who can scarcely find 
a benefactor to endow one single Chair. But we take some 
comfort from the thought that the inspiration of such an 
achievement cannot altogether be lost, and that though we 
have no Annamalai Chettiars in our midst the emulation 
of the Rajah Sahib's benefactions can still ue attempted 
on a smaller scale. I have heard it said that one who lives 
to his sixtieth year is entitled to be called a purna ayus, 
one who has lived a full lu f e. It is my prayer, and I know 
it is the prayer of all in Ceylon who are acquainted even in 
the slightest degree with the person or the achievements of 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Cheltiar of Chettinad, that he will 
be spared for many, many more years to come so that his 
life may be fuller and richer for the good of his own 
country and the world in general. 


Principal, Government College, Ajmer and President, All-India Federation 
of Educational Associations 

May I join in the felicitations which will be conveyed 
to the Hon. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar on the auspici- 
ous occasion of his completing sixty years ? His magnifi- 
cent endowment for the creation of the Annamalai Univer- 
sity is one which will make his name immortal in the his- 
tory of Indian education. There have undoubtedly been 
many benefactors of education in various parts of the 
world, but the example of one whose princely generosity is 
responsible for the creation of a whole University is unique. 
The numerous well-wishers of the Rajah can do no better 


on this occasion, than to hope that the Annamalai University 
will soon take its rank among the best Universities of India 
and prove worthy of the great generosity of its founder. 


I am delighted to hear that preparations are being 
made at Annamalainagar to commemorate the noble ser- 
vices of the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad. His love of learning 
has found perfect expression in the Annamalai University. 
It is a growing and expanding organism, pulsating with 
activity, and is a living definition of the intrinsic greatness 
of the Rajah Saheb's heart and mind. As an inconspicuous 
Professor of Madras University, I had the privilege of 
making his acquaintance in Madras in 1920-21 and I have 
a vivid recollection of the grace and charm which his con- 
versation radiated. Our paths diverged in 1921 and I do 
not think we met again. But I have kept in touch with 
the currents of events in Madras and I find that during 
the last twenty years, the Rajah Saheb has developed a 
personality and organised enterprises of which, I must con- 
fess, I had little expectation at the time I met him in Madras. 
He is now one of the foremost philanthropists of India, and 
his wide sympathies, practical work for the social and econo- 
mic uplift and absolute sincerity have spread his name and 
reputation through the whole of Southern India. He is a 
model of what an Indian Merchant Prince ought to be. Bacon 
says that the nobler a man is, the greater the objects of pas- 
sion he has. The objects of the Rajah Saheb's passions are 
many, but the Annamalai University is naturally the first 
object of his affection. He has put the impress of his per- 
sonality on this hallowed institution, and I have no doubt 
that it perpetuates the work of its founder in a manner that 


is in perfect conformity with the spirit of its Founder. I 
wish India had more Chettinads at the present day, so that 
the humblest citizen may have an opportunity of nourish- 
ing himself on the best and noblest in our Indian culture/' 


'Adhinakarthar of Dharmapuram AdJhinam, Dharmapuram, Mayavaram. 

May Lord Chockkanatha shower His choicest blessings 
on you, grant you long life, prosperity, peace and ever- 
lasting happiness. 

Words fail to express your manysided activities, 
charitable and religious for the benefit of humanity 
especially to the South Indians. As an ardent devotee of 
Lord Nataraja, you deserve the well-deserved admiration of 
all worshippers and devotees of Lord Siva by your muni- 
ficent contribution to the repairs of His Shrines on the 
mundane globe at Chidambaram and Karur, and by your 
lar^e-heartedness in having established a residential 
University in the vicinity of His Shrine at Chidambaram 
accessible to students of all classes, regardless of caste, 
creed, religion and party politics. As pious as the Nain- 
mars, you have in every nossible way striven and are still 
striving to enrich and enliven the heritage of the South 
Indians Tamil Literature and South Indian Music 
by your unequalled generosity by creating specific endow- 
ments for this purpose. Your liberal charity with a unique 
broad outlook, with a humanitarian object, devoid of all 
ostentation with no tinge of self in it, and non-fanatic, 
will hand down to posterity your name and fame as long 
as life exists in the world. You have by your unstinted 
help to all deserving of help irrespective of any other con- 


dition social, religious, political or territorial set a living 
example to others by giving a lead to show how on this 
earth one possessing wealth and influence and power can 
best serve the public, especially the poor. 

May the Almighty bless you and guide you in your 
future career to continue the selfless task of sacrifice you 
have undertaken. 


Sir James and Lady Simpson join heartily in the Com- 
memoration of the Sixtieth Birthday of the Rajah of Chet- 
tinad. They recall very affectionately the many happy 
visits and long years of friendship and association with the 
Rajah Saheb and his family. 

What an achievement for sixty summers and what a re- 
markable contribution the Rajah has made to the Cultural, 
Political, Economic and Social life of India! Long may he be 
spared further to adorn his chosen motto "Strive, Save and 

K. C.S.I., C.I.E., B.A., B.L., LL.D. 

I am very glad to hear that the Annamalai University 
has resolved to celebrate the 61st birth-day of Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar, the founder and Pro-Chancellor 
of the University, and has decided to present to him a com- 
memoration volume. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar comes 
from a family of Nagarathar Chettis well-known in South- 


ern India for its numerous charities. I knew his elder 
brother Dewan Bahadur S. Rm. Ramaswami Chettiar and 
greatly appreciated the interest he took in the administra- 
tion of Chidambaram Municipality and the Taluk Board, 
and the health, education and welfare of the Chidambaram 
town. The leaders of the Nagarathar community have 
always been noted for their charities, but they were gene- 
rally of a more or less religious character: they have taken 
great interest in the repair, renovation and beautification 
of the great Siva temples in Southern India, in the constiuc- 
tion of choultries for the feeding of the poor and izi the 
foundation of religious Pathasalas and other forms of chari- 
ties sanctioned by Hindu usage. The Rajah's family has set 
an example of a more enlightened form of public benefac- 
tions in accord with modern ideas and present-day needs. 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar is the illustrious representa- 
tive of his family. It is not possible to enumerate the many 
charities which he has founded or supported. The Anna- 
malai University is the greatest monument of his enlighten- 
ed munificence. He has encouraged western as well as 
Oriental learning and culture, secular as well as religious 
learning, the fine arts as well as literature and science. The 
administration of his charities has not been marked by any 
narrow-minded communalism such as has become the bane 
of South Indian life, and will, it is hoped, continue to be 
free from any such influences. The numerous charities of 
the Rajah have earned for him the undying gratitude of 
Southern India. I offer him my most cordial felicitations 
on the auspicious occasion of his sixtieth birthday and pray 
that he may be blessed with health and strength to guide the 
Annamalai University for many years to come with his 
broad-minded outlook and generosity. 









LL.D., M.L.C. 

I am happy to be allowed to congratulate the Rajah 
Sahib of Chettinad on his sixty-first birthday and to wish 
him many more years of prosperity and honour. Like 
hundreds of other people I have received favours and kind- 
nesses from him without number. These I have acknow- 
ledged elsewhere; it is not possible to acknowledge them 
adequately. More than these is the affection and personal 
attachment that prompt them. What I have done or can 
ever do to deserve it all has puzzled me for a long time. It 
was in the old Council hall at Delhi that we met first. The 
friendship that began then has continued without a break, 
the years have strengthened and deepened it. We have 
had few trials and tasks in common, we have not been 
engaged together in literary or business pursuits, we have 
not journeyed together in India and abroad or studied 
men and measures out of the same books. What has drawn 
and held us each to the other? I cannot flatter myself that 
I am capable of doing him any service, material or other. 
The flow of benefits between us, copious and uninterrupted, 
has ever been in one direction and one direction only. In 
the nature of things it cannot be otherwise. Am I wrong 
then in regarding the bond between us as an example of 
that "subtle inner force" which the Sanskrit poet postu- 
lates as the essence of love? 

Annamalai University comes late in the story. I was 
sixty-six when the Rajah entrusted it to my care. For five 
years he gave me his confidence and support in the fullest 
measure. Twice during the strike of students the institu- 
tion was in serious peril, and as a change of policy seemed 
to me scarcely proper, I implored him to relieve me and try 


another management. His practical wisdom was truer 
than mine. He left me to weather the storm as I might; and 
though I have no reason to boast, the result vindicated his 
patience and his trust in me. I do not wish to live a day 
after I have ceased to be thankful for such a blessing. 

Of the Rajah's many-sided career, I have no detailed 
knowledge. I shall not presume to portray his character 
or canvass the qualities that have enabled him to conquer 
difficulties and achieve success. Two points, however, 
which may seem small to the superficial observer, 
I venture to pick out for special mention. A teacher 
of youth cannot do less in holding up to their admiration 
and imitation the life of a patron of youth. Though he can 
employ agents and secretaries and relieve himself of anxiety 
and hard work, the Rajah rises early and goes to bed late 
and fills the intervening hours with serious business, care- 
fully allotted and planned. To idle pastimes and strenu- 
ous games on the field, he is a complete stranger. Still he 
seldom misses an engagement or neglects a social duty, and 
I have always envied the equability of temper which en- 
ables him to greet ail persons, high or low, friendly or 
unfriendly, with the same engaging smile. 


Managing Editor, "The Hindu", Madras 

It is with great pleasure that I offer my felicitations to 
the Hon'ble Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar on the comple- 
tion of his 60 years. I wish him long life, health and con- 
tinued prosperity. 



President, The Madras Provincial Scheduled Castes Federation 

Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad has 
been spending a large sum of money for several years on 
educational institutions in India and abroad, women's cause, 
religious charities, renovations and maintenance of temples, 
particularly Sri Nataraja Temple at Chidambaram where 
Saint Nanda's shrine remains most sacred. 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar is a generous hearted 
gentleman, a great benefactor and a sincere friend of his 

MR. R. M. STATIIAM, M.A., I.E.S., C.I.E., 
Director of Public Instruction, Madras. 

It gives me the greatest pleasure to send a message for 
the Commemoration Volume to be presented to Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad on the occasion of his 
61st birthday. I have been connected with Education 
in this Presidency for over 28 years and I am therefore fully 
able to appreciate the immense contribution which the 
Rajah Sahib has made to the furtherance of Education in all 
its branches. It would be difficult to find another public 
man who has given so liberally and willingly not only for 
the establishment and improvement of many types of edu- 
cational institutions but for all forms of deserving chari- 
ties. His gift of 20 lakhs of rupees for the founding of a 
Unitary and Residential University at Chidambaram has 
been a unique feature of the development of higher educa- 
tion in this Province. In thus remembering Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar's wide generosity I am sure that he 
would like us also to remember that for nearly one hundred 



years the members of his family have set aside large sums 
of money for religious and educational purposes in and 
around Chidambaram. I can only conclude by expressing 
the most sincere wish that the celebration which we are 
now commemorating may be most happy and successful and 
that Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar may long continue to 
extend his wise and generous patronage to the work of ad- 
vancing Education in this Province. 



Vice- Chanetljor, Mysore University. 

It is a great pleasure tc add my own tribute to those 
of others to the Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chetti- 
nad on the happy occasion of the completion of his sixtieth 
year. It was my privilege to take part in the celebrations 
of the Founder's Day in 1937, and I took advantage of the 
occasion to pay my tribute to the munificence of the Rajah 
in the cause of higher education in South India. His munifi- 
cence recalls the remarkable manner in which the million- 
aires of America, J. P. Morgan and Rockfeller, have advanc- 
ed the cause of higher education and research in America. 
It is very much to be hoped that the great example of the 
Rajah will find numerous and equally generous imitators. 

Triplicate, Madras 

On this blessed day, the 61st Birthday of the Hon'ble 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, my thoughts go back 
to a period of time, over twenty years ago, when he conceiv- 
ed the happy idea of founding a Collegiate Institution at 


Chidambaram and naming it after his mother of blessed 
memory. The Sri Meenakshi College, which has since 
bloomed into Annamalai University at Annamalainagar, 
then came into being. 

I am proud at the recollection that I was present with 
the Rajah to meet the University Commission headed by 
Sir Ramunni Menon that came to Chidambaram to recom- 
mend the affiliation of the Sri Meenakshi College to the 
Madras University. 

Prior to this time and later also, we used to have long 
conversations about this institution the selection of the 
site, the choice of the staff, the equipment of the Library, 
Laboratories etc. etc. When, some years later, he met me 
one evening and said that the preparations for the founda- 
tion of The Annamalai University had been completed and 
that it would soon commence to function^ nobody was 
happier than I. 

"Mighty of heart, mighty of mind, Magnanimous to 
be this is indeed to be great in life, to become this increas- 
ingly is indeed to advance in life in life itself, not in the 
trappings of it," said Ruskin years ago. Who that knows the 
Rajah and has watched his benefactions of various kinds, 
and. particularly, the rise and growth of the Annamalai 
University would not say that this description applies very 
aptly to him? All his life the Rajah has been 'scorning de- 
lights and living laborious days/ living on almost ascetic 
fare, sleeping for not more than four to five hours a day (he 
once told me this), and with an intelligence, keen and un- 
sleeping, keeping watch over every little detail of the busi- 
ness of his vast estates in and beyond India, practising, with 
meticulous care, punctuality, method, preciseness, economy 
of time and speech, to the wonderment, delight and admira- 


tion of all who have anything to do with him. May we not 
pray that soon he may be enabled to extend his benefac- 
tions by the addition to the University of a first-rate Techno- 
logical Institute equipped on up-to-date lines? 

"To strive, to save, to serve' This has been his personal 
motto. How much has he not striven? And how much has 
he not saved and given away to others for +heir benefit!! 
In thus saving and giving away, he has been walking in the 
foot-steps of the Upanishadic Rishis of old whose maxims, as 
quoted in Taittariya Upanishad, were: 

(a) Annam Bahukurveeta. 
Do multiply food. 

(b) Nakanchana Vasalhou Pratyachaksheeta. 

Tasmat BaJwannam Prapnuyat. 

Do not deny shelter to anv one that seeks it. Therefore 
acquire abundance of food. 

And all the commentators on the above say that this 
gathering of Annam is for the purpose of giving to those who 
are in need. 

All honour to the Rajah who alike by the manner of his 
personal life and by his rich benefactions is setting a bright 
example to all mankind 1 



Retired High Court Judge 

Let me avail myself of the privilege of paying a tribute 
of praise in the form of a message to Dr. Rajah Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar of Chettinad, at the celebration of a memora- 


ble event in his life- time, viz,, his completion of his sixtieth 
year. Born in a very respectable aristocratic family, with 
a golden spoon in his mouth, his career in life has been unique 
in its glory. Endowed with a heritage of wealth, he has 
worked himself up to the pinnacle of name and fame, by 
means of his remarkable skill in the business of commerce 
and banking, and being equipped with a deep insight, a 
spirit of adventure, sound common sense, admirable tact, 
and suavity of manners. Having been blessed by the God- 
dess of Wealth in the wide vista of his undertakings, his 
generous heart inspired him to lavish his riches in numerous 
kinds of charities, which would make his name to be treasur- 
ed up in the memory of posterity, as that of a great benefac- 
tor. His philanthropy has come out with shining lustre, from 
out of the crucible of action. While the possession of even 
large surplus wealth, is no prompter for the utilisation of any 
portion of it for the good of others, which is a sorry spectacle 
in the case of many, is it not a matter for admiration that 
the Rajah of Chettinad has no( merely stopped with gener- 
ous intentions, but has given them concrete shape with a 
spectacular effect? Many and varied are his benefactions, 
which can be rightly characterized as princely. 

In the field of education, his monumental benefaction is 
the founding of the famous Annamalai University. What 
was a barren tract of land, has now become Annamalai- 
nagar, a splendid colony with beautiful buildings, spacious 
halls, hostels, residential quarters, play-grounds, libraries, 
and laboratories. His religious charities reached their 
climax in the recent renovation of Sri Tillai Govindaraja 
temple at Chidambaram. His steadfast loyalty to the Crown 
has been strikingly manifested in his generous contributions 
and in several other ways. 


Many humanitarian causes in South India and else- 
where, have had his generous response. A patron of music, 
his sympathy for its encouragement and development is 
laudable. It is no wonder, that he has been the recipient 
of high and rare honours in the world. Above all, he has 
earned the deep gratitude of humanity as also the benign 
Grace of the Almighty. 

May God shower His choicest blessings on him and 
may he live long with sound health and happiness. 


Administrator, Pudukottai State 

It is a pleasure to me to send a message on the occasion 
of the Sashtiabdapurti of Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar. I 
have had the pleasure of his friendship for about 30 years. 
He and his, brother were, I think, pioneers amongst the 
Nattukkottai Chettiars in making large gifts to promote 
education, medical relief and similar objects. Previously, 
the Nattukottai Chettiars confined themselves mainly I think 
to "tiruppani" and constructing large uranis. 

Perhaps the most striking example of his liberality 
is the foundation of the Annamalai University. It is a strik- 
ing monument of his generosity. In addition he has made 
large donations to a number of Colleges and Schools in 
Madras Presidency, in Burma and even in Ceylon; as well 
as to institutions for the study of the Vedas and Sastras. 
He has also been a liberal patron of Indian music. 

He has given liberal donations to various Ladies 1 
Clubs and Associations and Hospitals intended for the wel- 
fare of women. 



At the same time, he has spent large sums on the 
traditional objects of Nattukottai Chetty munificence. 

I think he must be easily the premier philanthro- 
pist of South India. 

I am glad to associate myself with the congratula- 
tions to him on this occasion, and wish him long life and 
prosperity, and his University every success. 


Vice -Chancellor, University of Madras 

I congratulate the Annamalai University on celebrating 
the completion of the sixtieth year of its distinguished 
founder, Kajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, who 
is the Pro-Chancellor of the University. His large-hearted 
charities to various educational, religious and other institu- 
tions in this Presidency are well-known. By these generous 
gifts he has earned the gratitude, esteem and affection of 
the people of this Presidency. The most outstanding act of 
his philanthropy is the foundation of the Annamalai Univer- 
sity, which is the only Unitary, Teaching and Residential 
University in South India and whose special aim is the en- 
couragement of South Indian culture. He will ever be 
remembered by posterity as a great benefactor and a great 
patron of learning in Southern India. I "wish him long life 
and happiness of every kind. 

Judge, Federal Court, Delhi 

It is quite in the fitness of things that the Annamalai 
University should celebrate the Shashtyabdapurthi of its en- 


lightened founder. The Community to which Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chetliar belongs has long been known for the 
Philanthropy of its members; but, it has often been remark- 
ed that their Endowments were limited to the traditional 
lines, and did not take sufficient note of the needs of the 
changing times. Sir Annamalai Chettiar's family was one 
of the earliest in the Chettinad to recognise the force of this 
Criticism and to give the lead in the direction of what may 
be called 'enlightened charity.' In his own time, the Rajah 
has, in his innumerable acts of public munificence, shown 
a striking catholicity of outlook and a wise discrimination 
in the choice of the objects of his bounty, happily combin- 
ing the old outlook and the new vision. 

The Annamalai University is an experiment in the ser- 
vice of a high ideal and it is no wonder that criticisms and 
suggestions continue to be heard even from well meaning 
quarters. I have no doubt that the Rajah and those associ- 
ated with him in the administration of the affairs of the 
University will keep the ideal constantly before them and 
the Rajah will be proud to see the day when the Annamalai 
University comes to be recognised on all hands as a fulfil- 
ment of that ideal. May a kindly Providence be pleased to 
spare him for many more years of useful and philanthropic 
service to his mothreland. 

Agent to The H.E.H. The Nizam of Hyderabad and Berar, Nagpur 

On this happy occasion of the Shastipurti of the Rajah 
of Chettinad my wife and myself send him warm greetings 
and most sincere good wishes. 


South India has produced shining lights in several 
spheres in statecraft, science and scholarship, law and 
medicine; but in philanthropy judged by modern notions 
the same good fortune has not fallen to our lot. The Rajah 
of Chettinad as a philanthropist, while ranking with the 
most prominent in any part of India, is in our province first 
and foremost. His benefactions are so outstanding and so 
manifold that they will be gratefully remembered through 
many generations. From every side we hear of a new world- 
order based on economic justice; that however, in spite of 
the sincerest efforts, will be long in coming. Meanwhile, the 
man in the street feels chagrined at the galling contrast bet- 
ween extreme wealth and extreme want and challenges the 
very basis of society. There are a few among the wealthy of 
the world who realising this make inequality less irritating 
by giving generously for the public weal. The Rajah of 
Chettinad belongs to this band of discerning men and may 
be truly described as the Prince of philanthropists in South 

May good luck attend him. 


I am greatly delighted to hear that the Sashtipurthi 
of the Hon'ble the Rajah Sir S. R. M. Annamalai Chettiar of 
Chettinad will be celebrated suitably on the 28th Septem- 
ber 1941. I warmly offer my heartfelt congratulations on 
the event. It is by no means easy for me adequately to 
describe the unique character of the great benefactor and 
founder of the Annamalai University. This University may 
be said to be a model one in all India. I particularly note 

with feelings of gratitude that Physical Training is compul- 


sory on all the students of the University and that lectures 
on Physiology, Health and Hygiene are delivered weekly. 
May I also venture to suggest that compulsory Military 
Training is called for by the unexpected crisis of the World. 
I call attention to the fact that Nazism is threatening even 
India both from the West and the East. Hence the necessity 
for the said military training. May I also venture to sug- 
gest that Hindi, the future National language of our coun- 
try, be introduced as one of the subjects of the University. 
I need say no more. I am proud of the fact that the great 
man is a personal friend of mine. I prayerfully wish the 
founder and Pro-Chancellor long life and prosperity, bo 
much so that his ninetieth birthday may be celebrated thirty 
years hence even with far greater enthusiasm and grai itude 
than it is possible at present, when also the Annamalai 
University may be the unrivalled model university in all 

Devvan, Mewar State 

It has often been a matter of complaint that there are 
not as many public benefactions connected with education 
in Madras as there are in some other major provinces of India. 
This is probably due to the fact that compared with those 
provinces, Madras is deficient in the number of wealthy citi- 
zens who can afford to make large benefactions. The Nattuk- 
kotai Chetty Community is probably the wealthiest section 
of the Madras population, but though they have made abun- 
dant contributions to public objects, these objects have been 
more of a religious character than of educational. My old 
friend, Sir Annamalai Chettiar, is a shining exception to 


this. He has devoted a large sum to found the University 
which has been named after him. It is located in the heart 
of the Tamil country and one of its main objects is to foster 
Tamil learning and culture. It is not given to many in any 
country outside the United States to found a University of 
their own. A unique foundation of this character deserves 
commemoration by the citizens of the Province. So far as 
the founder is concerned, his name will live in the good work 
which the Annamalai University is carrying on. But an 
obligation lies on his fellow-citizens; to express their grateful 
admiration of this great charity and it is a happy thought to 
make his sixty-first birthday the occasion and a Commemo- 
v, i lion Volume the medium of the thanksgiving. 

Law Member, H.E. The Viceroy's Executive Council 

It has given me very great pleasure to learn that the 
Annamalai University proposes to celebrate the completion 
of his 60th year by Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of 
Chettinad, the Founder Pro-Chancellor of the University, in 
a fitting manner, I have myself been the recipient of many 
gracious kindnesses from Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, and 
know that the scope of his charities is not restricted by any 
considerations of caste, creed, or nationality. It is onlv 
right that the occasion to which I have referred above should 
be duly celebrated by the great institution which he has 
founded, and which is only one though the principal one 
of his numerous efforts in the service of his fellow beings. 



Ex -May or of Madras, 
Leader: Madras Legislative Muslim League Party. 

Dr. Rajah Sir Aiinamalai Chettiar of Chettinad is one 
of the most eminent sons of India. He is as good and suc- 
cessful a business man as he is bountiful and liberal. He 
has given away about a crore of rupees in charity in India 
and elsewhere. The large sum of money he is spending on 
the University at Annamalaiiiagar, in the neighbourhood of 
that ancient town of Chidambaram, shows his large hearted 
munificence and zeal for higher education. His systematic 
and deliberate policy of protection of Tamil learning is 
manifested in his generous provision for its study in his 
University at Annamalainagar. 

Rajah Sahib of Chettinad has in him, too, all the quali- 
ties of a leader of men. He has much of the charm of man- 
ner, ready humour and almost tender loyalty to his friends 
which makes a great leader. 

Rajah Sahib is fortunate in his sons who are fine men, 
excellent and of striking merit. There is in Kumararaja 
Sir M. A. Muthia Chettiar of Chettinad a gentleman who, 
though comparatively young, has already reached a posi- 
tion of eminence by his wisdom and charming manners. 
He, like his great father, is very much interested in the 
advancement of learning and culture. 

It gives me genuine pleasure to felicitate the Rajah 
Sahib of Chettinad on the happy occasion of his 61st Birth- 
day and wish him a long life of everlasting usefulness and 
uninterrupted peace and happiness. 


Ex -Sheriff of Madras, 
Director, Central Board of the Reserve Bank of India. 

On the happy occasion of my esteemed friend and 
leader Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar entering upon his 


Sixty-first year I have much pleasure in associating myself 
with the chorus of good wishes, praise and congratulations 
that will be pouring in from all parts of India. His is an 
eventful life distinguished for its manifold services to 
society. Rajah Saheb has tilled with honour eminent posi- 
tions of leadership. As a vigilant legislator, as a charming 
Prince among merchants, as .a great patron of learning and 
arts, he has endeared himself to the entire people of South 
India who have nothing but praise for the Rajah Saheb and 
who, with one voice, pray to the Almighty that He may 
shower his bountiful gitts on the Rajah and the other mem- 
bers of his family. The Kajah is fortunate in his sons. 
Among them, Kumararajah Sir M. A. ivluthiah Cheitiar has 
already come to prominence in the public life of this Pro- 
vince, as a tireless worker for the economic and political 
regeneration of this country. Let me offer my humble tri- 
butes and hearty good wishes for the long life, health and 
prosperity of the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad. 


Advocate, Member, Syndicate, Madras University. 

It is a pleasure and privilege to contribute a few lines 
to the Commemoration Volume that is to be published in 
connection with the blst Birthday of the Rajah Saheb of 
Chetlinad. It is but meet that the Sixty first Birthday of 
the Rajah Saheb should be rejoiced as a great and eventful 
day in the annals of South India. Numerous and well- 
known have been the benefactions of the Rajah Saheb but 
none could exceed in wisdom, merit and quality his 
foundation of ihe Annamalai University at Chidambaram. 
There could indeed be no greater monument for his philan- 
thropy, charity and munificence than this. His contri- 
bution to the spread of knowledge and culture in the shape 
of this residential University, so well-conceived and so 
v/ell-i banned remains unsurpassed. Greatness of mind, 


nobility of character, uniform courtesy, sincerity and 
thoroughness of purpose have been the unique characteris- 
tics of the Rajah Saheb and these have marked him out 
as one of the most outstanding personalities of our times 
and his life serves as a pre-eminent model for the younger 
generation to emulate and profit by. I wish the Rajah 
Saheb many many more returns of this happy day and 
pray that he may be spared to us for many a long year to 
come in the best of health, wealth and prosperity. 

Chief Judge, Pudukottai. 

Of the various foundations that are being laid for the 
New India of our vision and hope the surest and the most 
enduring one is that of knowledge. The universities 
are among the most powerful engines of National recon- 
struction in as much as they create leaders who are to take 
the nation into the land of promise. 

Sir Annamalai, a prince among merchants of Nattuko- 
tai Community, has set an example for a new consecration 
of money in his munificent endowment of the Annamalai 
University. Year after year, hundreds of young men and 
women carry torches of light into the world and as they 
lighten the darkness around, look back on the university 
as the mother who nursed them in the ideals of service and 
on the Rajah as the great donor who founded it. As I 
believe that the higher education of the universities is the 
keystone of national progress, I regard Sir Annamalai a 
great benefactor whom the country will praise and cherish. 

On the happy occasion of Shasti-purti, I join the great 
company of his friends in wishing him long life and pros- 



The Prince of Arcot. 

I have great pleasure in associating myself with the 
61st Birthday celebrations of Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar of Chettinad. The Rajah Saheb of Chettinad is 
one of the ablest and most successful men of Southern 
India. He is a good friend and possesses charming manners. 
There are many charitable institutions which are benefited 
by his munificence. He has done a great service to the 
cause of education in Southern India by founding a Univer- 
sity which is named after him. 

I wish Rajah Snhib long life, full of prosperity and 


Mayor of Madras. 

On the 61st Birthday of the Hon'ble Dr. Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad I rejoice to convey to him 
my humble congratulations. I feel glad to contemplate that 
his life has been one full of years and full of honours and 
glory. If ever any person was the architect of his own 
fortunes, the Rajah of Chettinad was pre-eminently one 
such. He battled with life and wrested from it wealth, 
power and glory. Nor were these obtained without anxiety, 
labour or shocks. Endowed with a prodigious memory and 
a giant intellect he could plan elaborately and with preci- 
sion, organise with great thoroughness and succeed with 
comparative ease. Those who witness only his triumphs 
hardly know the travail behind these. 

And now, after the completion of his sixtieth year he 
can look back on his work and achievements with justi- 
fiable and nardonable pride. By his simplicity, condescen- 
sion and geniality he has endeared himself to one and all. 
He is considered as a patriarch in his own community and 


one whose word is almost law to its members. He loves 
them and cares for their welfare as much as he loves and 
cares for his own children. His piety has led him into 
charities which few have excelled. His discriminative 
endowments have won for him a name and a fame which 
will last as long as India lasts. The Annamalai University 
alone, not to speak of other charities, will stand as a monu- 
ment to the greatness of his heart and the regality of his 
munificence. Shrewd and far-seeing, he made a departure 
from the time-honoured courses of the charities of Indians 
and has made an endowment which has an universal appeal. 
His gifts to his University have not ceased. Yearly contribu- 
tions and endowments go to swell a benefaction already 
large. He is guiding its destinies with a sure hand and 
will soon put it beyond all vicissitudes. 

Sixty years are not much in a land noted for the longe- 
vity of its inhabitants. May God spare this great philan- 
thropist and benefactor for many a decade to come, so that 
he may enrich his life of usefulness and service by further 
deeds which v/ill add greater lustre to his name. 

Judge, Madras High Court. 

It is with great pleasure that I respond to your invita- 
tion to send a message on the occasion of the Shastiabdha- 
poorthi celebration of the Founder, Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar of Chettinad. 

My memory goes back to the time when years ago I 
was a member of the Board of Trustees of Sri Meenakshi 
College, the nucleus of the great University which now 
bears his name and I recall how untiringly and enthusiasti- 
cally he used to work for the institution in those days. It 
was named after his beloved mother and his attachment 
to it was marked by an almost filial devotion. How that 
institution later developed into the only residential Uni- 


versity in South India and how the scrub jungle east of the 
Railway line in Chidambaram was transformed by the 
vision, faith and bounty of the Founder into the magni- 
ficent Halls of Learning and Research over which you now 
preside forms a romantic and glorious chapter in the his- 
tory of the educational progress of this Province. 

It must be a matter of legitimate pride and satisfaction 
for Rajah Sir Annamalai to have lived such a useful and 
successful life for sixty years. "He lives who helps many 
to live" says a Sanskrit adage. Hundreds have found their 
living in his beneficent activities, and his indeed must be 
counted a purposeful life. 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar is in many respects a re- 
markable man. Keen business acumen, tireless energy, 
unwearying attention to detail and a discriminating readi- 
ness to take risks have combined in his case to produce a 
fortune which many a prince may well envy. Withal, his 
personal habits and tastes are of the simplest, and he avoids 
the usual extravagance of wealth. But if he is frugal so 
far as his own personal needs are concerned, he is lavish in 
his contributions to charities. Perhaps there is no philan- 
throphist in this part of the country, who has made 
larger contributions to charities, both institutional and 
private, than he. And their end is by no means in sight. 
In short, his own favourite motto "Strive, save and serve" 
may well be regarded as his autobiographical memoirs; for, 
he has striven mightily, saved thriftily and served nobly. 

I wish your celebration all success, and the Founder, 
many happy returns of the day. 


Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, whilst upholding all the 
admirable traditions of the great Chettiar clan in the 
South, has made this most welcome departure, that instead 
of spending his charitable endowments exclusively on 


temples and other extra-conservative forms of charity, he 
has set the example of spending after more practical and 
up-to-date needs of his generation in his Province in many 
ways. The Annamalai University is a striking proof of 
this, and it is very much to be hoped that the example set 
by the Rajah of Chettinad will be taken up by all similarly 
placed in India. I wish the Rajah of Chettinad and the 
Chettinad family continued prosperity to follow up this 
most welcome innovation in their dispensation of charitable 
funds. India cannot have too many of such innovations. 
I look forward to the Kumararajah of Chettinad's whole- 
hearted support to his illustrious father's noble example. 


Sheriff of Madras. 

Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad, whose 
friendship I have enjoyed for over two decades enters on 
the Sixty-first birthday on the 28th of September, 1941. 
Let me send my hearty felicitations on that occasion. This 
great business magnate is 1he foremost merchant prince, 
not only in this country, but also in Ceylon, Malaya, Burma, 
the Strait Settlements and Indo-China. He has been con- 
nected with the Reserve Bank of India ever since its incep- 
tion and is the Director of several other banks of this Pre- 
sidency. If he is a great busmess man making a great for- 
tune by his farsightedness, he is a greater philanthropist 
giving most generously to all noble causes. The Annamalai 
University is a standing monument to his princely munifi- 
cence. He has filled with honour and distinction many posi- 
tions of responsibility and served the country in manifold 
ways. May the Lord Almighty be pleased to confer on him 
its choicest gifts and give him a long and unclouded life of 
happiness and public service. 


Judge, Madras High Court. 

The traditions of Hinduism enjoin various charities and 
of these the most valued is the gift of knowledge. Anna- 
dhanam for the poor is also counted as a great virtue but 
the gift of knowledge is counted greater still. Gratitude 
prescribes that we should remember those who have not 
only furnished the means for relief of the poor of the coun- 
try but also those who have planted beacon lights in the 
shape of Universities in our midst. On this auspicious occa- 
sion our country will thank God for raising a great donor 
in the person of Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar in South 
India for the promotion of learning. 

An English writer writing on great men remarked 
thus : " Nor is power alone a sufficient title to greatness. It 
must be power governed by purpose, by a philosophy, good 
or bad, of human life, not by mere spasms of emotion or an 
itch for adventure." Sir Annamalai has utilised the power 
which wealth has conferred on him for really useful pur- 
poses. The motto of Sir Annamalai's house " Strive, Save, 
Serve" has received a glorious exemplification in the en- 
dowment of the Annamalai University. The merchant 
princes of the Nattukottai Chetti community have rebuilt 
temples in various places. But Sir Annamalai has given a 
new turn to the traditional modes of charity by endowing a 
temple of knowledge. The Annamalai University will be 
an enduring monument perpetuating his name among 
generations of students that go out from its portals. 

The value of and the beneficial influence which univer- 
sities are capable of exercising in this country and especi- 
ally in the regeneration of India in the present turmoil and 
conflict which is confronting the world are immense and in- 
calculable. In the course of my Convocation Address to the 
students of the Andhra University last December, I observ- 

ed that the true and abiding basis for Indian unity lies in 
the creation of Indian culture which forges communal cul- 
tures into one living whole in art and literature and society 
and politics and the universities are the competent agencies 
for inspiring our youth with a passion for unity evoking in 
them a lifelong devotion to the promotion of a single unified 
Indian culture and the synthesis of cultures is a special need 
of India. From the note which has been sent to me by my 
esteemed friend Dr. Sir K. V. Reddi I find that the Anna- 
malai University has realised this need and has this object 
in view. 

Shastipurthi is a landmark in life celebrated with joy 
and thankfulness but the joy of the celebration must be 
great indeed for Sir Annamalai when it takes place in the 
temple of knowledge he has built. May Sir Annamalai 
reach the coveted age of hundred years and may the country 
continue to be the recipient of his benefactions. 


Ex-Mayor of Madras. 
Deputy President Madras Legislative Council, 

On the occasion of Sastiabdha Purthi of Sri Rajah Sir 
Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad let me join in the chorus 
of appreciation showered on him. Next to Pachaiyappas, 
Rajah Saheb will live for ever as one of the greatest Edu- 
cationists of South India. His Annamalai University will 
be a standing monument of his love of service and culture. 
By renovating the famous temple of Sri Govindaraja at 
Chidambaram, he has become God's favourite. His 
pleasing manners, princely hospitality and an attitude of 
helpfulness at all times have earned for him the love and 
regard of everyone. May he live long and continue his 
beneficent acts. 



More than twelve years ago the Annamalai University 
was started, thanks to the generosity and public spirit of 
Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chettinad whose name it 
bears. Its aims and ideals are similar to those of the other 
Universities in South India, but it differs from most of them 
in being both a teaching and a residential University. 
It differs from them in another respect also. It owes 
its existence to the munificence 'and generosity of 
an eminent citizen of our motherland. His princely gift 
for the cause of higher education has no parallel in the 
history of this presidency. 

Since the publication of the report of the Sadler Com- 
mission, the trend of best educational opinion in the country 
has been in favour of a unitary, teaching and residential 
University as it makes for efficiency and economy in 
higher academic work and provides ample facilities for the 
moulding of character and the development of a corporate 
spirit. Early in 1928 the committee appointed by the Gov- 
ernment of Madras to examine the need for establishing a 
university for the Tamil districts, wrote in their report that 
it was desirable to have unitary teaching Universities and 
as many of them as the country could afford but that the 
immediate realisation of this desire was not to be expected 
as the financial resources even for one such University 
could not be indicated with any degree of assurance. But 


even while these words were being written, the Rajah 
Saheb of Chettinad was in consultation with the Government 
of Madras regarding a scheme for the creation of a teaching 
University at Chidambaram. With princely generosity he 
offered to hand over to the proposed University the three 
collegiate institutions for higher instruction in English, Tamil 
and Sanskrit studies founded by him at Chidambaram 
and their assets together with twenty lakhs of rupees in 
cash. The Government recognising the unique nature 
of the benefaction, came to the conclusion that they should 
not miss this opportunity of encouraging private effort in the 
cause of public instruction and establishing a new Univer- 
sity of a type, which was admittedly the best, though un- 
known in the Presidency of Madras. 

On the 27th June, 1928, the Government published a 
communique promising twenty lakhs of rupees towards the 
endowment fund which was later raised to twenty-seven 
lakhs and a recurring grant of a lakh and a half per annum. 
A bill to establish and incorporate a teaching and residential 
University was published in a Gazette Extraordinary on the 
24th August, 1928. It was introduced into the Madras 
Legislative Council on the 8th September 1928, and 
referred to a Select Committee of 25 members of the Legis- 
lative Council. On the 12th October, 1928, the bill was 
passed into law. The Act received the assent of the Gov- 
ernor on the 3rd November, 1928 and that of the Governor- 
General on the llth December, 1928. The assent of the 
Governor-General was published in the Fort St. George 
Gazette on the 1st January, 1929. The Government in G.O. 
No. 1 dated 1st January, 1929, brought into force the 
several sections of the Act from 1st January, 1929. Thus 
this unique University in South India came into being. The 


Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Vice-Chancellor, the 
Senate, the Academic Council and the Syndicate constitute 
the body corporate of the University. The Governor- 
General is the Visitor of the University; the Governor of 
Madras is the Chancellor; the Founder of the University is 
the Pro-Chancellor; the Vice-Chancellor is a whole-time 
officer, to whom a salary may be paid, who holds office for 
a period of three years and is appointed by the Chancellor 
from among three persons recommended by the Founder. 
At present we have in our midst as our Vice-Chancellor, 
Sir Kurma Venkata Reddi Naidu, K.C.I.E., D.Litt. M.L.C. 

The authorities of the University under the Act are; 
(1) the Senate; (2) the Academic Council; (3) the Facul- 
ties; (4) the Boards of Studies; (5) the Syndicate; (6) 
the Finance Committee (for a period of ten years from 
15th May 1929) and (7) the Board of Selection. 

About 150 miles from Madras a stone's throw to the 
east of Chidambaram Railway Station lies the University 
Colony named Annamalainagar. The Colony is 540 acres in 
extent, and the lecture hails, hostels, administrative build- 
ings and residential quarters stand in this area. It is ideally 
situated in the midst of green fields far from the bustle of 
town life; and yet it has every amenity that most progres- 
sive towns enjoy. During these 12 years magnificent build- 
ings, costing more than 20 lakhs, have come up and great 
progress has been made in various directions. This is in no 
small measure due to the tireless efforts of Dewan Bahadur 
S. E. Runganadhan at present Advisor to the Secretary of 
State for India who was Vice-Chancellor of the Annamalai 
University from 1929 to 1935, and of the Rt. Hon'ble V. S. 
Srinivasa Sastri, who was Vice-Chancellor for five years 


from 1935 and of our present Vice-Chancellor, Sir Kurma 
Venkata Reddi Naidu. 

In this University nearly a thousand students are pur- 
suing, to-day, various courses of study. Instruction is 
provided and facilities for study offered from the Inter- 
mediate course up to the Ph.D., M.Litt. and M.Sc. degrees. 
This University is the only one which offers an Honours 
course in Tamil. Another noteworthy feature is its 
Department of Music which has done not a little to pro- 
mote the study of Carnatic Music. 

The University Library is one of the best of its kind 
and is just a few yards from the hostel. It affords every 
facility for reading and contains many up-to-date books 
and periodicals. More than 15,000 rupees are spent every 
year on new books and journals. The study of current 
journals and periodicals is specially encouraged in this Uni- 
versity. The total number of books in the general and sec- 
tional libraries is over 50,000. The library receives regular- 
ly 248 scientific and learned periodicals. Each Department 
of Study has its*own seminar library for the use of Honours 
and Research students. 

The residential aspect of this unitary and teaching Uni- 
versity deserves special mention. Students and teachers 
live in the same colony and there are many opportunities for 
fruitful contact of mind and mind. Every opportunity is 
given to develop in the student not merely a keen and culti- 
vated intelligence but also sound character and a sound 
physique. The students' hostel is managed by a 
Warden and a Sub- Warden and five inspectors. Students, 
too, have their share in the management of the hostel. The 
Warden is assisted in his work by a Students' Representa- 



'k - %ll^^K.;SM 


H. E. THE 

SIR G.C.I.E., M.C, 


S, E. M.A. f I.E.S. 

V. S. P.C., C.H.. LL.D, 















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1. PROF. K M. KHADYE, 1931 (May-August) 

2. DR. S. N. CHAKRAVARTI 1935 (May- June) 


1936 to January 1937; 1939 January) 


tive Council. Living in close proximity to the lecture halls 
and the huge University Library a student in this Univer- 
sity can consult without the least trouble any of his teachers 
about the books he should read, get his doubts cleared and 
receive instruction in any other matter in which he is inte- 
rested. He need not travel long distances to meet his tea- 
chers; they are at his door ready to be consulted whenever 
any doubt or difficulty arises. 

The women students have a well-equipped hostel of 
their own under a resident lady Warden. In recent years 
more and more women students have joined the University 
especially for the study of Music. Some have taken up 
advanced courses of study in Arts and Science. 

The capacity for organisation and leadership finds play 
in the largely self-governing University Union and in various 
other Sectional Societies. A Union Hall has been built 
at a cost of Rs. 15,000. The University has also a Dramatic 
Club, a Boating Club and a Students' Co-operative Society. 

The University possesses one of the most extensive play 
grounds in South India and provision is made for all types 
of games and sports. In this University, Physical Training is 
compulsory for all students and no one can take a Univer- 
sity Examination without producing a Certificate of Physical 
training from the University Director of Physical Educa- 
tion. Particular care is taken of the health of the stu- 
dents. There is a Resident Medical Officer who periodically 
examines the students. A well-equipped hospital with up- 
to-date arrangements has also been provided. 

Ever since its inception the University has emphasised 
teaching as well as research. In addition to the Research 

Journal, published three times every year, the University 


has to its credit a large number of learned publications. 
Studentships and fellowships have also been instituted for 
the promotion of advanced research. The departments 
of study are organized not merely for teaching but also 
for advanced research. Advantage has been taken of these 
facilities by students and by members of the teaching staff 
who have contributed many papers to learned journals, 

Grants-in-Aid of research work are also awarded 
under certain conditions. With a view to providing for the 
advancement of learning in Tamil a special research depart- 
ment is working under the guidance of the Head of the 
Department of Tamil. With a view to the ultimate adop- 
tion of Tamil as the medium of instruction in the University 
the syndicate instituted prizes for text-books in Tamil on 
various subjects. So far books in Tamil on Logic, Physics 
and Chemistry have been published. A Tamil work on 
Music selected for the award of a prize of Rs. 750 will be 
published shortly. The Heads of Departments of studies 
in History, Economics, Mathematics, Botany and Zoology 
have been requested to arrange for getting ready Tamil 
text-books in the several optional subjects suitable for 
use in the Intermediate classes. These are expected to be 
published by the end of the year 1941. 

Any casual visitor to Annamalainagar will be struck by 
the pulsating life of this centre of cultural activity. Any 
day of the week he will see in the evening hundreds of young 
men lustily playing in the open air Cricket, Tennis or 
Hockey or any one of the games popular with the youth of 
this country. Or he may see them sitting and silently pour- 
ing over books or periodicals in the spacious Reading Rooms 
of the University Library. Yet again he may see a scholar 
reading a learned paper before an advanced Study Circle of 


kindred spirits; or see him going out Scouting or on Social 
Service work. Perhaps he may light upon a Music perform- 
ance given by one of the foremost exponents of Carnatic 
Music; or listen in to the Radio or spend a few minutes read- 
ing a daily newspaper or current weekly. If he is more 
lucky he may see the whole University professors, lecturers, 
students and townsmen gathered in the Srinivasa Sastri 
Hall listening to a learned discourse on some topic of 

Barring the Travancore University, the Annamalai Uni- 
versity is the youngest in the Indian Empire. During the 
first decade of its existence it has served South India as a 
true centre of Indian culture and as an ideal training 
ground for the young men and women of this land. We 
cannot be sufficiently grateful to the Rajah of Chettinad for 
founding this magnificent institution which is unique in 
our country. 

We cannot all found Universities; but every one of us 
can do our bit to strengthen and encourage centres of learn- 
ing like the Annamalai University. 



1929. The Rt Hon'ble Viscount Goschen of Hawk- 
hurst, G.C.S.L, G.C.I.E., C.B.E. 

1929. July to December The Hon'ble Sir Norman 

Edward Marjoribanks, C.B.E., G.C.LE. 
The Rt. Hon'ble Sir George Frederic Stanley, 

P.C., G.C.S.L, G.S.I.K, C.M.G. 
1934. May to August The Hon'ble Sir Muhammad 

Usman, K.C.I.E., B.A. 
His Excellency Lord Erskine, G.C.S J. 


1936. June The Hon'ble Sir K. V. Reddy Kt., 

B.A., B.L. 

His Excellency Lord Erskine, G.C.S.I. 
1939. The Hon'ble Sir Arthur Oswald James Hope, 
G.C.I.E., M.C. 


1929. Dr. Rajah Sir S. Rm. M. Annamalai Chettiar of 
Chettinad, LL.D. 


1929. The Rt. Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P.C. 

C.H., LL.D. 

1929. Diwan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan, M.A., I.E.S. 
1931. May-Aug. K. M. Khadye, Esq., M.A., (Bomb.), 

B.A. (Cantab), Officiating. 

1931. Diwan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan, M.A., I.E.S. 
1935. May-June Dr. S. N. Chakravarti, M.Sc., 

D.Phil., (Oxon) , Officiating. 

1935. The Rt. Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P.C., 

C.H., LL.D. 

1936. Dec. tc Feb. 1937 Sri T. R. Venkatarama 

Sastriar, C.I.E., B.A., B.L., Officiating. 

1937. The Rt. Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P.C., 

C.H., LL.D. 

1939. March- April Dr. B. V. Narayanaswami Nayudu, 

M.A., Ph.D., B.Com., Bar-at-Law, Officiating. 

The Rt. Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, P.C., 
C.H., LL.D. 

1940. Rai Bahadur Dr. Sir Kurma Venkata Reddy 

Nayudu Garu, K.C.I.E., D.Litt, M.L.C. 



1931. Diwan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan, M.A., I.E.S. 

1932. R. Littlehailes, Esq., M.A., C.I.E. 

1933. Diwan Bahadur Sir T. Desikachariar, Kt., 

B.A., B.L. 

1934. Diwan Bahadur R. V. Krishna Ayyar, B.A., B.L. 

1935. Sir Mirza Ismail, Kt. 

1936. Sir Phiroze C. Sethna, Kt. 

1937. The Rt. Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar P.C., 

C.H., LL.D. 

1938. Sri K. Natarajan, B.A. 

1939. H. C. Papworth, Esq., M.A., I.E.S. 

1940. The Hon'ble Sir Lionel Leach, Kt. 



Vice-Chancellor, Allahabad University. 

Both on personal and public grounds I am glad to send 
these few lines, as a I am hereby enabled to pay my tribute 
to an old friend of my father's, whose benefactions, magni- 
ficent alike in magnitude and in piety, make him one of the 
outstanding figures in modern India. Believing in the essen- 
tial unity of Indian culture, I propose to translate some 
verses of a Hindi poet of the seventeenth century short 
flights of fancy, pretty vignettes, which, because of the one- 
ness of Indian tradition, will not be difficult of appreciation 
even by readers in the South. 

Traditionally, Bihari wrote a Satsai, a collection of seven 
hundred verses. They are divided into four sections, 
Nayaka-nayikavarnana (Description of the Hero and the 
Heroine) ; Shringaravarnana (Description of the Erotic 
Sentiment) ; Shikha-nakha-ritu-varnana (Description of the 
Figure of the Heroine and of the Seasons); 
and Anyokti-Navarasa-Nripastuti-Varnana (Description of 
the Nine Sentiments and of the Monarch) . The classifica- 
tion follows in the main the lines prescribed in the Sanskrit 
works, Dasharupa and Sahityadarpana. The verses centre 
round the eternally young and fresh figures of Radha and 
Krishna, but they are capable of universal application. 

The Doha is a couplet and there is the same epigram- 
matic effect in it as in the heroic couplet in English. It de- 



mands compression and brevity. It forces the poet to eschew 
unnecessary decoration. Each couplet is complete in itself 
and yet through hundreds of them there is a continuity of 
thought and harmony of atmosphere. Moods vary and emo- 
tions alter; but the underlying unity is not disturbed. 

(263) My eyes are no more in my power: I am tired of ex- 
plaining matters to them. They laugh at me, having 
obtained control over my mind ;and body. How, 
then, can I have power over them ? 

(267) Himself full of beauty, from top to toe, he yet solicits 
me, smiling; truly, the covetous never abandon their 

(268) "Fie, you care not for your reputation. Why do you 
keep gazing at Krishna/"*? 

"But what can I cL to these covetous eyes of mine? 
What can I do to get rid of them ? " 

(270) The Creator has not destined any happiness for 
these wretched eyes of mine. They dare not look at 
Krishna, because others are looking on, and they are 
restless without looking at him. 

(276) How can one dwell, how can one exist in the domain 
of Love? There is no justice there: the eyes come 
into clash, but it is the heart that is taken prisoner. 

(277) Fierce is the intoxication of beauty; terror does not 
drive it away ; it permits no sleep ; the passage of 
time does not diminish it ; it is not followed by the 
recovery of consciousness. 

(278) Krishna's eyes rob me of my heart and of all my 
possessions. They waylay the wary and steal from 
those who are awake. 


(280) I have made countless attempts; I have tried again 
and again, but I cannot extricate myself from 
Krishna's charms. My mind is mingled with his 
beauty, as completely as salt with water. 

(284) The new love on the one side and consideration for 
the good name of her family on the other between 
the two she was torn, and perplexed, and her mind 
is like the windmill. 

(285) She ascends to the roof of the house and quickly 
comes down from it; she keep doing this without feel- 
ing exhausted in the least; she has become like unto 
a juggler's box. 

(286) To and fro, and to and fro, she keeps moving, stop- 
ping nowhere even for a while; she keeps flitting 
backwards and forwards like the chakai bird. 

(287) "My mind is engrossed with thoughts of him who 
has stolen my heart, and I have at the same time in- 
tense regard for my elders. I go on doing my house- 
hold work, but my heart is as though on a swing." 



The origin of Science may be traced to that instinct in 
man that led to his acquisition of knowledge about Nature 
in order to survive. The need for food and the warding off 
of the attacks of animals led to the developments of primi- 
tive agriculture and primitive tools and weapons. From 
these beginnings to the scientific achievements of the 
twentieth century is a far cry and it is not our purpose 
here to trace historically this development. 

One of the catchwords among politicians, especially in 
this country and we hear their cry in our academic 
bodies too is that research workers should devote their 
attention to problems in "applied science" rather than to 
'pure science." The fundamental mistakes made by these 
are the assumption that the two regions are water-tight 
compartments and the failure to realise that many of the 
socalled "applied science' ' problems arise only in the actual 
working of industries. A careful examination of the so- 
called applied sciences shows the extent of their depend- 
ence on the theoretical side. At the end of a Friday even- 
ing discourse at the Royal Institution, an old lady asked 
the lecturer Faraday as to the use of electricity and the 
scientist retorted "of what use, madam, is the new-born 
babe." Scientific outlook has not materially altered since 

Scientific research may be broadly classified on the 
basis of the motives behind the work. To one class the dis- 


covery and acquisition of new knowledge is the end while 
the other centres round utility. The transition from one 
to the other, however, is not a forbidden one. A large 
volume of scientific knowledge is useful though only a small 
fraction of it may be essential. 

The close interrelationship between pure and applied 
science, between scientific discovery and invention, may be 
seen from an examination of a few select instances. Achieve- 
ments in the latter field arc often, however, a result of the 
exercise of mechanical ingenuity rather than a spirit of 
inquiry which should form the background of scientific 

When Sir William Crookes uttered his warning on the 
possible shortage of nitrogenous fertilisers, several workers 
set on the problem but the final result of a successful fixa- 
tion of atmospheric nitrogen could be achieved only when 
the theoretical side of each reaction was thoroughy work- 
ed out. The Birkeland Eyde process is a result of the 
thermodynamic and kinetic studies on the Nitrogen-oxygen 
reaction, while the Haber process of ammonia manufacture 
was preceded by a systematic investigation on heterogene- 
ous catalysis and the nitrogen-hydrogen reaction. It is again 
the investigations of G- N. Lewis on the thermodynamics 
of the Ammonium Carbamate-urea equilibrium arising 
from the free energy change studies on the reaction 

CO> + 2NHa < > CO(NHi i )i> + 2H 2 that has led to the 

manufacture of urea which is now gradually displacing 
other nitrogenous fertilisers. 

The chemistry of colloids also reveals how the two 
aspects of scientific research cannot be dissociated. The 
present state of the petroleum industry, the textile industry 
and paint and varnish industry, is to be traced to the theo- 


retical investigations 01 Larouieis, Uancroit, Lianginuir, 
Gardner in America, of Clayton, Donnan, McBain eoc., in 
England and of ifreundlicJi, Mark, Zsigmondy etc. in 

The dehumanizing aspect 01 applied researcli is seen 
best in modern wariare. bciieeie uncovered ciiiorme m i H 4 
and Uavy escaohsiiea its elementary nature some Inirty 
years iaier. 'ihe use 01 us bleacning properties as well as 
tiiu inaniuaclure oi bieaciiing powaer is now known for 
nearly a century and a iiaii DUL its use as an anUiiuman 
weapon in Uie lorrn 01 poison gas is recent mstory. An- 
ouier 01 bciieeie s aiscoveries , giyceroi, tens a similar story. 
It was a laooralory curiosuy until AUrea i\oDei s discovery 
oi niiro-giycerine in ibbo. me explosive properties and 
wartime use oi thijj compounu are too well-known to need, 
any special mention. 

Every one is iamiiiar witn radio-communication and 
broadcasting out lew realise trie beginning of these modern 
"necessities." uaraaay discovered the principles relating 
to the nature and inliueace 01 tne electromagnetic held and 
ClerK Maxwells equations based on these enabled the 
prooi that waves originating from conducting wires travel 
with the same velocity as lignt. The work of Fitzgerald, 
Oliver, Lodge and Hertz were the logical outcome of these 
purely mathematical conceptions and gave them a physi- 
cal reality. 

Another development in pure science has, however, to 
precede the use of these electromagnetic waves for long dis- 
tance transmission. The researches on "thermionic emis- 
sion" form a necessary link in the chain. The " Edison 
Effect ", the two electrode valve of Fleming, the Diodes and 
pentodes of a later period and the theory and use of those 


for generating and detecting continuous electric waves 
represent an important stage in the development of broad- 
casting. The promotion of natural knowledge has given 
place to purposeful invention. Here, too, we see the de- 
humanizing application of scientific research in some of the 
methods adopted in present day warfare. 

Turning to another common industry, the electric 
lamp, we are faced again with an inter-woven texture of 
discovery and invention. These have become so common 
that one is apt to forget the early history as an outcome of 
purely scientific search. The observation that the pass- 
age of a current through a conductor raises its temperature 
sufficiently to even enable it to glow led to the carbon 
filament lamp but the peculiar property of carbon, viz., a 
decreased resistance with increasing temperature, set limi- 
tations that necessitated the search for a substitute. As 
is well known, a rise of temperature tends to increase the 
speed of a chemical reaction and the high temperatures 
necessary for light emission restricted the choice to metals 
of high melting point and to an inert atmosphere for the 
filament. The vacuum lamp with a platinum filament is 
a result of investigations on high vacua and the chemistry 
of the platinum group of metals. 

It is a far cry from the discovery of tungstic acid and 
tungsten by Scheele to the thoriated tungsten, coiled coil 
gas filled lamp of the present day. The properties of 
tungsten apart from its high melting point were against 
its wide use in the beginning. The discovery of ductile 
tungsten was of highly scientific importance and proved to 
be an equally important scientific invention. The theore- 
tical investigations of Langmuir on heterogeneous cataly- 
sis and black body radiation, his extension of phase rule 
to non-equilibrium systems and his work on thermionic 


emission paved the way for the development of the thori- 
ated tungsten and the coiled coil lamps. 

Accurate gas density determinations by Lord Ray- 
leigh and the work of Dewar on heat transmission that led 
to the familiar Dewar flask enabled Ramsay to discover 
the inert gases. This discovery was of considerable 
theoretical interest and the post war period was to show 
its industrial import. The inert nature of the gases led 
to the choice of argon and krypton as suitable atmospheres 
for the gas filled lamp and in Neon provided advertisers 
with a means for a striking coloured sign. The invention 
of the electric discharge lamp and the production of these 
multi-coloured signs have their origin in the theoretical 
investigations of Crookes, J. J. Thomson and others on the 
discharge of electricity through gases and the more recent 
investigations on the phenomena of fluorescence and 

Another modern necessity, the refrigerator, also 
illustrates the transition from discovery to invention. It 
is in the investigations of Amagat, and Van der Waats on 
the pressure volume relationship and critical state of gases 
and vapours and in the classical " porous-plug " experi- 
ment of Thomson that one has to look for the beginnings 
of refrigeration. The foundation for the liquefaction of 
gases was laid by Faraday and the application of the Joule- 
Thomson effect enabled the development and use of 
liquefied gases. 

When considering applied science, one cannot lose 
sight of work in the " border " sciences where investiga- 
tions in several sciences find common ground. Reference 
may be made here to medicine, and its adjuncts. The work 
of Louis Pasteur on optical activity led him to a study of 


fermentation phenomena and bacteriology that has 
immortalized his name all over the world by the work 
associated with Pasteur Institutes. It is no exaggeration 
to state that every outstanding discovery in the field of 
biochemistry and medicine has its origin in the quest for 
truth by disinterested workers. One has only to look into 
the history of X-ray therapy, radium therapy, chemo- 
therapy and of studies on nutrition to see the close corre- 
lation of pure and applied science. The discovery and 
identification of the vitamins and the synthesis of some 
of them constitute a triumph in the search of new know- 
ledge as much as in their practical applications. 

The preceding paragraphs would have given sufficient 
indication that the political propaganda against work in 
pure science is baseless. One has only to glance through 
the publications of research laboratories of large industrial 
concerns to know the extent of fundamental work that is 
being carried on there in addition to work directly connec- 
ted with the industry. In the ideal state, research may be 
carried on without any objective reward but the normal 
work is not so absolutely selfless. The seeker after 
knowledge aims at honour and academic distinctions while 
the inventor looks for a financial return for his labour and 
ingenuity. This leads us to the question of the existence 
and maintenance of research laboratories. A modern 
laboratory cannot exist or survive without an adequate 
subsidy. Most laboratories now functioning are either 
maintained by Governments or are subsidized by indus- 
trial combines. The financial interests, however, often 
tend to cramp the research workers' activities and free- 
dom of thought. The extent to which vested interests 
thwart the spirit of inquiry varies with the country and 
the Institution. While not forgetting their objective, the 



Bureau of Standards in Washington and the D.S.I.R. in its 
Teddington Laboratories carry on a lot of fundamental 
work but in this country we have to tell a different story. 
Industrial laboratories maintained by leading concerns 
view fundamental research with disfavour. While 
increased industrialization is a necessary development, it is 
a short-sighted policy to decry those workers who do not 
happen to carry on utilitarian research. They also serve 
a purpose in extending the bounds of knowledge. Under- 
standing Nature is at least as important as using Nature 
and life may not be worth living if man had to deal with 
only useful things. 


M.Sc. (LOND.), PH.D., 

Professor of Economics, Osmania University. 

A system of education must be suited to the people 
for whom it is intended and there should be some conside- 
ration of the social and economic back-ground on which 
our system of education is to work. Unfortunately these 
two most fundamental concepts have been violently 
ignored in the present educational system of this country. 
In any scheme of educational reconstruction in this country 
the first and the most fundamental consideration should 
be that our educational institutions should have national 
outlook. In order to create this outlook the system of 
training should provide courses of instruction in that lite- 
rature which contains the ideals of its race and all the nice 
proofs and subtle inspirations of the character, spirit and 
thoughts of the nation which it serves ; and, besides that, 
instruction in the history and leading conceptions of those 
institutions which play an important role in the life of the 
nation. In order to achieve this important ideal special 
stress should be laid on the study of Indian culture and 
Indian History. The history books that are taught in our 
schools and universities give most misleading and hopeless 
accounts of events and leading character of our nation. 
They have already created enough mischief and without 
the least possible delay all efforts must be devoted to eradi- 
cate this evil and suitable text books should be prepared 


to give an honest and sympathetic account of our past cul- 
ture and heritage. Our universities could and should do 
a good deal to achieve this end. It is the object of learning 
not only to satisfy the curiosity and to perfect the spirit of 
individual men but also to advance civilization ; and, if it 
be true, that each nation plays its special part in further- 
ing the common advancement then every people should use 
its universities to perfect it in its proper role. 

Woodrow Wilson has rightly remarked that, " Every 
man sent out from a university should be a man of his 
nation as well as a man of his time." In any scheme of 
reorganisation of education of this country this ideal 
should occupy a very important place. 

Primary Education : To begin from the very begin- 
ning our schools must be organised on sound modern lines 
to provide real education not only to the classes but to the 
masses as well. It should be the first obligation on the 
State to provide every citizen male and female with free 
primary education. The expenditure required for provid- 
ing free universal education must be the first charge on 
our national exchequer. In this connection I would like to 
explain what I mean by free primary education. A good 
deal of nonsense, and loose-talk has been going on in this 
country about the primary education and it is debated 
whether it should be a four years course or a five years 
course. Even if we accept a five years course it means that 
a child going to school at the age of five will finish with 
his free education at the age of ten. To my mind the idea 
of a free universal education finishing at the tender age of 
ten is most absurd and fantastic. In no country of the 
world such an absurd idea has ever been entertained. The 
average minimum age up to which free education is given 
in most countries is fourteen years which in itself is con- 


sidered very inadequate. All money that will be spent on 
free compulsory education based on a course of five years 
will be absolute waste. Even in the interest of economy 
itself it is highly desirable that in no scheme of free pri- 
mary education in India the course of instruction should be 
less than eight years. 

Broadcasting and Education : The development of 
broadcasting in India has opened many new possibilities 
for educational reconstruction. Broadcasting is still in its 
infancy in this country but still the possibilities 
of fully developing it are immense. Some stations in 
India have already started this experiment and many of 
their broadcasts for schools have been well deviced and of 
great interest and use. I propose that a separate depart- 
ment of education should be created by the All-India Radio 
and increasing use should be made of this modern educa- 
tional instrument especially for the education of adults. 

Cinema and Education : The development of tele- 
vision is likely to provide still further facilities for 
the increasing use of the radio for educational purposes 
but until its further development increasing use should be 
made of Cinemas. Educational films should be prepared 
especially for teaching Geography and other allied 

Vocational Education : The second most important 
problem to be considered in any scheme of educational re- 
construction is the need for the expansion of vocation- 
al education. India is rapidly developing into a vast indus- 
trial country and there is increasing need of skilled and 
trained labour. No country can develop its trade and 
industry without skilled artizans, therefore, the need for 
vocational education in all its aspects is most urgent. 


Effective machinery should be established for securing 
close regular co-operation between industry and commerce, 
on the one hand and education on the other. 

Vocational Guidance: In any system of mass edu- 
cation vocational guidance must assume special impor- 
tance. A swiftly changing economic and social world has 
made demand upon educational procedures for adjust- 
ment to the needs of the individual. Education 
through the discovery and development of individual abi- 
lity prepares him for his life ; and the child's vocational 
guidance prepares him for living well ; and both yield him 
the maximum of satisfaction. Vocational guidance should 
assist the individual to choose an occupation, prepare for 
it, enter upon it and progress in it. As preparation for an 
occupation involves decisions in the choice of studies, 
choice of curriculums, JUid the choice of schools and 
colleges, it becomes evident that vocational guidance can- 
not be separated from educational guidance. Since work 
occupies one half of the working time of most individuals, 
it should represent the active expression of the whole per- 
sonality. In view of this important function, careful study 
must be made of all the problems involved in vocational 
activity. Proper vocational adjustment for each citizen not 
only means individual happiness but avoids social and 
economic waste. The underlined principles which should 
govern vocational guidance activities should be based upon 
the recognition of individual preferences, of the complexity 
of modern educational life, of the right of the individual 
to make his own choices, and upon the realization that the 
adjustment of an individual to his occupation is an ever 
changing situation. 

Effects oj Economic Depression on Education : What- 
ever hardships and privations the last Great Depression 


may have caused all the world over, it has done one good 
service, and that is, it has made us all to face and examine 
critically the various important problems which were pre- 
viously ipso facto taken for granted. One of these pro- 
blems is the problem of university education. Until the 
economic depression set in, and the large number of 
graduates which our universities were minting rapidly 
found themselves without jobs, and the problem of un- 
employment among educated classes took a serious turn, 
little attention was devoted in India to the universities and 
their problems. All that mattered in the pre-depression 
period was, that the number of universities should be in- 
creased, and considering that the number of universities 
jumped from five in 1916 to sixteen in 1927, an increase 
of three hundred per cent, in the course of eleven years, 
the record of progress seems to be very satisfactory indeed. 
The universities that were established before 1916 were 
mainly based on the model of the London University, and 
were only examining bodies. The Calcutta University 
Commission of 1916 recommended strongly the desirability 
of starting unitary and residential universities and as a result, 
the majority of universities that have been founded since 
that date are residential and teaching universities. The 
establishment of so many residential universities on the 
model of the Oxford and Cambridge universities satisfied 
the Indian critics who had previously been dissatisfied by 
the older examining universities. It was considered that 
the establishment of residential universities had almost 
solved the fundamental. problems of Indian education and 
all that was necessary was to improve the quality of 
teaching and emphasise the importance of tutorial work 
and to increase the contact of the students with the 
teachers. It was considered that in due course of time 
when the effects of these important improvements become 


pronounced our problems will be solved. But during the 
past few years the ship of Indian education has not sailed 
as smoothly as it was expected and many critics have 
begun to doubt if the very structure of the ship itself was 
strong enough to stand the stormy seas of world events. 
The tremendous rise in the number of unemployed young 
persons has led to the policy of despair and many super- 
ficial critics hold that the universities are responsible for 
many of the country's troubles. It is not realised that the 
universities are in no way responsible for unemployment 
which, on the other hand, is due to causes far beyond 
their control. Moreover, it is not the function of the uni- 
versities to create avenues for employment. It is a very 
narrow view to take that if the number of people admitted 
to universities is drastically curtailed the possibilities of 
employing this restricted number will increase. The fun- 
damental function of universities is not to act as an 
employment bureau but as a trainer of the mind and in- 
tellect of the future citizens and to bring out their latent 
faculties which may be used in any walk of life. It is an 
unfortunate fact that our universities are not centres for 
intellectual training, culture and enlightenment as they 
ought to be. Have our universities succeeded in mental 
development of students ? It is on the answer to this 
question that our universities stand or fall. Unfortunately 
they are places for cramming and smattering, and there 
has been a serious maladjustment in the university life. 
Too much importance is attached to the literary and acade- 
mic side and very little to the intellectual and cultural side. 
Much time is wasted by the professors on lecturing 
to students and by the students in cramming and digesting 
the contents of those lectures. We find that even in the 
field of knowledge an Indian student does not fare favour- 
ably with students of other universities. Why, in spite 


of so much teaching by professors, and cramming by 
students do our students do so unfavourably ? Surely 
there must be something wrong in our system of teaching 
which shows such poor results. I think the fundamental 
difficulty and defect in our system of university education 
is that we impart teaching through a foreign medium, which 
acts as a great deterrent to any substantial progress. It is 
gratifying to note that educational experts in the country 
have begun to realise this great defect which exists to-day 
in our universities; the only exception to which is the 
Osmania University established in 1919. It is the first uni- 
versity of its kind in India where all lecturing work is car- 
ried on through the medium of the primary vernacular of 
the country. Twenty years ago when Mr. Akbar Haydri 
as he then was (Sir Akbar Haydri, Newab Hayder Newaz 
Jung Bahadur, President of His Exalted Highness the 
Nizam's Executive Council, and the present Chancellor of 
the university) , submitted a memorandum in which he pro- 
pounded this great scheme of starting a university with the 
primary object of teaching through Urdu, there were not 
many experts in the country who received this idea with 
any great favour. As a matter of fact, some of the greatest 
experts considered it rather fantastic and altogether un- 
workable. It must be said to the credit of Sir Akbar that all 
these heavy showers of criticism that poured from all quar- 
ters did not affect him, and with great courage, foresight 
and enthusiasm he launched this great experiment which 
today is an accomplished fact, and all experts in the coun- 
try are now looking to this university for guidance. It 
will not be considered here out of place to reproduce briefly 
some of the remarks which the Vice-Chancellor of Andhra 
University made in his recent convocation address : " In 
pride and fullness of heart as an educationist, I congratu- 
late the sovereign and his Government on the success 



achieved by the Osmania University. The band of young, 
accomplished and enthusiastic teachers composing the 
different faculties are a team which the greatest education- 
ists in India would be proud to captain. The researches 
accomplished and still in progress and the investigation in 
the theoretical and applied fields of Science including Zoo- 
logy, Physics, Chemistry, Civil Engineering and History 
augur not merely an All India but an international future 
for the Osmania University. To be the first to recognise an 
Indian language as a fit medium for university culture and 
to have made the university founded on the principle a 
centre of modern research are accomplishments for which 
India must be eternally grateful to the Nizam's Dominions/' 

The primary function of the University, as I have al- 
ready remarked, is to train the mind, but the training of 
mind can never be thorough if it has to employ a foreign 
vehicle of thought. English is not only a foreign language 
to most of us in India but is also "alien." By "alien" I mean 
that it has no connection with the tradition, culture and 
life of the East, and except in the big cities it is seldom 
spoken. A great deal of saving in time and improvement 
in the quality of the work can be effected if the teaching 
work in the Indian Universities is carried on through the 
medium of vernacular. One naturally asks through which 
vernacular, as there are so many languages in the country. 
The Indian National Congress has decided to adapt Hindus- 
tani as the lingua franca of the country, and I think if we 
rise above petty regional and provincial jealousies it will 
not be difficult for the country as a whole to adopt Hindus- 
tani as the chief medium of instruction in all our universi- 
ties. I should not be misunderstood to belittle the import- 
ance of English in our universities. I firmly believe that 
a sound knowledge of English is absolutely essential if we 


are to benefit from the very valuable treasures of know- 
ledge and learning of the West. It is with this idea in view 
that English has been made a compulsory second language 
and no student is awarded a degree unless he passes an exa- 
mination of fairly high standard in English. 

Medium of Instruction 

Now I come to the most pertinent part of my paper, 
viz., the possibility of teaching in Urdu. Still there are 
many people who seriously doubt the possibility or at least 
the practicability of such a proposition. Before I proceed 
further to explain this matter, I would like to mention a few 
facts. Perhaps it may be recalled that it is not very long 
ago that History and Geography were taught in English in 
the Punjab schools and the matric students had to answer 
these papers in English. It is fortunate that wise council 
prevailed and the Punjab University decided to give option 
to the Matric students to answer questions in these 
two papers either in English or in any of the vernacu- 
lars. To some it appeared a very retrograde step. I feel 
no hesitation whatsoever in congratulating the authorities 
of the Punjab University for their very wise decision. We 
find to-day the standard of these answers has increased con- 
siderably and more than 90% of the students answer their 
questions in vernacular. What the Punjab University has 
done for History and Geography for the Matriculation, the 
Osmania University has done for all other classes. Now, 
some may say that there is a limit to everything. And the 
likely limit to most people seems the matriculation. They 
would say so far and no more. This is the attitude of Cal- 
cutta and Madras Universities. The Agra University has gone 
a step further and would like to try up to the intermedi- 
ate. In the Allahabad University candidates appearing for 
the M.A. examination in Economics have to write their 


essays in easy Hindi or Urdu. I have given these examples 
just to show you the changing trend of opinion. What the 
Punjab University did for the Matriculation about twenty 
years ago, the Calcutta University is going to do now. The 
objections raised against the option in the Punjab Univer- 
sity twenty years ago were repeated in the Calcutta Uni- 

It is said that adequate literature is not available in the 
vernaculars. Also there will be immense difficulties regard- 
ing the technical terms, so on and so forth. I quite admit 
the force of the arguments. But something has to be done. 
We cannot afford to be mere spectators and watch our own 
intellectual ruin. Why is the intellectual standard of ordi- 
nary Indian graduate so low ? In my opinion the real 
answer to this question is that he does not properly under- 
stand what he reads. He only crams and passes the exa- 
minations. Although I have admitted above that there are 
real difficulties regarding the availability of literature and 
the coining of terms yet these difficulties are vastly exag- 
gerated. Take, for example, the teaching of classical langua- 
ges. Why on earth a student has to translate these in 
English ? I personally know the cases where students had 
passed the highest examination of the Punjab University 
in the classical languages but failed in the intermediate in 
the language paper, simply because their English was so 
weak that they could not translate the classical text into 

When the Ostnania University broke new ground and 
declared to base its teaching on Urdu, it was regarded as 
a most fantastic idea. But. today we have showed the world 
how it could be done. The teaching and examining in all 
subjects from the intermediate to the Ph.D. standard is 
done in Urdu. The standard of answers of students is far 
higher as compared with the students of other universities. 


I am firmly of the opinion that if teaching in Indian 
Universities is to improve it must be done in the verna- 
culars. In the course of twenty years we have coined thou- 
sands of terms and several hundred standard books have 
been translated into Urdu. If our example is followed by 
all other universities a tremendous amount of literature 
will be forthcoming in a short time. What Osmania has 
done, other universities too can do. 


lus, Sophocles, and Euripedes, wrote tragedies (Eleusinian 
dramas) which were of a secret nature, because they were 
religious in plots. It is even said that on one occasion 
Aeschylus was accused of having let out an Eleusinian sec- 
ret, and was released only on the intervention of his brother, 
who was a great warrior. Thus we see that the drama pro- 
per had its origin in religion in Greece. 

In India, which justly claims to have an independent 
origin of the drama, we hear of the songs, some of which 
were accompanied with dances, in the most ancient times. 
Apart from the divine origin of music, dance and drama, we 
have the rhythmical hymns in the Vedas (e.g. Samaveda); 
and mention is made of the lasya or gentle dance of Parvati, 
the tandava or vehement dance of Rudra, etc. Dances 
formed a part of the celebrations in the most ancient sacri- 
fices, human, horse, goat, one yielding its place to the 
next. Moreover, the Bharatanatya-sastra which is said to 
have been written in the fifth century B.C., contains a sys- 
tematic record of canons on music, poetry, art, dance, and 
drama. Bhasa, one of the earliest dramatists as we have 
known, has selected most of his themes from the Rama- 
yana and the Mahabharata. Kalidasa, (who lived between 
the first century B.C., and the fifth century A.D.) writes in 
his Malavikagnimitra. 

W TO ^3 ^IF " 

(Sages say that the drama is a sacrifice to the gods, which 
is pleasing to the eye). This indicates that in those days, 
the Naramedha, the Asvamedha, and such other sacrifices 
were not considered to be pleasing to the eye ; but that the 
drama, which is also a sacrifice (action) gives not only 
pleasure to the eye, but also pacification to the gods. We 
see here the religious origin of the drama in India. 


India and Greece are the only two countries which are 
bestowed with the fortunes of having brought forth their 
native dramatic faculities, even in the most ancient times. 

China is said to have had her alphabet even before the 
twentieth century B.C. The Chinese are noted for their 
excellence in the imitative faculty. They take pride in 
their " Book of Oods " which proves the existence of music 
and poetry prior to the twelfth century B.C. The Chinese 
are famous for their taste and native talents in music, but 
they had no regular dramas till the sixth century A.D. But, 
even in those days when they had dramas not known to the 
historian, the Chinese are said to have celebrated every 
function with a dramatic performance functions such as 
the promotion in the salary of an officer, the marriage of a 
middle class man, and the birth of a child. 

In Italy, we hear about the songs and dances of the 
Talics in the eighth century B.C., at a time when Greece 
was enjoying her Mystic dramas, and India her Sacrificial 
performances. All these performances had for their ulti- 
mate object, the elevation of the soul and consequent sub- 
limity. Again we see the religious aim in the ancient drama.> 
After the Punic Wars which were fought in the third cen- 
tury B.C. Italy came into close contact with Greece ; by 
which the influence of the Greek drama spread on to Italy. 
The Greek prisoners in Italy were given privileges to exhi- 
bit their talents in dramatic action, and it is also known that 
some of those who fascinated the public by such talents 
were released, and were allowed to enjoy free-citizenship. 

France, Spain, and Great Britain have their records of 
their dramas from the eleventh century A.D., but even 
before that time, there were, no doubt, folk songs in France 
and Spain, and Saxon dances in Britain. It is only after 



the influence of Latin literature over Britain that she began 
to have her regular dramas. The other countries of Europe 
had their languages perfected even at a later date. The 
eleventh and the twelfth centuries brought manifold 
changes in the history of many countries in the world. 
Every country had her dialect perfected, her government 
systematised, and her art and culture dignified. 

It is now seen clearly that the origin of the earliest 
drama was only religious as far as the theme is concerned, 
with very few exceptions, of which the Mricchakatika is 
one. After the twelfth century A.D. the drama took differ- 
ent shapes by takirig in themes from the social, political 
and historical fields. 




Government College, Coimbatore. 

For the elucidation of the history of the Kerala coun- 
try just before and during the three centuries of the Chris- 
tian era, we have no epigraphical, archaeological or even 
literary evidences in Malayalam. The ' Keralotpatti ' is 
regarded as the oldest available account of Kerala, but this 
belongs to the 17th century A.D., and is further, as Logan 
observes, "a farrago of legendary nonsense which had for 
its aim the exaltation of the Brahman caste and influence/' 
The late lamented 1 K. G. Sesha Aiyar similarly observes 
that "to gleam history from this work is as hopeless as to 
seek for a needle in a hay-stack." The Keralotpatti says 
that Kerala arose at Parasurama's Command from the seas. 
This means that, as P. Padmanabha Menon 2 suggests, the 
country covered by Malabar, Travancore and Cochin, was 
formed by volcanic agencies on this coast centuries ago; 
"that there was once a subsidence, probably sudden, at 
Gokarnam ; and secondly that there was afterwards a per- 
ceptible uprising, most probably in this case gradual, of at 
least some portion if not nearly all the coast between Gokar- 
nam and the Cape." This view has received confirmation 
from the investigations of the Geological Survey of India. 3 

1. 'Chera Kings of the Sangam Period/ p. 78. 

2. 'History of Kerala/ Vol. 1, pp. 19 and 20 of the notes. 

3. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XXIV, 
part HI, p. 35. 


Mr. Philip Lake shows that South Malabar between Bey- 
pore and Ponnani rivers was the result of such upheaval. 

The chronicle then gives some traditions which are too 
hazy to be taken as History. According to it a period of 
indigenous kings, who were generally incompetent was 
followed by a period of kings selected from the neighbouring 
countries on the understanding that each was to rule for 
twelve years. The earliest of them is said to be one Keya 
Perumal, and after him were brought a succession of Chola, 
'Pandi,' Kerala, Tulubha' Indra and Arya Perumals, ^and 
others. Historians can see in this only this much, that "the 
author has heard of invasions of Kerala by some Pandya, 
Chola 4 and other neighbouring kings or chiefs who probably 
retired to their territories after their raid and from that he 
wove his fanciful list of Perumals brought by the people 
into Kerala." 

There is another work called the "Kerala-mahatmyam" 
which is in Sanskrit and which is allied to the work men- 
tioned above. But it is even later, and, as pointed out by 
C. Achyuta Menon 5 and C. A. Innes, 6 so full of inconsisten- 
cies, anachronisms and absurdities that it is difficult to sepa- 
rate from the chaff what few grains of truth they contain. 

In the absence of epigraphic and archaeological eviden- 
ces, we are lucky in having literary sources of information 
in regard to this period of Malayalam History. These con- 
sist of (1) the Tamil classics of the Sangam period, and 
(2) the Greek and Roman writers like Ptolemy, Pliny and 
the author of the Periplus of the Erithrean Seas. 

4. See 1. 

5. 'Cochin State Manual,' Ch. II, p. 29. 

6. Malabar District Gazetter, Vol. II. 


The Tamils, of all the Dravidian nations, cultivated and 
preserved the earliest literature of continuous development 
and unique historical value. Among these works we find 
three distinct classes, viz., the naturalistic, ethical and reli- 
gious. The value of the first type, in particular, cannot be 
over-estimated, though even here much caution is neces- 
sary in sifting and arranging the available material. On 
the whole, we have in them faithful records of the political, 
social, literary and religious conditions of Malabar during 
the Sangam Period. Previous to the era of dated inscrip- 
tions, they are the earliest sources for the construction of 
South Indian History. The most important works among 
the Tamil classics that throw light on ancient Kerala are 
the Purananuru, the Padirrupattu, and the Silappadikaram, 
besides a few lyrics of the Agananuru and the Narrinai. 
We understand that the land, bounded on the east by the 
Western Ghats and the west by the sea, was called in the 
early Tamil works, the Cera-nadu (Co^jr/5/r), and the 
kings of the country Ceran, Ceraman or Ceralan (G^jEr^, 
G^LD/reir, (S&jre&r}. From very early times, Tamilakam 
was ruled by the three crowned kings? ((jp^-mew* /xsjr^/r) 
Cera, Cola and Pandiya. The Tolkappiyam the famous 
Tamil grammar and the oldest extant Tamil work, refers, 
in one of its 7 Sutrams, to the Tamil country as one belong- 
ing to 'the famous three within the four boundaries/ The 
Commentator Perasiriyar enumerates the four boundaries 
as Venkadam (Tirupati hills) in the north, Kumari on the 
south, and the seas on the east and the west. The Kumari 
mentioned here, it must be known, is not the present Cape 
Comorin, but the name of a river of the same name in the 
southern Tamil continent, the Kumarikandam, which was 
known to the early Tamil works and which was submerged 

7. Tolkappiyam, Poruladikaram, Seyyuliyal, No. 79. 


later on. Panambaranar, the class-mate of Tolkappiyar, has 
written a preface to the Tolkappiyam, wherein he refers to 
the northern and southern boundaries of Tamilakam. The 
commentator 8 Nachchinarkkiniyar explains the absence of 
the mention of the boundaries on the east and west on the 
ground that they were the seas. In those early days Cera 
country was part and parcel of Tamilakam. Tradition 
handed over from ancient days says that the Cera-Cola- 
Pandiyar were the rulers of the land from time immemo- 
rial. The famous commentator of the Tirukkural explain- 
ing the phrase Palankudi (upon @if) ancient family, occur- 

ing in the chapter entitled Kudimai ((5f ^^ says that 
it was as old and great even as the three royal families of 
Cera, Cola and Pandiya, which could be traced to the 

beginning of creation 

6H(j5^i>). Evidently the phrase cc U<SV>IULJG 

is an exaggeration. We may take it to mean from very 

early times. To quote some more instances to prove that 

Tamil was prevalent up to the west coast, we 

may refer to the two following Sutrams of Sikandi- 

yar and Kakkaipadiniyar respectively. 

1. i: QQKEJ&L^LD 


pktEKGX Q<)'fo) 

These Sutrams refer to the east and the west boundaries 
of Tamilakam as ^Qu&iMLb' O r the sea. It is interesting 
to note that the Cera 9 author of the Silappadikaram too, 

8. Tolkappiyam, Eluttatikaram, Naccinarkkiniyar commen- 
tary, p. 8. S.I.S.S.W.P. Society edition. 

9. Silappadikaram, VIII, 11. 1-2. 


while enumerating the boundaries of Tamilakam, leaves out 
the west and the east for the same reason pointed out by 
the commentator of Tolkappiyam. 

The ancient Cera country is referred to in Sanskrit 
works as Kerala, and that seems to be the name by which 
the Malayalis love to call their native land. P. T. Srini- 
vasa Aiyangar 10 says that the name of this country occurs 
in the original form of Cera itself in the Taittiriya Aran- 
yaka as Cera-padah, and he cites the authority of Prof. A. 
B. Keith for constructing the expression to the Ceras. But 
this is doubtful, as Sayana takes Cera to mean snake. 

Katyayana (first half of the 4th century B.C.) and 
Patanjali (B.C. 150) make mention of Cera, though Panini 
(7th century B.C. if not earlier) does not. The Maha- 
bharata, the Ramayana, the Vayu-purana, the Matsya and 
Markandeyapuranas mention Kerala and Gokarnam. The 
second and 13th edicts of the great Buddhist emperor Asoka 
refer to the ruler of Kerala as Keralaputra and class this 
country as one of the border-lands (Pratyantas) of his 

Since the Cera country formed the western portion of 
Tamilakam, the Cera king is described in the Tamil classics 
as the ruler of the western country. The epithet, " Kuda- 
pulam kaval " maruman literally meaning " one who came 
in the line of kings protecting the western country," 
(@L-L/a)/i *ireu&)ij>(TijLcirttr} i s use d for the Cera king by the 
author of the Sirupanarruppadai, a Sangam work ; and he 
describes the Pandya and Chola respectively as the kings 
of the southern and eastern countries. Since the western 

10. History of the Tamils, p. 29. 


country is mountainous, the Chera king was also known as 
Malaiyan ( 

Apart from the big geographical divisions, Tamila- 
kam was divided into two divisions from the view-point of 
the purity of the language spoken therein. The one was 
Sen Tamil Nadu (area where good Tamil was spoken), and 
the other Kodun-Tamil Nadu (tract where bad Tamil 
was spoken) . Madura, which was the seat of the Third 
Tamil Sangam, and its surrounding parts were the Sen- 
Tamil-Nadu, and under the Kodun-Tamil Nadu are includ- 
ed twelve districts, which Senavarayar and Nachchinark- 
kiniyar, commentators of the Tolkappiyam, name in the 
following order from the south-east to the north east of 
Sentamil Nadu Ponkar, Oli, Tenpandi, Kuttam, Kudam, 
Panri, Karka, Sitam, Puli, Malaiyamanadu, Aruva and 
Aruva Vadatalai. 

The commentator of the Yapparunkalam gives the 
same list with this difference, that instead of Ponkar and 
Oli, he has Ven and Punal. Kanakasabhai Pillai 11 too 
accepts this view, and gives a map setting forth the four 
Koduntamil Nadus or Provinces bordering on the Arabian 
Sea in the following order from north to south. Puli Nadu, 
Kuda Nadu, and Venadu. The names were appropriately 
given to each province, as they noted its peculiarity. 'Puli' 
or the ' Sandy tract ' extended most probably from the 
banks of the modern Agalapula to the mouth of the 
Ponnani river. The soil of this part of the country is re- 
markably sandy. Kudam or the " western land " denoted 
apparently the region between the mouth of Ponnani 
river and the southernmost mouth of the Periyar near 

11. The Tamils 1800 years ago facing, p. 14. 


Ernakulam. This would have been the most western land 
to the first immigrants who came into Malabar by the Pal- 
ghat Pass. 

Kuttam or the land of lakes comprised the territory 
around the modern towns of Kottayam and Quilon, which 
is to-day known by the same name to the natives of the 
country. The river Pali or Palai, which flows through this 
province formed at its mouth several islands and lakes, and 
hence this tract was called Kuttam 12 or " the land of lakes/' 
To the south of this province, lay the Venadu which com- 
prised the major portion of Travancore. 

Even to-day the Maharajah of Travancore is known 
as " Venattadigal Tiruvadigal." The low hills and valleys 
in this region were covered with luxurous forests of 
bamboo, and therefore it was aptly called Ven-Nadu or the 
" bamboo land." The Chera, being the overlord of these 
provinces, was also known after them, Puliyan, Kudavan 
and Kuttuvan. 

The above mentioned five provinces formed the 
ancient Chera country, the capital of which was Vanji or 
Karur. It was situated on the banks of the Periyar. 
Adiyarkkunallar, the commentator of the Silappadikaram, 
identifies this Karur with Tiruvanjaikkulam, 12 but Kanaka- 
sabhai Pillai identifies it with Tirukarur three miles from 
Kothaimangalam and 13 28 miles east by north of Cochin, 
where the remains of an old temple and other massive 
buildings are still visible. 14 Pandit R. Raghava Aiyangar 

12. Cera Kings of the Sangam period, chapter VT. 

13. The Tamils 18 hundred years ago, p. 15. 

14. Journal of the Asiatic Society, Vol. II, p. 336; Sewell's 
lists of Antiquities, Vol. II, p. 261. 



discusses this question very elaborately in his "Vanjima- 
nagar," and arrives at the conclusion, and Pandit M. 
Raghava Aiyangar in his " Cheran Senguttuvan " agrees 
with him, that Vanji, the ancient capital of the Cheras, is 
neither of these places, but Karur in ancient Kongu. or 
modern Trichinopoly District. 

The western geographer of the first century A.D., 
Pliny, who refers to the ruler of Kerala as Calobotra, men- 
tions Muziris, which has been identified by Dr. Burnell with 
the modern Cranganore, as the first emporium of trade in 
India. Tamil Literature too, has nothing but praise for 
the sea-borne trade that passed through this Chera sea- 
port and we cannot but refer to two famous odes from the 
Agananuru and Purananuru, referring to his trade at 
Muzuris, and the articles (like pepper, etc.), obtained from 
the mountain and the sea exported to the countries of the 
Yavanar, i.e., Greeks, in exchange for gold. The songs 
are : 


LC) Q LJ ift ' UU IT j$ 11 

nflQiufT Quuj(njLD 
QpSiflujiriru Qu<ssr. (^/sth. 148) 

GiB,$ QUIT /bur 


The Periplus, written in the second century A.D., also 
refers to ' Kerobotras ' and the lands he ruled over. It 
says that it extended from Nouro and Tyndis in the north 
to Nelaynda in the south. Ptolemy (second century A.D.) 


also mentions Karoura as the capital where Kerobotras 

The word Kerala will, if carefully analysed, ultimately 
lead us to the root Chera. Dr. Caldwell on the other hand 
erroneously conceived * 'Kerala* ' to be the original form of 
the word from which according to him Chera is derived. 
He committed the same mistake with regard to the word 
' Dravidian,' but the mistake has been exposed by 
Dr. Grierson in his Linguistic Survey of India. In the 
Purananuru we find the words Cheralathan. Manikka- 
vasagar's Tiruvachakam has "Q^oarsw-a/oir, G^^gar, 
G& ir pear" and in Tirumukkhappasuram given to Panapatra 

we have, 

We know very well that in Canarese roots and words 
beginning with the palatal consonant C, it changes into the 
guttural consonant K, we give the following examples : 

Tamil. Canarese. 

Cey (to do) . . Key 

Cevi (ear) . . Kivi 

Ceri (a hamlet) . . Keri 

Centamarai (red lotus) . . Kendavara. 

Cennir (red water, blood) . . Kennir 

Thus there is a greater possibility for the word ceral 
to have become keral and the country of Keral, Keralam 

in Canarese than for 'Cera' to come out of Kerala ew and 
o interchange easily and Keralam (Q^JT^LD] becomes 
easily Keralam, (Stf/roni). It is this form that has 
entered Sanskrit as Kerala. The Sanskritists might have 
taken the word from Canarese which was more easily 


accessible to them perhaps, than Tamil which was spoken 
in the southern most part in India. 

Rev. Foulkes* contends that Chera and Kerala denote 
the same country, Kerala being but the Canarese dialecti- 
cal form of the word Chera. Dr. Gundert in his Malaya- 
lam Dictionary has, under the word Keram " Canarese 
pronunciation of Cheram ", " Chera = Malabar ;" and 
under the word Keralam " Cheram = the country between 
Gokarnam and Kumari." While agreeing in the main with 
the learned Doctor that the word Ceram has become Kera- 
lam through Canarese, we are disposed to think that the 
word may have originated from Ceral, another form of the 
word Ceran. Many Cera Kings have been called as we 
know, Ceralan and Ceral. The word Ceral is used in the 
Silappadikaram itself while denoting the author of the 
poem as "0* ^Sds/r^ (c&ireSlGrr/h] (Q&rr&Ju^&LL(8j" 

It will not be out of place here to consider the terms 
" Malabar and Malay alam " which denote the country and 
its language now. We do not know for certain from when 
this word has come into existence to mean the language ; 
and its etymology also is obscure. The word properly 
denotes the territory and not the language. It is composed 
of two words malai (mountain) and alam (from al 
to possess, to use, to rule and not to be confounded with 
al, depth) which means a territory subject to the domina- 
tion of mountains. It is noteworthy that the word Mala- 
yalam does not occur either in the early or mediaeval Tamil 
Literature. As we have pointed out before, the country 
where Malayalam is now spoken was called Chera Nadu 
and the people called themselves Tamilar and in the 

*Salem District Manual, Vol. I. 


Silappadikaram and other ancient Tamil classics the Cera 
king is spoken of as a Tamil king. Malayalam is also known 
as Malayalma, another form of which is Malayama ; but 
both words are substantially the same. The appellative 
noun corresponding to Malayalam is Malay ali (a man of 
Malayalam) . 

The origin of the name Malabar has given scope for 
much speculation. The first part of the word is evidently 
the Malayalam word for mountain as in the word Mala- 
yalam itself. The first appearance of this word mala with 
the suffix 'bar' is in 1150, and from the time of its appear- 
ance, the first part of the word is frequently found 
to change. Col. Yule gives the following Arabian forms 
Malibar, Manibar, Mutibar, and Munibar. The following 
forms are used by early European travellers : Munibar, 
Milibar, Melibar, Minubar, etc. From the arrival of the 
Portuguese in India it seems always to have been Malabar. 

It has been difficult to ascertain the origin and mean- 
ing of the suffix bar. Lassen explained it as identical with 
the Sanskrit vara in the sense of a region, Malayavara 
meaning the region of Malaya, the western ghats. But the 
term Malayavara is fictitious, neither found in Sanskrit nor 
used by the people of the Malabar coast. The same diffi- 
culty stands in the way of Mala Varam, (Tamil, Malaya- 
lam), the foot of the mountains. Dr. Grundert suggested 
the possibility of the derivation of bar from the Arabic, 
barr continent as he considered it probable that the name 
of Malabar has been first brought into use by Arabian 

Colonel Yule arrived independently at a similar con- 
clusion, but he preferred the Persian bar to the Arabic 


barr, and Dr. Caldwell* agreed with Colonel Yule and 
thought that bar, country, may have been added to 'Male' 
to distinguish the mainland from adjacent islands, the 
Maldives and its Laccadives, 

For a very long time Tamil was known to European 
scholars as the language of Malabar, or the Malabar langu- 
age. Fabricius, who composed a Tamil Dictionary in the 
18th Century, styled it " Dictionary of Malabar and English 
wherein the words and phrases of the Tamilian language 
commonly called by the Europeans, the Malabar language, 
are explained in English/' It was only in the latter part 
of the 19th Century that this mistake was corrected, thanks 
to the writings of Beschi, Dr. G. U. Pope and other orien- 

From the Silappadikaram we learn that the Cera king 
who ruled the country in the 2nd century A.D., was Sen- 
guttuvan. The author of this epic was the royal ascetic 
and younger brother of the king. He is called Illangovadi- 
gal (the royal prince ascetic). Senguttuvan is the best 
known of the ancient Chera Kings. He is also the hero 
of the fifth decade of Padirruppattu of which the famous 
Paranar was the author. Being a great warrior, Sengut- 
tuvan is said to have conquered extensive jegions from 
Cape Comorin in the south to the Himalayas in the north. 

Q p GST 63T ,EJ (2J/.r(fl QoJ/T LITuSlsMt _ UJJT<P!T 
(Lp!T&-Stni _ U QlLJ(TF)^rf)&LK &55>pj(U *ll fT IT 
Q&II J\)LJoO r6lTLL.0)L- f & QjBfTGti & <aQ oW I 
gyirSoOTLJ Qu/T6\)/5 f #/r/f<S (^Ll 

^Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages, III, 
2nd Edn., p. 28. 

15. Padirruppattu, 43. 


The Vanjikkandam or the 3rd Canto of the Silappadi- 
karam is nothing but a graphic account of the king's 
northern expedition, in which he was assisted by his ally 
* Nurruvar Kannar V 6 On that occasion he fought a 
battle on the banks of the Ganges, in which the combined 
troops of certain " Aryan " princes among whom Vijaya, 
the son of a Bala Kumara, Rudra and others are mentioned. 
After defeating them he returned triumphantly with 
a fragment of stone from the Himalaya, for fashioning the 
image of Kannaki, the Pattini-Devi, who came to Malai- 
Nadu after burning down Madura, where her husband had 
been illegally sentenced to death by the Pandiya King. 
He built a temple, identified with that of modern Cranga- 
nur (Kodungalur) and consecrated her image there. From 
a few astronomical details available in the Silappadikaram 
K. G. Sesha Aiyar arrives at 171 A.D. as the year of fire 
which engulfed Madura at the/ Pattini Devi's command. 
Further, the poem says that at the consecration ceremony 
of the image, one of the princes present was King Gajabahu 
of Lanka, surrounded by sea (<SL_SO (gy9OE7g asiusu/r^. 
From this synchronism we can arrive at the date of 

Historians are of the view that Senguttuvan's invasion 
was feasible in the disturbed conditions of North India in 
the latter half of the 2nd Century A.D. 17 

Space does not permit us to go into chronology and 
detailed history of the early Chera Kings. The Padfirrup- 

16. Kanakasabai Pillai has correctly identified the Nurruvar 
Kannar with the great Andhra Satakarnis of the times. 

17. Cera Kings of the Sangam period. K. G. Sesha Aiyar, 
ch. VII, Section 5. 


pattu, moreover is not completely extent now, The first 
and the last tens are lost. The extant eight sections deal 
with the achievements of these eight Chera Kings : 

1. Imayavaramban Nedun Ceralatan. 

((j^LQiLjeujniuevr QfiQgfj G&jr<stirr,$6yr) 

2. Palyanai-Selkelu-Kuttuvan 

6Vr J. 

3. Kalankaykkanni Narmudicceral 

(<5E6YT/Ef<35/T{L/<95 dSS^TSffijf? /57T/T (Lp U^&Q & & 6$ J. 

4. Kadal-Pirakkottiya Senkuttuvan 

(tft 6tii3tD& (StftrtLtq-U 

5. Adukotpatfu-ceralatan 

6. Selvakkadunko-Valiyatan 

( 0^^)617 <55:a5f?/E73/r6If/r L/9(U/T^63T. ") 

7. Takadur erinta Perunceral irumporai 

(^<95(F/r erpSiZp Qu(r^^ Q&rrsv ^ 

8. Kudukko-ilanceral irumporai 

The fifth decade, it will be noted, deals with Senkut- 
tuvan of the Silappadikaram fame. For the names of the 
Cera kings celebrated in the Purananuru lyrics we have to 
depend on the colophon appended to each lyrics of that 
collection. From these we gather the names of the 
seventeen 18 Cera kings ; but some of these are reduplica- 
tions. More than two attempts have been made to identify 
and assign chronological order for these cera kings. Full 

18. Cera Kings of the Sangam period, K. N. Sivaraja Filial, 


justice cannot be done to the discussion 19 here, and the 
reader is directed to consult the special works on the sub- 
ject. Kanakasabai Pillai brings the Ceras up to the 
middle of the 2nd Century; K. N. Sivaraja Pillai takes them 
to the end of the 2nd Century ; and K. G. Sesha Aiyer takes 
them still further to the end of the 3rd Century A.D. 

It is curious that, neither in the Tamil classics, nor in 
Sanskrit, the language that is prevalent now in this 
country, is said to have been prevalent here in those days. 
The language spoken in those days was only Tamil, though 
it was Koduntamil and not Sentamil. Still it is a wonder 
that it is from this part of the country that the Padirrup- 
pattu and Silappadikaram, the famous Sentamil Kaviyan 
which poet Bharathi praises as capturing our mind ( 
Lo &<8*>uu$*tnrLb) saw the light. 

The Purapporul-Venba-malai, the Tamil grammar 
assigned to the 7th or 8th Century A.D., the Perumal Tiru- 
moli of Kulasekara Alvar 20 (Circa 600-800 A.D.) , Sundara- 
murti Nayanar's Tevarappadikam on Lord Siva of Tiru- 
vanjaikkalam, and his friend Ceraman Perumal's Ponvan* 
nattantati and Adi-ula (Circa 9th Century A.D.) sprang 
from this Cera country. This shows eloquently that the 
Cera kings were ardent patrons of Tamil, and that many 
of them were themselves no mean poets. 

19. 1. Chronology of the Early Tamils K. N. Sivaraja Pillai 

2. Cera kings of the Sangam period K. G. Sesha Aiyer. 

3. Beginnings of South Indian History, Dr. S. K. Aiyangar. 

4. The Tamil 1800 years ago Kanakasabai Pillai. 

20. 1. Early History of South Indian Vaishnavism in South 

India, S. K. Aiyangar. 
2. Alvargal Kalanilai, M. Raghava Aiyangar, pp. 157-72, 



Attention may now be drawn to the very interesting 
fact that the names of many villages in Malabar and 
Travancore which terminate in words like ceri, ur, kodu, 
karai, angadi, etc., indicate that they were originally occu- 
pied by the Tamils. Again, from the existence of the 
Tamil words kilakku and Merkku in the Malayalam lan- 
guage, Dr. Caldwell argues that the Malayalam country 
must have originally been colonised by the Tamils. The 
words Kilakku and Merku literally mean downward and 
upward respectively. In these words the particle ku is a 
termination denoting direction. These words quite aptly 
describe the East and the West of the Tamil country. They 
are derived from the roots Kil and Mel respectively, both 
of which must have necessarily originated on the eastern 
side of the Ghats ; for it is to the west of eastern plains that 
this lofty range of mountains rises everywhere with the 
result that to go westward is to go upward, while to go 
eastward is to go into the country sloping downwards to 
the sea. But the configuration of the Malayalam country 
is directly reverse, the mountain range being to the east- 
ward and the sea westward. Notwithstanding this fact, 
the Malayalam words for East and West are identical with 
the Tamil words, Dr. Gundert argues that there is an- 
other word for denoting west in Malayalam, namely, 
Padinnaru, and that word is more commonly used than the 
word merku. It may be true, but Padinnaru is also a 
Tamil word. It is a corruption of Padinayiru, i.e., the 
direction, where the sun sets. In the Purananuru, stanza 
82, the word occurs in the form of Pattanayiru (set sun)\ 
According to Dr. Caldwell these words are a positive proof 
of the early colonisation of the country by the Tamils. 

Some of the old customs and manners of the people 
are still lingering in the country, we are told, though the 


traces of the very early occupation of the country by the 
Tamils are almost extinct except the Tamil element in the 
vocabulary and grammatical structure in Malayalam lan- 
guage, which therefore continues to be understood easily 
by a Tamil stranger. Among the ancient lingering Tamil 
customs, we venture to suggest here the Sakkaiyar-kuttu 
the dance of the Sakkaiyar, of which Professor P. Sanka- 
ran Nambiyar of the Maharajah's College, Ernakulam, 
gives a valuable account and estimate in the 1939 Special 
Cochin Number of the Madras Mail in honour of His High- 
ness the Maharajah's 77th Birthday Celebrations. 

This Kuttu, which is, even to-day, very popular in 
Malabar, is said to have been performed before the Cera 
king, Senguttuvan, and on that particular occasion the 
Sakkaiyan chose to exhibit the Kodu kotticedam or adal of 
Lord Siva. The dress and make up, the gestures and 
abhinayams pertaining to this particular Kuttu, which the 
Sakkiyar selected for the occasion, are minutely described 
by the authors of Silappadikaram. We think that the 
" movements and facial expressions, the signs and gestures 
employed by the actors and actresses in the Kuttu " which 
Prof. Nambiyar says " are said to approximate most closely 
to the principles laid down in the authoritative Sanskrit 
treatise on the subject, Bharata's Natya Sastra " are echoed 
in the description 21 mentioned above. 

In those days the language of the country and court 
was Tamil. The famous Tamil poet of the Sangam 
at Madura, Maduraikkulavanikan Sattanar, the author of 
Manimekalai, was a great friend of Senguttuvan, and 
Illango. He spent a considerable part of his time in Vanji, 
and he was responsible for supplying him the material, and 

21. Silappadikaram, XXVIII, lines, 67-77. 


requesting Illango to compose the Silappadikaram. In fact 
the Silappadikaram was inaugurated in his presence. 22 
There are several references in the work which indicate that 
the kings and the subjects of the Cera country were proved 
to call themselves Tamils. One or two instances will 
suffice. The Aryan Princes, 23 Kanaka and Vijaya, offended 
the Tamil kings in a banquet, and to avenge the wrong 
committed to a brother Tamil king (Chola), Senguttuvan 
wanted to invade their country while he went north for 
bringing a slab of stone for the consecration of Pattini 
Devi. 24 Villavan Kodai, one of the ministers, while refer- 
ring to the encounter of the king's army with the "Aryas" 
of the north, calls the army a 'Tamil one.' 

It is remarkable that the proportion of Sanskrit words 
in the early Tamil works composed in the Cera country is 
comparatively small. In the later writings of Ceraman 
Perumal and Kulasekhara the proportion is much higher 
owing to Sanskrit influences. There is a tradition that the 
poet Kamban visited the country and lectured on his 
Ramayanam. Even to-day his great Epic is highly popular 
here. Almost the first work in the early Malayalam lan- 
guage is the Rama Charitam which is closely modelled on 
Kamban's great work. 

Sanskrit authors even up to the end of the 7th cen- 
tury A.D., refer to the languages of South India only as 
Telugu and Tamil. Kumarila Bhatta, a Brahmin philolo- 
gist of the last decades of the 7th Century A.D., refers to 
the " Andhra Dravida Bhasha," the Telugu Tamil langu- 

22. Vide Silappadikaram padikam and XXV, lines 65-92. 

23. Ibid., XXVI, lines 159460, XXIX. 

24. Ibid, XXV, line 158. 


age or perhaps, the " language of the Telugu Tamil 

Canarese was probably supposed to be included in 
Telugu, and Malayalam in Tamil, and yet both dialects, to- 
gether with any sub-dialects that might be included 
in them were evidently regarded as forming but 
one bhasha. Malayalam therefore was not yet evol- 
ved as a separate language. Even the three sasanas 
granted to the Jews are in old Tamil dialect, and they 
are recorded in the old Tamil script called Vatteluttu. 
These deeds of Baskara Ravi Varma have excited much in- 
terest not only because of their antiquity, but because of 
the curious fact that by them the ancient Cera kings con- 
ferred on the Jewish colonies certain privileges which they 
still possess to some extent. The Jews appear to have 
visited the western coast in the early centuries of the Chris- 
tian Era. They have a tradition that a large number of 
their nation came and settled in Malabar soon after the des- 
truction of their temple at Jerusalem 25 in 68 A.D. The 
charters have been translated more than once, and there 
has been much diversity gf opinion regarding the dates 
assigned to them. While the learned author of " The Tamils 
1800 Years Ago " assigns the last decade of the 2nd Cen- 
tury A.D. to the two deeds granted to Joseph Rabban, 
Lord of Anjuvannams and to his posterity, Dr. Burnell on 
palaeographic grounds assigned these to the 8th Century 
A.D. Placing the first deed in A.D. 774 as the only year 
in which the astronomical details of the date furnished by 
the grant would be satisfactory. 

25. i. Tamils 1800 years ago, p. 60. 

ii. Malabar Manual, Vol. II, pp. 115-122. 
iii. History of Kerala, Vol. II, pages 507-512. 


Dr. Kielhorn says that A.D. 774-775 is not the only 
year possible, and points out two dates 10th March 680 
and llth March 775 A.D. Sir Walter Elliot fixes 861 A.D. 
Whatever the date may be, we are here concerned only 
with the language of it. 

The State Manual of Travancore, which is, no doubt, 
an authoritative history of the State, contains a few obser- 
vations on the relationship between Tamil and Malayalam. 
It states u The earliest phase of the language (Malaya- 
lam) must have been scarcely distinguishable from that 
dialect of Tamil which is called Koduntamil by scholars. 
It may be considered that Malayalam sprang from Kodun- 
tamil. Separated from the parent stock by natural bar- 
riers of mountains, the off-shoot of Tamil must have un- 
dergone gradual changes according to the circumstances 
and nature of the soil. Phonetic decay, differentiation and 
other agencies which are ever at work in the infancy of a 
language, must have had a full play in the case of Mala- 
yalam until the advent of Sanskrit. The Sanskrit langu- 
age affected the vocabulary and grammar of Malayalam. 
Poets and authors indented upon Sanskrit not merely for 
the expression of abstract ideas, but even for indicating 
ordinary objects and things. In spite of this tendency, the 
literary language continued for a long time to follow the 
old Tamil models. The oldest poem now extant is Rama 
Charitam written in the 13th Century A.D. It was com- 
posed long before Sanskrit learning found favour in the 
land. It exhibits the earliest phase of the Malayalam lan- 
guage, and savours more of Tamil than Malayalam." 

The mediaeval period of Malayalam is marked by the 
writing of Kannasa Panikker. He has written the Rama- 
yana, the Bhagavata, the Bhagavad Gia, etc. His language 


shows the transition stage of Malayalam in a stage in whicH 
the Malayalam tries to throw off Tamil inflexions and 
grammatical formations. Panikkar has been called the 
" Chaucer of Malayalam/' 

The modern period commences with the advent of 
Tunjatta Ramanuja Ezuttacchan of the middle of the 17th 
Century A.D. This poet set himself to the task of bring- 
ing the treasures of Sanskrit literature within the reach 
of ordinary man. He found that Malayalam as it existed 
then was not a fit vehicle for conveying refined thoughts. 
He therefore strove to develop the latent resources of his 
mother tongue. He rejected the old Tamil Vatteluttu 
alphabet (which did not have the hard aspirates, sonants, 
sonant aspirates, sibilants and aspirates, peculiar to San- 
skrit) as defective, and adopted instead the Arya Elutu, 
better known as the Grantha script. He invented a new 
literary style blending Sanskrit and Malayalam idioms, and 
called it Manipravalam. He also created a new metre in 
Malayalam poetry called Kilippattu which has a peculiar 
melody and flow of its own. With regard to the modern 
Malayalam Dr. Caldwell says : " It is remarkable that the 
brahminisation of a language and literature has now 
become complete. This process appears to have been 
carried on systematically only during the last two or 
three centuries. The proportion of Sanskrit words is 
least in Tamil and greatest in Malayalam. The modern 
Malayalam character seems to have been derived in the 
main from the Grantha script. In consequence of these 
things the difference between Malayalam and Tamil, 
though originally slight has progressively increased, so that 
the claim of Malayalam as it now stands to be considered 
not as a mere dialect of Tamil but as a sister language can- 
not be called in question. Originally, it is true, I consider 


it to have been not as a sister but a daughter. " Malayalam 
being as I conceive " says the learned bishop, " a very 
ancient off-shoot of Tamil differing from it chiefly at pre- 
sent by its disuse of the personal terminations of the verbs 
and the larger amount of Sanskrit derivatives it has avail- 
ed itself of, it might perhaps be regarded as a dialect of 
Tamil, than as a distinct member of the Dravidian family." 
Dr. Gundert however appears to be unwilling to consider 
Malayalam as an off-shoot of Tamil. 26 He says : " These 
two languages of old differed rather as dialects of the same 
member of the Dravidian family than as separate langu- 

M. Srinivasa Aiyangar, 27 on the other hand, accuses 
Ezuttacchan for having given a deathblow to Tamil, his 
mother tongue. In somewhat severe language the learned 
author says : " For this act of vandalism he (Ezuttachhan) 
is admired by the people of Malabar as the father of Mala- 
yalam classical literature." 

We have so for tried to trace the early history of the 
country and language; but the various aspects of the life 
of the people, their culture, commerce, arts and crafts, 
dress, customs, etc., which can be culled out from the Tamil 
works of the period, are not furnished here for lack 
of space. 28 

26. Introduction to Dr. Gundert's Malayalam Dictionary. 

27. Tamil studies, The Origin of Malayalam. 

28. The works, of Kanakasabai Pillai and K. G, Sesha Aiyar, 
the Malabar Manual and Gazetteer, the Cochin Manual and the 
Travancore Manual, afford information on culture. R. P. Setu 
Pillai's studies in Silappadikaram in Tamil, Ch. 6, gives a valu- 
able picture. 



Professor of English, Presidency College, Madras. 

The invitation kindly extended to me by my friend, 
Dr. B. V. Narayanaswami Naidu, to contribute an article 
to the Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar Commemoration 
Volume was welcome, as I have always been convinced that 
the munificence and unexampled generosity of the Rajah 
which provoked the Government of Madras to an equally 
generous expenditure of public funds, was an act which 
deserved our warmest praise and gratitude. For a 
moment's reflection should convince us that, although our 
worship of Saraswati, our passion for education and learn- 
ing, have always been high, and perhaps genuine, we never 
regarded that endowment for educational purposes was a 
sacred duty to society which its richer members owed to it. 
The chorus of praise with which the few exceptions are 
received is testimony to their rarity. If the goddess of 
wealth has blessed the Rajah's endeavours, the goddess of 
wisdom has endowed him with the vision and discernment 
to realise that there is no better or more enduring mode of 
using one's wealth than in giving birth to an institution 
where, for generations to come, young men and women of 
the country could receive the blessings of a liberal educa- 
tion. Both in itself, therefore, and as an example to others 
equally favoured, the Rajah's gesture has been full of 



The princely gift of the Rajah of Chettinad which 
started the foundation gives to the Annamalai University 
a character all its own ; but there is another circumstance 
of equal significance. The University founded in Chidam- 
baram is of the unitary and residential type of which there 
is no other instance in the South and but a few in all India. 
It is well known, that it was the famous despatch of Sir 
Charles Wood in 1854, which brought the question of the 
founding of Universities in India, to the forefront. We 
read in that document that " among many subjects of 
importance none have a stronger claim to our attention 
than that of education. It is one of our most sacred duties 
to the nation, to be the means, as far as in us lies, of con- 
ferring upon the natives of India those vast moral and 
material blessings which flow from the general diffusion 
of knowledge, and which India may under providence 
derive from her connection with England." When, how- 
ever, in pursuance of this enlightened policy, which is un- 
doubtedly the source of the progress which the country has 
had these years, the universities of Calcutta, Bombay and 
Madras were founded in 1857, they were modelled rather 
on the University of London than on the much older and 
greater foundations, the residential universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge. The University of London, it need hardly 
be said, has a great reputation : it has always brought to- 
gether many eminent men in their spheres of knowledge 
and it has always striven to set its standards high. The 
nucleus of the London University was University College, 
founded " by a group of enlightened liberals and radicals 
for the purpose of giving a University education to all 
qualified students ' irrespective of class or creed V To 
compete with what was regarded as this " godless univer- 
sity/' the Anglican community soon brought into being 


King's College. In the meantime various educational 
institutions had sprung up all over the country and the 
London University was empowered in 1858 " to examine 
for a degree any students who presented themselves regard- 
less of how or where they had studied." This is the 
ground of the one serious criticism always levelled against 
the University of London : in the words of Dr. Flexner, 
" if a university is, whatever its type or form, a highly 
vitalized organism, vitalised not by administrative means, 
but by ideas and ideals, with a corporate life, I confess my- 
self unable to understand in what sense the University of 
London is a University at all." It was, however, perhaps 
inevitable that when in 1857 the three Presidency Univer- 
sities were founded to serve the needs of this vast conti- 
nent, anything like a residential university of the unitary 
type was unthinkable. The colleges founded for the pur- 
pose were to impart the teaching and the universities 
merely to examine the candidates and present them their 
degrees. The Universities of the Punjab and of Allaha- 
bad, founded in 1882 and 1887 respectively, in order to 
relieve the Calcutta University of some of the heavy bur- 
den she was bearing, were also of the same type as those 
of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. Gradually, however, 
it was recognised that Indian Universities should aim at 
being not merely agencies to conduct public examinations, 
but that they should undertake both teaching and research, 
should bring both teachers and pupils together, that, in 
short, the type of university organization known as the resi- 
dential should, wherever possible, be given preference to 
the merely affiliating type patterns of which were London 
and the new Indian universities. The findings of the Cal- 
cutta University Commission which was presided over by 
Sir Michael Sadler, and which included among its members 


distinguished educationists like Ramsay Muir, gave a great 
impetus to the residential ideal which was strongly advo- 
cated by the Commission. It was in this atmosphere that 
the unitary and teaching universities of the residential type, 
founded in Benares and Aligarh, Allahabad, Dacca and 
Lucknow, came into being. The Madras University Act of 
1923 had for its principal object the reorganization of the 
University "with a view to establishing a teaching and 
residential University at Madras, but neither in the parent 
university of Madras, nor in its daughters at Mysore, Wal- 
tair and Trivandrum has it been found feasible to achieve 
the residential ideal. The Annamalai 'University, how- 
ever, founded in 1929 is " unitary, teaching and residential 
in character, the first of its kind/' with little or no chance 
of being followed by a second, "in South India." It will 
be admitted that an institution which is unique both 
because it is a monument to the generosity and the vision 
of its founder and because of its character as a unitary and 
residential university deserves the warmest and discerning 
support of the citizens of South India. 

Is there any special virtue in this residential ideal 
which deserves our sympathy and consideration ? It is no 
doubt true that the residential idea is enshrined in the older 
Universities of England, and these are, by the consensus of 
world opinion, among the very greatest universities of the 
world. But are they not " semi-monastic institutions 
" which, arising in the Middle Ages, still retain in their 
character something of their origin ? It cannot be denied 
that Oxford and Cambridge are the only residential univer- 
sities that do exist. The newer universities of England, 
those of London, Sheffield, Manchester and others, the 
great universities of Scotland, are, like those of Germany, 
first rate organizations for purposes of learning and 


research, but in no sense residential. Nor are the great 
American Universities of Harvard and Yale residential. 
But it has been generally recognised that the ideals which 
underlie the residential system as embodied at Oxford and 
Cambridge are ideals of singular educational value. In the 
residential universities students who assemble together 
from the different corners of the country, or from beyond 
its borders, students differing not infrequently in their race 
and creed and their social upbringing, live together for a 
period. This common living, it has been found, affords 
unique opportunities for that free social intercourse neces- 
sary for the development of the maturing mind of the 
student who as a human animal is necessarily a social being. 
It is not the contact of the pupils with the matured minds 
of their teachers only, the value of which no one will ques- 
tion, but the contact of the pupils with their own fellows 
which is of inestimable educational value. The opportu- 
nities of a residential university are that this contact 
which is so valuable for the harmonious development of 
the faculties of the adolescent pupil is made possible not 
merely in the class rooms and lecture halls, but in the 
common rooms of students, in debating societies, in reli- 
gious associations and in games. It is well known that 
what is known as the tutorial system is a prominent feature 
of Oxford and Cambridge. " In its purest form it is tete-a 
tete dialogue between tutor and pupil." This is, of course, 
nothing strange to our ideas and is no other than the 
method followed by the ancient rishis and gurus, the 
method of Sandipani with that famous pair of pupils, 
Krishna and Kuchela. I am well aware that the tutorial 
system has its difficulties, often insuperable, in modern 
conditions and has been abandoned in Indian institutions, 
often without giving it any serious trial. I do not know 


if Annamalainagar ever took it up seriously or gave it the 
consideration it deserved. But it seems clear that Anna- 
malainagar, where there is, fortunately, only a single 
college for Arts and Science, with a few special schools of 
study attached, the opportunities for carrying out the resi- 
dential ideal are unique. A proper recognition of the uni- 
queness if the foundation would be to develop to its utmost 
limits the residential ideal which underlies the university. 

One of the recommendations of the Sadler Commission 
has been that Intermediate education should be separated 
from that of the University. Only a few universities like 
Dacca have carried out the recommendation and Annama- 
lai University has left it severly alone. But it appears to 
me that, rid of the responsibilities of its Intermediate sec- 
tion, which no doubt helps to swell the limited income of 
the university, the Annamalai University which is already 
turning out excellent work in several of its branches 
should be in a position to grow into a real residential 
university, concentrating its efforts mainly in the develop- 
ment of such branches of learning and research as are not 
provided elsewhere but, at the same time, are of immense 
value for the conservation and enlargement of South Indian 
culture. A University which sets before itself the highest 
ideals, which attracts to itself men of scholarship and 
character devoted to the single-souled pursuit of learning 
and culture, untrammelled by the interests of party and 
of narrow and petty considerations, and offers them reason- 
able conditions under which they may live and work, a 
university whose jealous care is the maintenance of the 
highest academic standards, has nothing to fear. It fills 
an essential need of the community and is bound to live 
and thrive. May we not hope that the Annamalai Univer- 
sity founded by the Rajah of Chettinad, whose Shashti- 


abdapurti the University rightly proposes to celebrate in 
a fitting manner, will develop into one of the premier insti- 
tutions of South India, making its invaluable contribution 
to the moral and intellectual advancement of this part of 
our great country ? 


Hon. Secy. Saiva Siddhantha Mahasamajam. 

Did you ever hear of a king worshipping his own 
minister? Has the mighty ruler of a vast country in any 
system of civilisation ever spent a whole year, day in and 
day out, hearing a learned disquisition on the lives of saints 
who belonged to the hoary past? Could a monarch ever 
afford to depute his prime minister for twelve months on 
a non-political mission? You would say "no"; yet all these 
strange things did happen in the Tamil country in the 
twelfth century of the Christian era. The king was Kulot- 
tunga Chola the Second and the Minister, Sekkilar. 

Literature was the king's hobby, and the Jain work 
Jeevaka Chintamani was his favourite book. The shrewd 
minister was an ardent Saivite and could not contemplate 
with equanimity, the rising tide of Jain influence over the 
young king. He perceived that a glowing version of the 
selfless lives of the sixty three Saiva saints was the only 
means to retrieve his master. In his afternoon conversa- 
tions, he narrated to the king seme of the soul stirring inci- 
dents in the lives of these saints. The king was so fascinated 
that he begged of his minister to reduce the lives into a book. 
He got his furlough, went to Chidambaram, gathered a band 
of scholars around him to collate all the available material 
for him, and produced in an exact year the "Periyapura- 



It was the most valuable book yet produced on 
Saiva history. Its value must be judged, not with 
reference to the modern scientific methods of historical re- 
search, but with due regard to the times when history was 
still in its infancy in most countries of the world. The way 
in which pieces of internal evidence to be found in the songs 
of the three great Saiva saints were put together, and their 
biographies shaped, makes one wonder how the author 
would have fared if better and ampler material had been 
available. The book was not merely history or biography 
but also a piece of literature possessing high classical value. 

The king was so much impressed with the excellence of 
the book, which was in verse, that he requested his minister 
to undertake a v^ry detailed expDoiuon inereof. The minis- 
ter agreed. A daily assembly of scholars was convened by; 
the king for a year. The hall chosen was the grand edifice 
with a thousand pillars in the northeast corner of the 
Chidambaram temple. The minister explained all the 
niceties and subtleties of the book in such a way that the 
entire audience was entranced and spellbound. Pindrop 
silence prevailed and the soul was lifted far above the 
mundane plane. Tears flowed freely when the sufferings 
and privations of some of the saints were narrated. The 
king and his subjects felt alike. The year was a unique 
experience in the life of everyone. The seed for a true uni- 
versity was then sown, and it has taken eight long centu- 
ries for it to sprout out and shape itself into the temple of 
learning, ivhose founder's sixty-first birthday we are proud- 
ly celebrating to-day. 

The king was overpowered with emotion and fell at 
his minister's feet. He mounted the minister and his book 

on the state elephant, sat behind them, and waved chamara 


with both his hands, and went in procession round the main 
streets. His subjects stood speechless and wonderstruck, 
watching the royal procession. Here was pen mightier 
than the sword in the noblest sense. 

The minister was so sincere in practising what he prea- 
ched that he preferred retirement to the glamour of state. 
The king gave leave with a heavy heart and chose the minis- 
ter's brother to succeed him. The minister in his retire- 
ment was provided with every comfort which a simple and 
solitary life demanded. He spent his last years in devout 
contemplation of his Maker. 

Nowhere has history recorded events of this kind which 
lift us from the base and material turmoils of earthly exis- 
tence into the ethereal region of spiritual communion with 
the Infinite. Such events did truly happen at Chidam- 
baram once. Let us pray for their repetition in a suitable 
form in the near future to lift us back to catch a glimpse of 
that bliss. 



On the occasion of the 61st birthday of the Rajah 
of Chettinad, I wish to join the chorus of tributes offered 
to him for, his share in the cause of promoting culture in 
larger than that of any other man in South India. The 
Annamalai University stands out as a towering and glori- 
ous monument to the magnanimity of its great and noble 
founder and demonstrates his wisdom and foresight, for it 
is an effective, genuine and progressive University educa- 
tion that can supply the nation with the creative minds of 
culture and with youths equipped with the qualities of 
leadership which it so much needs. There is a tendency in 
some quarters to belittle the importance of the establish- 
ment of Universities and consider efforts at the expansion of 
higher education to be a superfluity, but at the present stage 
of India's history when wise planning and deep thinking 
to reconstruct national life are so essential in order to ena- 
ble her to take her due place in the comity of nations, we 
require a sufficient number of men and women endowed 
with the training that higher education imparts. I do not 
believe that there is a surfeit of such men and women in 
this land at present and higher education cannot be said to 
have reached saturation point. 

In this article I wish to deal with the fundamentals of 
true culture, in the implanting of which our Universities 
are primarily engaged. Culture in its etymological sense 
means cultivation and has many connotations, but it is 


usually taken to be synonymous with the cultivation of the 
mind through the medium of knowledge. In the majority 
of instances education is an indispensable pre-requisite of 
culture for knowledge is power; it is knowledge that sup- 
plies us with facts, ideas and ideals that make up life's 
kaleidoscope. Facts dominate life and ideas control the 
world and these have their basis in knowledge, which endows 
one with the capacity of deciding what to do. Usually it is 
education which holds the key that unlocks the treasures of 
culture. Hence the very essence of culture must be art and 
science and the human effort concerned ceaseless effort in 
the sphere of study and in the domains of observation, 
reflection and contemplation. 

But culture is not simply the cultivation of the mind. 
Mere knowledge which satisfies curiosity and the crowding 
of one's memory with facts is not culture; rather culture is 
the fine fulfilment of the knowledge acquired. How is this 
fulfilment achieved? By activity of thought. Knowledge 
becomes active thought when it is utilised and applied to the 
life around. But though knowledge static and inert is not 
culture, it must be remembered that knowledge in motion, 
for wrong ends is the mosc terrible force in nature and is the 
very negation of culture. Totalitarian Europe offers an 
example of this, where, despite intellectual progress of a 
high order and the onward march of science, the elements 
of culture are absolutely wanting. Thus while knowledge 
is comparatively useless unless put into application, it must 
be not utilised and related to the affairs of life as will satisfy 
human needs and lead to human amelioration. Bacon says, 
"Some men think that the gratification of curiosity is the 
end of knowledge; some love of fame; some the pleasure of 
dispute; some the necessity of supporting themselves by 
knowledge, but the real use of all knowledge is this that we 


should dedicate our reason which was given to us by God to 
the use and advantage of man." 

The application of one's knowledge for human needs 
being the real import of culture, we find that it is not merely 
in the centres of learning that culture resides. It is not un- 
common to discover sometimes even an uneducated culti- 
vator, with no literary education at all but who has learnt 
his lessons on the book of Life and on the lap of Nature, to 
evince greater signs of culture than some of the by-products 
of our Universities. In such a case, though the range of 
the man's knowledge is small, that knowledge sparkles, it is 
alive; though his ideas are few, they are not inert and dead 
matter but constantly related to the stream of events that 
enter his life and the lives of those within his ken. This 
fundamental of culture, namely that the mind enriched and 
humanized should be a running brook for those that need 
to quench their thirst and not a still image on the canvas has 
to be grasped by those who are engaged in the pursuit of 
higher knowledge, and our Universities should set before 
themselves the task of evoking the interest of the students 
in putting their knowledge to use and throwing it into all 
its combinations with the life around. Education is gene- 
rally undertaken for its utility as a means of livelihood and 
also as a mark of polish and refinement, but it is deprived 
of its real significance if in the pursuit of narrow personal 
ends it fails to arouse in the minds of young men and wo- 
men that impulse of service, which is the essence of true 
culture. An education that does not rouse one's active 
sympathy to the dumb pangs of misery and unhappiness of 
the lives submerged in the shadows is one that is devoid of 
its cultural aspect. 

The time has arrived when the youths of this land, who 
are the future moulders of the nation's destiny, should realize 


the true significance of culture and get acquainted with the 
implications of Noblesse Oblige. A sphere wherein they 
can render yeoman service is that of the liquidation of mass 
illiteracy. The problem of making India's population 
literate is one of stupendous magnitude and of urgent 
importance. We learn in history that in the reign of Asoka 
about 60 per cent of the inhabitants of this land were literate. 
To-day, however, not even 10 per cent are literate. And 
it is the monster Ignorance that has been devastating the 
land from a long time past that has given birth to the evil 
conditions, which are undermining the strength and sapping 
all potentialities for good inherent in the nation. India's 
appallingly high death-rate, the incidence of epidemic 
diseases, the existence of social evils, and the prevalence of 
a high rate of crime are all to be traced to the ignorance in 
which people are steeped. During the past 50 years, every 
decennial census showed an increase of 1 per cent literacy. 
If the present rate of progress of literacy is not accelerated, 
it will take at least a thousand years for India to become 
literate. Since the task is of immense magnitude and of vital 
importance, it behoves the students of the Universities to 
contribute their quota to the great work of national regenera- 
tion. China has awakened from her opiate slumber of 
ages by the efforts of her students, who have dedicated a 
good portion of their holidays to imparting knowledge to 
the adults. Will not the youths of India answer the 
sonorous call of duty when the clarion is sounded? If they 
have imbibed the true spirit of culture, there is no doubt 
that they will. 

While service constitutes an essential element of culture, 
it is erroneous to assume that a life of isolation from worldly 
affairs is a necessary pre-requisite, for a cultured man is pre- 
eminently one who does not ignore the practical aspects of 


existence. As has been pointed out by Johnson, "The seeds 
of culture may be planted in solitude but must be cultivated 
in public." Culture though born of meditation, through the 
inward travail of the spirit, thrives most in contact with life 
and draws its vitality both from Nature and from man and 
is never inert but active. 

Culture denotes the cultivation of a higher quality of life 
consequent on the mental training received, whether through 
the medium of books or otherwise. While objectively it re- 
quires an intelligent understanding of and interest in some- 
thing tending to human welfare besides one's own job in the 
workaday world, subjectively it calls for self-analysis, self- 
control and self-reformation. Culture manifests itself in 
good manners and a catholicity of outlook that recoils from 
arrogance and exclusiveness; in understanding that ignores 
not charity; in a spirit of compromise and accommodation 
that realizes the need to co-operate with others and adopt the 
principle of live and let live; and above all in sympathy that 
knows no caste and creed. Culture awakens the sense of 
fellowship latent in all men. A cultured individual realizes 
that life is a unity and man is part of that life; he is consci- 
ous of the fact that he is part of that one world process that 
is at work about him as in him, and like the ancient Roman 
Emperor proclaims, "I do not regard as strange and foreign 
to myself anything that is human inasmuch as I am human/' 

Moreover, a cultured man not merely recognizes diver- 
sity, which is Nature's law, but respects it, since variety 
yields charm and colour to life. In a ] a nd like India inhabit- 
ed by members of different castes and creeds, the most 
urgent desideratum of to-day, namely unity, can come about, 
paradoxically, not by a process of uniformity but by respect- 
ing differences. The hall-mark of a cultured man and 
woman is to be free from narrow prejudices and to be able to 


appreciate the good and beautiful wherever found. No 
community or race should suffer from the delusion that it 
alone has the monopoly of truth, of virtues and of the fine 
arts, for of all dungeons the most terrible are those invisible 
ones wherein men's souls are imprisoned in self-delusion 
bred by vanity. The environments, the requirements, the 
temperaments and traditions of the various races and peoples 
have been responsible for different ways of approach to 
life's problems, but the divergences of the paths pursued 
should not befog our vision to the soundness of many of the 
methods and maxims of those different from ourselves. 
Kipling rightly says, "There are nine and ninety ways of 
inditing tribal lays, and very single one of them is right." 
Culture is essentially broad-based in its outlook and its 
appeal is universal. Hence the different centres of learn- 
ing while recognizing and utilising diversity should admit 
interchange and exchange and each University should esta- 
blish Chairs for the fundamental ideals and realities within 
other cultures besides developing its own and pulsate with 
all thoughts that are high, noble and great, not merely in 
the life of its own people but of the world in general. In 
the words of Lord Morley. "Let there be preferences, but 
let there be no exclusion/' 

India remains chaotic because the mental approach of 
the nation is defective. The problems of India will be solv- 
ed when the educated sons and daughters of her land will 
become imbued with the true spirit of culture and will 
realize that despite diversities, the adherents of different 
beliefs, customs and traditions and the products of varying 
environments while retaining their own individuality and 
living their own lives to the full can still combine together as 
in a symphony orchestra, wherein the various instruments, 
though they are different from one another, yet all contri- 



bute to the production of a melodious harmony. Such 
combination and the cultivation of the true choir spirit, 
wherein each singer is giyen full scope to develop the best in 
him while he, on the other hand, gives of his utmost for the 
success of the choir, should be one of the ideals towards 
which our seats of learning should strive. 

Mathew Arnold spoke of sweetness and light as the 
marks of true culture. The Annamalai University has 
added to it faith and courage qualities which are of pro- 
found significance at the present juncture of world history. 
One of the most threatening features of life to-day is the 
reaction against faith and reverence, and expert designers 
who are planning out the main lines of a new and better 
order realize that their edifice will never stand unless steps 
are taken to check the rising tide of irreverence and lack of 
faith. Indeed, without faith the wheels of progress will 
be braked and civilization is bound to suffer a collapse. 
Courage is also a quality whose need was never greater 
than at present Courage to battle against the forces of 
evil, courage to face life's problems with a spirit of stern, 
persistent determination to overcome difficulties, courage 
to surrender prejudices, courage to resist mass thinking and 
the temptation to applaud all popular sentiments irrespective 
of quality, courage to act up to one's conviction and to the 
new vision of world progress. 

In short, the idea of refinement appears to be insepara- 
ble from that of culture. The term refinement calls up to 
mind the picture of a furnace burning the dross and yield- 
ing the gold or that of a sieve sifting the grain from the 
chaff. Culture imparts a finer tone, a gentler touch and a 
nobler quality to an individual and contributes to a richer 
life more directly than health contributes to wealth. 



Though the acquisition of culture involves unremitting 
effort and sacrifice, the satisfaction obtained therefrom is 
immense, for while the pleasures of wealth and power are 
fleeting, the ecstasy derived from culture is perennial in 
enjoyment and of permanent duration. 



Dr. Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, the first Rajah of 
Chettinad, is a unique personality. And his diamond Jubi- 
lee is now fittingly commemorated by his grateful country- 
men whom he long served and lavishly benefited by his 
numerous acts of Philanthropy and Patriotism. Hailing 
from the most talented affluent and charitable family of 
hereditary Bankers in Kanadukathan, he yet easily out-dis- 
tanced and eclipsed all his forbears and cousins both in 
making colossal wealth and what is rarer still in wisely and 
lavishly spending fabulous fortunes on public welfare. 

Many are celebrated charities that redound to the credit 
and glory of his family; now for nearly a century, starting 
from 1850. Chidambaram where God Nataraja sarabands 
His Eternal Cosmic dance came to be the centre of their 
charitable activities. The famous Gold-domed hold fane of 
God naturally received their first attention. The Pagoda 
and the Towers were renovated extensively and elaborately 
on the eve of this century. A feeding house for the poor and 
choultry for all pilgrims were their next gifts to this place 
of perpetual festivity. The Rajah Sahib's senior brother, 
Diwan Bahadur Ramasamy Chettiar, the first Dewan Baha- 
dur in Chettinad, earned the eternal gratitude of this holy 
place by his invaluable two-fold gifts of a well equipped 
High School and a protected water supply to quench the 
physical and mental thirst alike, 


Walking in his brother's wake, Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar first founded on the east suburb of Chidambaram 
three great Colleges successively, all in the name of his 
favourite Goddess, to wit Sree Minakshi Arts College, Sree 
Minakshi Tamil College and Sree Minakshi Sanskrit Col- 
lege. To these he soon added his Sree Minakshi Oriental 
Training College. He then started his brilliant career by 
quietly and unostentatiously minting millions with his un- 
rivalled business talents on the one hand, and 
on the other by lavish gifts, endowments and 
benefactions in countless ways with counting 
costs all over Tamilaham and even in distant 
non-Tamil countries such as, Ceylon and Burma. It 
is no exaggeration to say that there is not any great institu- 
tion or cause, community or country within the ambit of his 
enterprising fellow Nagarathar's activities that was not en- 
riched or benefited by the inexhaustible purse and philan- 
thropy of this modern Croesus and Macalnas rolled in to 
one. The Madura College, and the American College and 
Hostels in Madura and Pasumalai, the National High School 
at Trichinopoly, the Mylapore P. S. High School, the Indian 
Public School at Dehra Dun, the Irwin School at Delhi, the 
Ramakrishna Institution at Madras and Ootacamund and 
several educational and religious institutions in Rangoon, 
Moulmein Kanbe, and Colombo, the Y.M.C.A. and Red Cross 
Society are only some of the many institutions which were 
fertilized by his munificence. His piety which is non-sec- 
tarian, enthused him to renovate at great cost Thillai- 
Govindar's Shrine, God Pasupatheeswara's Temples in Anna- 
malai and Karur, the Hindu Temple in Colombo, besides the 
abiding upkeep of the works, and maintenance of Kuttelais 
and endowments at the holy shrine of Sree Nataraja in 


The Crowning glory of his passion for services to his 
fellowmen and the sweetest fruits of his native patriotism 
is the latest yet the first and only Unitary, Teaching and 
Residential University in South India appropriately named 
after him. It is an edifice emerging four-square on and out 
of the four Sree Meenakshi Colleges which he previously 
founded on his extensive estates in the eastern environment 
of Chidambaram. The imposing new University buildings 
superbly and solidly built grudging neither cost nor care, 
stand towering above and overlooking, extensive grounds 
which are in turn enveloped by emerald fields and green 
swards. They form by day a panoramic perspective 
of picturesque piles, as a rare and unique blend of 
Classic Indian, Saracenic and Romantic styles. By 
night the brilliantly lighted premises of the Univer- 
sity present a tableau of celestial charm of seraphic 
rest. The sanitary water supply, perfect drainage, the 
swimming pool, and boating channels each at an 
enormous cost the extensive and up-to-date play grounds and 
exquisite sports pavilion, are some of the graceful additions to 
the university, each and every one of which indebted more or 
less to the Rajah's privy purse. The new guest and rest- 
house and the staff-club on grand style are also indebted to 
his munificence. The magnificent ladies' club which is a 
very unique, costly and fine building, with extensive well- 
laid grounds is also the exclusive gift of the Rajah Saheb 
to the University. The hostels fri general and the new 
Women's Hostel in particular add to the charm of the 
panorama. In short the buildings alone would be worth 
about twenty-five lakhs of rupees. 

Add to all this, his lavish contributions to the Univer- 
sity endowment fund, and the several auxiliary and addi- 
tional endowments for prizes, medals, studentships to 


scholars of this university for studies both in the university 
and in foreign universities. The up-to-date library house 
in the superb left wing of the new Senate House, the 
science laboratories, and the charming music college well- 
match and add to the fascination and utility of the Uni- 
versity. Great endowments to educational institutions are 
not rare all over the world. But a well-equipped and en- 
dowed modern university owing almost its all from its 
inception to private enterprise and personal philanthropy 
of a single individual is not heard of in the old world, 
whereas the Rajah's University is an up-to-date Modern 
University second to none. The unparalleled philanthropy 
of this modern Croesus of South India attracted the atten- 
tion of even the apathetic alien rulers. The Viceroy on 
the local Government's well deserved recommendations 
bestowed on him the hereditary title, style, honour and 
privileges of a Rajah in recognition and acknowledgment of 
his great philanthropy and genuine patriotism, in addition 
to the many other titles they had previously honoured him 
with such as the Knighthood, Diwan Bahadur, etc. 

The Rajah is a real Karma Yogin, and his admirable 
disciplined life most rigorous and yet most restful, is the 
envy of businessmen and a wonder to all. With a zest for 
work, and spleen-proof placid temper an admirable abandon 
coupled with a genius for infinite industry and devotion to 
details, with volcanic energy embalmed in sweetest suavity, 
with an unbending will matched by innate courtesy and in- 
stinctive devotion, with enthusiasm in enterprise and aver- 
sion to lassitude, he is easily a prince among men as he is a 
man among princes. Rising invariably at 4 a.m. he finishes 
his ablutions and devotional regimen and urgent personal 
business correspondence all before 7 a.m. He is then ready 
to attend to the heavy business routine entailed by the in- 


numerable business organisations and branches he runs in 
India, Burma, Malaya and Ceylon, and to calls and appeals 
to his head and heart, his time and purse alike. His unfail- 
ing method and admirable system, his mastery of details, his 
phenomenal memory and ready resources are some of his 
traits rare even among the captains of Industry and multi- 
pliers of millions in the busy west. His statesmanship, his 
reserve with well informed and diplomatic talent, his deep 
knowledge of men and affairs and his versatility would 
easily have made him a forefront cabinet-minister, Premier 
or President if only he were a citizen in any self governing 
country. As it is he stands in the Indian world of to-day 
as a striding colossus of wealth, a power for benevolence and 
a tower of strength to his weaker countrymen. His delight 
is his silent selfless service, and his strength is his matchless 
character. His unrivalled and enviable success is the fruit 
of his manifold virtues. His lofty service to culture and 
higher education earned him his doctorate honoris causa 
from the Madras University. We, his grateful compatriots 
and admiring countrymen cordially wish him on the happy 
completion of his Sixtieth Birthday a Methuselah's longe- 
vity, Solomon's happy prosperity and Socrates' wisdom. May 
the Almighty God shower lavishly all His choicest blessings 
on this Modern Kubera and inspire him to continue to pro- 
mote the progress of his mother country and the welfare of 
his loving but less fortunate country. May he live long for the 
Glory of God and for the honour and success of persever- 
ance, patriotism and public service, as an example to his 
peers now, and as an inspiration to all in future, is the 
prayer that goes up to God to-day from the hearts of all his 
well-wishing fellow-countrymen. 



Since the French Revolution, the states of Europe and 
the colonial countries of the world have grown on the two 
principles of Nationality and Democracy which seemed to 
sustain and fortify each other. Nationalism has had its cri- 
tics ; Lord Acton called it a retrograde step in history. 
Democracy too has its detractors who find it guilty of the 
grave error of supposing that a crowd could understand 
and choose. But, in the midst of " the chaos of talk, 
of argument, of opinion, " men must find some excuse 
for unity and build a state for their secular needs, or 
be drawn into the political orbit of a stronger com- 
munity. The task is always urgent and the penalty 
of failure is extinction. A common loyalty to something 
outside of self is needed to make a community: 
the nation replaced the dynastic ruler as the object of such 
devotion. Authority is needed to transform the community 
into the more enduring structure which is the State ; Demo- 
cratic theory furnished government with the sovereign 
authority of the General Will. Thus there is nothing for- 
tuitous in the close association of nationalism and demo- 
cracy at the beginning of the Nation-State. If people come 
together, they do so only because they all recognize certain 
values distinct from the values of other people. If a com- 
munity keeps together, it can do so only under a govern- 
ment which can be trusted to guarantee these values. Yet 
it would not be right to describe the state as the work of 


free will and reason ; for in the world of reality there are 
no absolutely free individuals and rational choice is almost 
non-existent. Nations are seldom truly "self-determined." 
Nationhood is sometimes achieved by the pressure of active 
groups inside the community. And "small" nations are 
born of the strategic needs of great powers. National unity 
may be fostered by similarity of culture, race, language, 
social habits and historical experience among the people 
that constitute the nation. National governments may 
acquire greater power by closely representing the national 
mind. But forces inside the national community and out- 
side should be favourably disposed if a Nation-State is to 
emerge and survive. 

In whatever way a Nation-State may be founded, it 
cannot forever be immune to attack. The complex of hopes, 
aspirations and fears that made it soon unmakes it. The 
cultural values of the ruling group are repudiated by the 
generality which once followed the elite. Patriotism tends 
to find a smaller and more intense expression as regional- 
ism. Submerged dialects "come up again and divide the 
nation. Conservatives and radicals split the community. 
Several sectional economic interests engage in strife. When 
people see themselves as really belonging not to the politi- 
cal community of the nation but to a small group or class, 
when classes within the state appeal to or sympathise with 
similar classes in other states, the nation has ceased to be. 
When nations go to war to destroy nations the ruin is com- 
plete. The failure of the principle of nationality as a neces- 
sary and sufficient basis of political union is manifest today. 
But in the absence of a more rational or popular prin- 
ciple, nationality with all its dangers and inadequacies must 
prevail. Therefore the political animal instead of blaming 
nationalism which is the cause of his present agony blames 


representative democracy and turns against it. It is not 
surprising that when the foundations of society are crumbl- 
ing, people should be occupied with the reform of mere 
government. It might be urged against the critics of demo- 
cracy that representative democracy is only a mechanism 
for the expression of the general will and it cannot create 
a general will where no such will is to be found. In an 
entirely rational world of intellectuals democracy would be 
acquitted and nationalism banished. Societies, however, 
detect the scapegoat by a sure instinct and nations in dis- 
tress invariably pervert or overthrow their democratic 
institutions. Rid of a machine that would not work a 
miracle, they subside into an artificial unity imposed by 
a dominant group which has cultivated the will to power 
and seeks to encourage in its subjects the will to believe. 
In the end, new political myths may take the place and 
even the name of democracy and nationality. 

In colonial countries feelings of nationality are easily 
engendered. Common and reluctant subjection to a foreign 
power makes a nation of the people inhabiting a centrally 
administered territory. What cost much to free peoples 
comes gratis to their subjects. A people demanding free- 
dom and self-determination cannot imagine a native gov- 
ernment that is not from the outset democratic. So 
nationalism and democracy are intertwined in the affections 
of a people aspiring, or even struggling to be free. But 
the vicissitudes of democracy and nationalism are the same 
all the world over ; in fact transplanted ideas go through 
the natural cycle of their lives with sensational rapidity. 

India is no exception to the rule, though patriots of 
no country can be got to deny the uniqueness of their land. 
When India came under British rule, it was inevitable that 
her political structure should be determined by Western 


ideas. When Macaulay triumphed over the Orientals, it 
was inevitable that the educated classes should seek for 
their home-land the institutions they had been taught to 
love and admire. Raja Rammohan Roy complained that 
India was " a country into which the notion of patriotism 
has never made its way." A century later Jawaharlal 
Nehru could write, ' 'Patriotism is not enough, we want 
something higher, wider and nobler." That is the measure 
of the distance travelled by the intelligentzia in the course 
of a hundred years, and proof of the success of western edu- 
cation. It is a popular superstition, impossible to eradicate, 
that our educational system was devised to produce and 
only turned out inferior employees of government and com- 
mercial offices. On the contrary it has produced in the past, 
and is still turning out in large numbers, young men and 
women equipped to meet all the needs of a healthy 
society. But in the strange political conditions of the early 
days, government distrusted the educated classes, for in the 
words of Grant Duff they were 'professional malcontents ; 
busy, pushing talkers ; intriguers and grumblers'. Their 
patriotism then made them unpopular with the rulers. 
They were also soon to lose the regard of the people ; for 
the first fruits of the democratic theory they preached came 
to be a contemptuous rejection of the values they had learn- 
ed to cherish. Nevertheless it was a growing class educated 
on western lines that propagated widely and planted firmly 
the notions of nationalism and democracy in this country. 

The intelligentzia was from the beginning variously 
handicapped. Most of the educated men came from the 
poorer sections of the middle class and therefore lacked the 
local influence that would have made them an example to 
the countryside. They could not function as a leisure class. 
Nor could they obtain any position of power and real res- 


ponsibility in the government of the country. They studied 
social and political theories out of textbooks ; they scanned 
the administrative methods of the British Government ; but 
of real politics and power politics they were altogether inno- 
cent. The ethical teaching they had absorbed at school and 
their native love of peace reconciled them to their lot. 
They had to take many things for granted and among them 
was the Government of India which was a gigantic adminis- 
trative contrivance working so smoothly and with so much 
of Benthamite efficiency that no one asked where it got its 
power from. They saw the whole of India made one by a 
centralised system of law and government and understood 
the unifying effect of education in the English tongue. 
They could imagine a gradual Indianization of the 
personnel of government and a gradual association 
of the public in the councils of government. The 
language of the educated men of the last gene- 
ration shows how firmly they believed in the supreme 
significance of the administration and how careless they 
were of the tremendous but obscure processes by which 
nations come of age or perish. If the educated classes were 
unable to understand or control the political climate of the 
country, they at least kept alive in institutions of higher 
learning respect for law and constitutionalism and the 
liberal devotion to "fundamental human decencies." 

The piety of the educated gave us the political vision 
of a united Indian nation stretching from the Himalayas to 
the Cape. The vision was to be realized by an education 
fitting the people to the service of a constitutional demo- 
cracy. And the Government should itself undertake the 
tuition of its subjects enabling them to reach in time the 
level of a free, united and democratic nation. And this 
new nation was not to remain alone and friendless in a 


hostile world ; it would be a member of a great Common- 
wealth of Nations, a defensive league girdling the globe. 

But when the first instalment of political power was 
bestowed on the natives of India, these noble academic 
theories had to retreat before the scramble which a coveted 
substance excites. Racial, territorial, economic, religious 
and linguistic interests manifested themselves and had to 
be acknowledged by the rulers and the ruled alike. Political 
India accepted a federal organization of the central govern- 
ment with its implications of territorial autonomy for seve- 
ral areas within the country. Nationalist political parties 
upheld many claims of language, culture and economic 
interests, in order to win a large following against the estab- 
lished order. Just as subject people get nationalism with- 
out tears, sub-nationalities acquire effusive recognition of 
their integrity and permanence from the government as 
well as from the rebels. It would be foolish to ignore the 
natural and legitimate expression of sectional interests ; they 
represent real political forces which cannot be dissipated 
by assumed indifference or by vehement invective. Any 
one of them, and not necessarily the largest, may yet grow 
powerful enough to make and lead a real Indian nation. 

Mr. Ruthnaswamy whose knowledge of the theory and 
practice of Government and Politics is unrivalled wrote in 
1932, "If ever there was a country that was made for unity 
it was India (But) the history of India is a con- 
tinuous and complete denial of its geography." And in the 
epilogue to his treatise on The Making of the State, he ex- 
pressed the hope that " the State that has at last been made 
in India may yet be the making of India. " The duty of 
making the nation is here cast upon statesmen and adminis- 


trators for in any sane order responsibility must go with 

The late S. Srinivasa lyengar told the Kumbakonam 
Parliament, "Let us firmly and ardently believe that, to 
whatever communities we belong, we Indians are all of one 
race and nationality ; on that conviction of racial identity 
alone depends our salvation in this world, in the present 
and in the future." Here was an attempt to create a new 
myth which would unite all the citizens of India. 

It is unlikely that practical politicians and busy adminis- 
trators will find the time and opportunity to devote 
themselves to the service of Indian nationalism. It is even 
more unlikely that any one will persuade the Indian masses 
to see themselves as one race. Meantime, the recrimina- 
tions of sectional leaders separate classes and groups more 
definitely from one another. Indian nationalism has nearly 
attained the status of a lost cause and the right to asylum 
in Universities. 

In these distracted times it is the duty of schools of 
social studies in Indian Universities to train the generations 
that pass through them to look on the political scene with 
eyes of compassion and not of revenge, to keep the channels 
of understanding open, and to equip every cause with fair- 
minded advocates and willing servants. Even a hostile and 
uncomprehending community deserves the ministration of 
trained minds. 



DR. K. C. CHAKKO, B.A., D.Sc., (LOND.), 

A.M.I.E., (IND.), I.E.S., 
Principal, Engineering College, Madras 

The lands belonging to the University now cover an 
area of 572 acres of which 100 acres were handed down 
with the Sri Minakshi College and the 168 acres were a gift 
by the Founder direct to the University and the remainder 
were acquired by the University. The area lies to the East 
of the Railway line at Chidambaram and is bounded on the 
other sides by the Uppanar and Khan Sahib Canals. 

Owing to the difficulty felt in finding accommodation 
for the staff and students in the Town, four professor's and 
four lecturers' quarters and hostel accommodation were 
already built as part of the Sri Minakshi College. These, 
with the College blocks, coverd a plinth area of 71822 sq. ft. 
and cost 8 lakhs of rupees. 

The establishment of the University as a Unitary 
Teaching and Residential Institution by the Act of 1929 
not only made the existing accommodation utterly inade- 
quate for the needs of a University. Accordingly, a pro- 
gramme of buildings, roads and other works was commenced 
and buildings covering an area of 273,361 sq. ft. and costing 
12 lakhs of rupees have so far been completed. Though a 
few individuals regarded the expenditure as a waste of 
money, the University authorities consistently held the view 
that a reasonable amount of expenditure on Buildings and 


other amenities usually associated with a University were 
absolutely essential. The new buildings include a Convo- 
cation Hall, Library and Administrative Block, an Oriental 
Block, four new Hostel Blocks, a Union Hall, a Music Col- 
lege and a Guest House. There are now quarters provided 
for 100 members of staff and 60 menials. A few figures 
regarding the buildings are given in the Appendix. 

The growth of the University in the first ten years of its 
existence has been so rapid that the Building Schemes 
and the provision of amenities could not keep pace with the 
needs of the expanding University. Thus the number of 
students rose from 771 to 983 in the three years ending 
1940 and by the construction of four new hostel blocks, the 
accommodation was sufficient for only 651 students. 

The essential needs for the present size of the Uni- 
versity have been practically supplied excepting the Water 
Supply and drainage schemes. With the rapid increase 
in expenditure consequent on the constant expansion of 
the University, and the added difficulties caused by the 
present war, it has become necessary to temporarily stop 
the expansion and begin a period of consolidation. It is 
hoped that before long, the University will begin to grow 
again with renewed vigour until it attains its full maturity. 

There are at present 18449 feet of roads as against 
4480 feet in the pre-University days. Of these, 7466 feet 
have been tarred and it is proposed to tar the remaining 
portions also in due course. 

There was no garden worth mentioning before the 
University was established. Since then 967,600 square 
feet of area, i.e., nearly 22 acres, have been converted into 
gardens and playgrounds and this area is being gradually 


The beginnings of a protected water supply scheme 
have also been made. Water from the Usuppur channel is 
led by an open channel, one mile long, into two sedimenta- 
tion tanks each capable of holding over three million cubic 
feet of water. From these the water is pumped through a 
pressure filter to an overhead tank of 25,000 gallons capa- 
city. The hostel and 24 of the lecturers' quarters are 
now being supplied with filtered water. The water will 
soon be distributed to the areas through suitable pipes. 

The drainage scheme for the whole area has not been 
taken up, but a scheme is in existence for the hostel and 
college blocks and the Hospital. 

These works were in some cases carried out depart- 
mentally by the University Engineers but the more import- 
ant buildings were constructed by experienced contractors. 
The plans and bills were scrutinised by distinguished engi- 
neers, such as Dewan Bahadur A. V. Ramalinga Aiyer and 
Dewan Bahadur N. Swaminatha Iyer, Retired Chief Engi- 
neers of the Madras P.W.D. and Rao Bahadur K. V. Natesa 
Iyer, Retired Chief Engineer, Travancore State. The admi- 
nistrative block was originally designed by Mr. L. M. Chitale 
but during execution was modified by Messrs. Edwards Reid 
and Booth. The University Engineers in chronological 
order are : Mr. K. Yegnanarayana Sastri, Mr. V. R. Sub- 
rahmania Iyer, Mr. S. Rangachariar, Mr. S. P. Raju Aiyer 
and Mr. J. Krishnamurthi and the contractors who carried 
out the major works are : Mr. P. Rajabather Mudaliar, 
Mr. V. Subrahmania Aiyer, Mr. Kolandaivelu Mudaliar, 
Mr. N. Kandaswami Pillai, Rao Saheb S. Sambasivam 
Pillai, Ratna Mudaliar and Santanam Aiyar and Messrs. 
Gannon and Dunkerley. The Engineer member of the 
Syndicate gave technical advice on engineering questions 



Although the standard of academic work carried out 
by the University may be regarded as an important cause 
for the prestige of the University, it cannot be denied that 
the buildings, roads, gardens and other amenities have also 
played a very great part in giving the University the impor- 
tance it has attained. 


Building. Cost. Date. 


1. Library and Administrative 

Buildings .. 3,77,098 1937 

2. Guest House . . 64,496 1938 

3. Union Hall . . 19,805 1937 

4. Music College and Music Hostel 33,258 1937 

5. Hostel Blocks, New . . 3,83,939 37-39 

6. Pandits' Quarters . . 68,810 38-40 

7. Vice-Chancellor's Quarters . . 63,842 1930 

8. Lecturers' Quarters . . 1,55,698 30-37 

9. Garrages & Tiffin Shed . . 11,160 1939 

10. Post & Telegraph Office . . 11,236 1938 

11. Professors' Quarters . . 1,44,938 30-37 

12. Ladies Club .. 15,000 1936 

13. Hospital & an Isolation Ward 26,550 36-37 

14. Women Students' Hostel . . 32,160 1938 

15. Menials' Quarters . . 33,892 1938 

16. College Buildings . . 5,24,305 24, 26, 32 

17. Clerks' Quarters . . 10,875 1933 




It is customary in the Science of language to talk of 
certain languages as constituting a family. By this meta- 
phorical usage it is implied that certain languages, which may 
be called sisters, represent so many local developments of 
one language which may be regarded as their common 
parent. Pushing the figure of speech further one will find 
that the languages which stand in the relation of sister to 
each other are daughters of the assumed mother. The idea 
is that in the course of the development of a language it has 
taken upon itself several shapes through the working of 
different conditions in different localities and has consequent- 
ly received several names. When a close examination of a 
number of languages indicates that they participate to a large 
extent in a common stock of words or root-elements of words, 
an inference is ordinarily made that the languages concerned 
may be descended from a common source. A comparison 
therefore of word-materials of languages would enable 
one in trying to determine the relationship that may exist 
between language and language. Because of such resem- 
blances as can be explained only on the assumption that the 
languages are varied forms of a single older language, a 
notion is naturally formed that the languages in question may 
be historically related to each other. 

Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu, Kudagu, 
Tuda, Kota, Kurukh or Oraon, Malto or Rajmahal, Kui or 
Khond, Gond and Brahui are languages which appear to 


have belonged to the same stock, viz., the Dravidian. 
Though the term "Dravidian" is ill-considered, coming as it 
does from a foreign source, it has gained such rich currency 
and wide-spread usage as a common name for designating 
these languages that it is prudent now not to quarrel with 
the usage but to allow it to continue. 

I shall make a short attempt in this paper simply to 
point out how these languages deserve to be brought under 
one family. While investigating the word-material of langu- 
ages with a view to arriving at a relationship, it is necessary 
to take such words only as express familiar and ordinary 
things, creatures, operations and family relations and such 
words as are indicative of the numerals and pronouns. 
Such members of the vocabulary as are used everywhere by 
every one almost every day are ot utmost importance from 
a philological point of view. "The language' consists to the 
philologist", as Dr. T. G. Tucker Gays, "of what is habitually 
spoken and habitually understood by the people at large." 
Words ordinarily used only by the learned classes or words 
of exceptional occurrence such as the strictly technical words 
of the arts and sciences are less important in a considera- 
tion of the question of ultimate relationship, for these are 
members of the vocabulary that are liable to be borrowed 
from foreign sources on contact with the foreigner. 

Space would permit a comparison only among the chief 
languages and therefore Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Mala- 
yalam alone would be taken now for the purpose. As words 
for familiar and ordinary things the following are found: 

ENGLISH Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam 

HOUSE viu vita 

manai mane 

il, illam illu illam 


































































It could be shown according to definite rules governing 
phonetic changes that these are various forms of the same 
word in each case. A iinai "ai" of Tamil ordinarily changes 
into a final "e" in Kamiada as in the words "talai" (head) 
and "Karai" (bank) which become "tale" and "kare". 
Thus the change from u manai >; to ol mane' 1 is explained. U H" 
of old is retained in Tamil as it was, whereas it has become 
"illu" in Telugu; this can be explained by means of stating 
that there was a tendency among certain speakers to affix 
a vowel, generally u ; to the consonantal ending of words for 
the sake of euphony. Witness for instance words such as 
kallu, mannu, alu etc. in Telugu standing in correspondence 
with Tamil kal, man, al etc. 

Among familiar and ordinary things must be included 
words relating to the parts of the body and to the Five 













































































it could be shown here too that in eacn case the change 
is due to tne operation oi certain phonetic principles, i'or 
instance, in accordance with the well-known law oi palatali- 
sation a primitive "kevi" nas changed into "Chevi" in Tamil, 
while Kannada retains a lorm (Kivi) which is truer to the 
original. Because oi the ionauess lor aspiration which a 
certain set oi speakers developed, "pal'' oi old became "hai" 
(and later hailu) even as words such as pattu, puii and 
painou have changed into haitu, huii and havu. Due to the 
common tendency of eliding a k V sound in medial places as 
in erumai ( bulialo) becoming emme in Kannada, Nerunal 
becoming Ne^nal in Tamil and Mnna in i'eiugu-Kannada, 
iN[eruppu has been changed into i^ippu in Telugu. 

Familiar creatures such as cow, fish, elephant and snake 
have words in these languages which have similar shapes. A, 



mm, Yanai or anai and pambu are found in one shape or the 
other in these languages answering to the names* of these 

Again, such common actions as eating, giving, going etc., 
are expressed almost by similar words: 

































Among words indicating family relations what a re- 

markable similarity is found! 






SISTER akkai 





Kannada Malayalam 







Numerals and pronouns, which are generally persistent 
and which therefore are sure to shed much light on deter- 
mining the question of relationship, are also found to have 
the same or corresponding shapes in these languages. 




































































Each one of the changes noticed in the foregoing sets 
of words can be phonologically explained. For instance, by 
means of what is known as the principle of compensatory 
lengthening, in a word like "avar" which stood as "avaru" 
by receiving an euphonic vowel addition at the end, 
the initial vowel a migrated from its place and took the 
place of the succeeding vowel "a" with an increase in quan- 
tity as a matter of compensation for what it had lost. Hence 
varu of Telugu and Avar of Tamil are ultimately related. 

Though words of the class mentioned above would help 
one in determining the relationship, they alone do not suffice 
to prove it. If this evidence is corroborated by evidence from 
grammatical structure, one could say that these languages 
do belong to the same family. The main principle underlying 
the grammatical structure of all these languages is what is 
called agglutination, i.e., gluing together of elements that 
are attachable and detachable at will. This then helps us 
in establishing that the languages mentioned before are 


members of the family generally known as the Dravidian. In 
order to show how these languages are similar in grammati- 
cal structure one sentence will now be cited. The English 
sentence "He said, o father, give me my share of the pro- 
perty" would be rendered into the four main languages 

Tamil Tandaiye, cottil enakku varavendiya parikai 
enakku taravendum enran. 

Telugu 6 tandrl, astilo naku vachche palu Yimmani 

Kannada Tandeye, astiyalli nanage baratakka 
palannu nanage kodu andaga. 

Malayalam Appa, Vastukkalil enikku Varendunna 
pahge tarename ennu parannu. 

Tandaiye of Tamil and tandeye of Kannada agree in ad- 
ding a final e as the vocative. Appa of Malayalam is exact- 
ly in line with the other way in which Tamil would form its 
vocative, namely, by dropping the final "n" in such places 
and affixing instead a. The Telugu tandrl also is analogous 
to the formation in Tamil by elongating the final short "i" 
as in " talaivi " from "talaivi." 

Tamil cottil=cottu+il (the sign of the 7th case); 
Telugu asti+lo (Here lo is but an inversion of ul, another 
sign of the locative in Tamil); Kannada asti+alli (Here 
"alii" is a morphological element derived from an old inde- 
pendent word meaning 'that place' and serves very well to 
express the idea of the locative) ; Malayalam Vastu+kal+il 
(Here kal, the pluralising particle and il, the locative sign 
have been glued on to the root-word) . 



Tamil enakku and Malayalam enikku are but phonetic 
variations of the same inflection. It is significant that ku 
or gu or ge is the element expressive of the idea of the 4th 
case in all these languages. While Tamil and Malayalam 
have formed an inflexional base "en" by shortening the root- 
vowel in Yan or nan and while Kannada has formed the 
base nan from nan by shortening the vowel, Telugu has re- 
tained the included vowel intact. So, naku from Telugu na, 
nanage from Kannada nan, enakku an enikku from Yan 
have been formed as the dative of the first personal singular 

Even as "ai" in Tamil "parikai" has been suffixed to 
indicate the idea of the accusative or the second case, "e" has 
been affixed in the Malayalam word as "parige". Pangu and 
pal are identical in meaning. While Kannada has palannu 
from pal+annu, Telugu generally uses palu in the sense of 
share in the accusative without any affix therefor. This is 
in accordance with the usage noticed in other Dravidian 
languages which occasionally prefer not to affix any accusa- 
tive case-sign to neuter nouns. [E.g. Tarn. Undi Koduttan 
~He gave food.] Dr. R. Caldwell, the founder of Dravidian 
Philology, remarks "the use of the nominative as the accusa- 
tive of neuter nouns is the ordinary and almost universal 
colloquial usage of Tamil-Malayalam, and is often found 

even in classical compositions In Telugu the use of the 

nominative for the accusative is confined to things without 

life As far as things without life are concerned, 

Telugu adheres to the ordinary Dravidian rules/' 

Comparisons and considerations such as these point to 
the conclusion that these languages are in the 
relation of sister to one another and that they have 
sprung from the same mother, which may be designated as 


the Primitive Dravidian. Apart from the fact of history 
according to which there was a Dravidian race, the fact that 
there is great similarity in the material and method of expres- 
sion in these languages renders the existence of a Dravidian 
family certain. As the pressing necessity of space compels 
me to draw this paper to a close, I would simply conclude by 
saying that the subject of study relating to the Dravidian 
family of languages deserves further and greater encourage- 
ment, for it is sure to shed a flood of light on several dark cor- 
ners in the history of thought relating to General linguistics 
and thai, as Dr. W. W. Hunter of the Bengal Civil Service 
said, it is destined to open the door to the vast linguistic 
residue and to furnish the basis of a new Science of 


V. L. D'SouzA, 
Professor of Economics, University oj Mysore. 

During the last quarter of a century partly under the 
stress of the Great War (1914-1918) and partly under the 
stress of the Great Depression (1929-1935) almost every 
country has engaged in some form of economic effort to 
promote industrial prosperity. It is evident that a good 
many of the measures have been in response to temporary 
emergencies while others have come to stay. It is worth our 
while to review the whole sphere of State action as it stood 
at the beginning of the present war and to take note of the 
various possibilities for Government intervention in the 
economic life of India that such a survey will reveal. 

Economic action on the part of the State can take either 
of two main forms. In one the Government takes charge 
of the whole economic process and operates a planned eco- 
nomy. In the ether Government action and private enter- 
prise go hand in hand. The U.S.S.R. falls into the first of 
these categories. The remaining countries, about 65 in 
number fall into the second. We are not concerned at pre- 
sent with planned economic systems. Our survey deals 
with the methods of State action in capitalistic countries 
where private initiative still plays the major part in the 
making and marketing of goods. 

Even under a system of the most complete laissez- 
faire the Government has a certain economic role to play. 


It is the extension of the role and also its in- 
tensification that makes for planned capitalism. There 
is a growing belief that it is the duty of the 
state to see not only that nobody starves but to en- 
sure that the economic machinery of society runs 
smoothly and efficiently and that in particular it 
affords adequate employment for men and capital 
alike. The prevalent notion is that it is necessary for the 
state to take over a large measure of social responsibility 
and to improve the standard of living of the mass of the 
population. State action in the industrial sphere has won 
the approval of the Conservative as well as the Liberal. 

It is difficult to cover the whole ground of State action 
within the limits of a short essay. We can give only the 
barest indications of the multitudinous forms of State inter- 
vention. We cannot go into the details of any particular 
scheme or project but we can make an attempt to see the 
movement as a whole or to vary the metaphor, to bring the 
different types of action into focus simultaneously. 


Even in the days of unadulterated laissez-faire the state 
rendered certain indirect aids to industry. Technical assis- 
tance such as the provision of business information, experi- 
mental farms, research institutes and State insurance had 
become a recognized part of official activity. During recent 
years financial aid to industry has become a marked feature. 
It takes various forms e.g. Government guarantee of the in- 
terest on loans and Government participation in the capital 
of the concerns. As extreme form is the Reconstruction 
Finance Corporation of U.S.A. which has made loans to or 
brought shares in industrial corporations and has thus kept 
businesses from tottering in a time of economic depression. 


The most noteworthy of all types of State aid is the 
grant of bounties or subsidies. Even those countries where 
the laissez-faire doctrines are deeply entrenched have made 
subsidies quite a feature of their budgets. The 
Netherlands makes a large allocation every year for finan- 
cial assistance to market gardeners, bacon producers and 
exporters of dairy produce. Great Britain makes a grant 
of 3 millions to the growers of sugar-beet while Japan 
subsidises the associations of small producers. In addition 
there are a great many disguised or veiled forms of bounty: 
remission of taxation, reduction of freight charges and 
special rates of exchange. 


One brought up in the school or orthodox economics 
scarcely realizes the extent to which Governments are now 
taking a hand in the making and marketing of goods. The 
old notion that there is no middle way between private enter- 
prise and state ownership has been superseded. In practi- 
cally every country private undertakings and state enter- 
prises are found side by side. The mixture of industrial 
activity emanating from the capitalist and the Government 
constitutes a new situation. 

State intervention in economic life may take one of 
many forms. It may amount to the actual manage- 
ment of business enterprises by a Government 
agency. Industries of key importance such as iron 
and steel in Japan and public utilities such as elec- 
trical supply in Great Britain have become the proper 
subjects for state management. Sweden has made a speci- 
ality of State purchase of wholesale drug and medicine 
houses while the Government in U.S.A. has created a net- 
work of State enterprises, called the Tennessee Valley 


Authority, which serves as a yardstick by which to measure 
the costs in similar groups of industries under company 
management. The most successful method of State manage- 
ment of industry has been the "public corporation" under 
which persons directly responsible for the actual administra- 
tion of the business are appointed by the State but they, 
are left free to run the undertaking in their own way within 
the limits prescribed by general policy. The public cor- 
poration type of State management is likely to grow in 
popularity as it appears to be a happy compromise bet- 
ween economic individualism and governmental regimen- 


Stale regulation or adjustment) of output involves 
price fixing and control of productive capacity. In a system 
where private enterprise and State action intermingle, 
the adjustment of output becomes a fairly easy problem. 
For economic equilibrium the various kinds of goods capi- 
tal goods and consumption goods should be produced in 
the right proportions. Whenever there is persistent dispro- 
portion in the production of particular commodities the state 
has to make the necessary adjustment. 

Adjustment of output necessitates direct control on the 
part of Government of prices, production and productive 
capacity. The control of prices ranges all the way from 
general price control over practically all commodities as is 
the case in Germany to State action calculated to mitigate 
seasonal price changes, as for instance of wheat in Canada 
or coffee in Brazil. Apart from price fixing on behalf of the 
consumers with which we are not at present concerned, 
price determination by the state in the producers' interests 
has become almost a normal feature of some administrations. 


A characteristic type of price fixing consists in the setting up 
of a price at which the Government itself guarantees to buy 
all that is produced as for instance the cereals scheme of 
Czecho-Slovakia. Another method of price control is that 
the producer sells at the market price, the state making up 
the difference between the price obtained and the price 
guaranteed e.g. the wheat scheme of Great Britain. Yet 
another method, illustrated by the butter scheme of Australia, 
is to fix a high price for the home market and subsidise the 
exports out of the surplus realized from the domestic con-* 

Government control of output has also been success- 
fully attempted in recent times. We have to bear in mind 
that price control and output control are inseparably con- 
nected. Whether prices are fixed and the output is left to 
adjust itself to the situation or vice versa leads more or 
less to the same result, namely the restriction of output, 
State regulation of the amount produced has become an 
important device though at times it assumes fantastic 
shapes. The ploughing-in of over 10 million acres in U.S.A. 
in 1933 thereby carrying out a partial destruction of the cot- 
ton crop, the burning of coffee in Brazil to an amount exceed- 
ing one year's total world consumption and the slaughtering 
of cattle in Argentina and Hungary are but sorry examples 
of an operation whose primary object ought to be a planned 
restriction of output. 

Even more important than the control of prices and of 
output is the State regulation of productive capacity. Regu- 
lation in practice means a reduction to the point where sup- 
ply can meet the new demand conditions. Thus in U.S.A. the 
Government gives a subsidy for the restriction of wheat and 
cotton acreage and the French Government does the same 
for the vineyards. In Bulgaria and Czecho-Slovakia the Gov- 


ernment prohibits the establishment of new factories or ex- 
tensions in certain industries. A number of the industrial 
codes under the New Deal prohibit any increase in capital 
equipment until demand improves. The restrictionist move- 
ment may be carried to great lengths as in Germany where 
further investment in some thirty important branches of in- 
dustry was forbidden, as it was thought the investment had 
already outrun the possible demand. 

So much for methods of direct regulation. Government 
also exercises indirect control over prices, output and 
productive capacity and this kind of control is operated 
through associations of producers. The state as in Germany, 
might compel the formation of cartels, an important feature 
of which is to force the outsiders to join so as to obtain unity 
of management and economies of marketing. Or again the 
state, as in Poland, might promote schemes of self-govern- 
ment in industry by which the majority of producers in a 
given industry will have power to frame decisions binding on 
the whole body. 

Government control creates the need for further and 
further measures as in a concentric circle. Control is con- 
tagious and a Government which sets about regulating prices, 
output and productive capacity will soon discover that there 
are hardly any frontiers to its activity. Thus a Government 
that determines the price of one product will be called upon, 
sooner or later, to determine the prices of connected and 
complementary goods. An intervention at any single seg- 
ment of the price system can rarely be an isolated act for, its 
repercussions spread over a wide area. 

Moreover if price is controlled output also must be 
controlled and restrictionism tends to grow. Thus the 
Government may be obliged to pass a measure to the effect 
that f ?lds taken out of rice or wheat cultivation are not used 



to grow sugarcane or rye and thus spoil the markets for 
these. Neither should the manufacturers, say millers, be 
ground between the upper stone of price-fixing regulations 
in favour of producers of wheat and the nether stone of 
price-fixing regulations in favour of consumers of bread. 
These difficulties do not dispense with the idea of State 
action but they call for caution and an application of 
economic judgment to Government intervention. 


An analysis of the Great Depression revealed the 
existence of an almost infinite capacity to produce and 
despite huge populations, an insufficient capacity to 
consume. In other words production was running ahead of 
effective demand and the people though willing to buy had 
not the purchasing power. The best remedy for the 
imbalance between output and consumption seemed to be 
for the State to create and maintain effective demand. 

The measures proposed to keep the industrial system 
on an even keel are classified as either contractionist or 
expansionist. The contractionist method relies upon a 
reduction in prices and costs. In practice it amounts to a 
diminution in the total quantity of money in circulation, 
increased taxation to balance the budget, diminution in state 
expenditure, reduction of interest on loans, scaling down of 
farmers' debts and wage-cutting under the initiative of the 
Government. Germany, Italy and France have tried Gov- 
ernment policies tending in these directions. Their object 
is to reduce costs to the level of effective demand. 

The expansionist method adopts the opposite line. It 
is based on the argument that if more and more purchasing 
power were placed in the hands of potential buyers prices 
would cover costs, surplus stocks would be sold, the unem- 


ployed resources would be brought into active use. The de- 
mand would become effective to the point where consumption 
would be equal to the wealth produced. Under the influ- 
ence of expansionist ideas Great Britain and the countries 
of the Sterling Bloc broke off from the gold standard 
and allowed their currency to depreciate or become 
cheap in terms of foreign currencies, while the Unit- 
ed States without actually going off the gold standard 
reduced the gold value of her dollar. The expan- 
sionist process has been followed up by what is called "open- 
market operations", that is to say, by the State Bank pur- 
chasing securities with a view to inject additional purchasing 
power into the monetary system. The process leads on to 
low interest rates and "cheap money" for the businessmen. 
The Government then goes a step further and borrows a part 
of the abundant supply of purchasing power and uses the 
funds for public works, relief schemes and social services, 
thus placing new money in the hands of potential buyers of 
goods. In Germany the measures for increasing effective 
demand were associated with a rigid system of price control 
with the result that the whole of the expansionist policy was 
directed towards increased activity. The expansionist 
ideas are tending to become a part of the permanent techni- 
que for business stabilisation. 


Government interference in the conduct of international 
trade is of the utmost complexity. It takes various 
forms and most of these are interconnected with the various 
types of State action within the country itself. 

The oldest and by far the most important method of 
State intervention in foreign trade is the regulation of 
imports and exports. On the imports side the chief motive 


of action appears to be restriction on the entry of foreign 
goods, prompted by a variety of considerations such as the 
desire to protect home industry from foreign competition, 
or as an offset against currency depreciation and dumping 
and as a preventive of an adverse balance of payments. The 
simple device of the tariff is now supplemented by quotas, 
licenses, prohibitions and blocked accounts. 

In contrast to the restriction of imports every encour- 
agement is given to the exports and among the measures 
thereof we may mention export subsidies, State credits to 
exporters, assumption by the state of the trading risks and 
the setting up of marketing organization under State direc- 
tion. While in theory the advantages of free international 
exchange are conceded by all, each country overcome by 
fear of unemployment, of war and of exchange difficulties 
pursues in practice a policy of national self-sufficiency. 
Imports are suspect so long as effective demand in the home 
market is not sufficient to keep capital and labour reasonably 
fully employed. 



A.D. 1821 AND 1859, 


P. K. GODE, M.A, 
Curator, B.O.R., Institute, Poona. 

According to Satischandra Vidyabhusana 1 the date of 
Raghunatha Sastri Parvata the author of the Nydyaratna is 
"about 1815 A.D." Aufrecht 2 records the following Mss of 
this commentary: 

"WTflrcrl" a commentary on the Pancavddi Section of 
the Gadadhaii by Raghunatha Saslrin. Hall p. 32, B. 4, 24, 
Ben. 198, 199, 205, 221. NP. I. 118, 124. Poona 550. Oppert. 
190, 653, 1270, 3156, 3267, 5437. II, 7142, 7612, 8262. 
Rice. 112." 

T'\ a commentary on Gadahara's Pancavada by 
Raghunatha Parvata (or R. Sastrin) Hz. 978, p. 84, 1311." 

1. History of Indian Logic, Calcutta, 1921, p. 487 
"92 Raghunatha Sastri (Parvata) 

(about 1815 A.D.) 

He was a Maratha, who wrote a gloss on Gadddhari 
pancavdda, while residing at Poona about 70 years ago." If 
Raghunatha lived 70 years ago from A.D. 1921 backwards we 
must suppose that he was living in A.D. 1850 or so. Dr. Vidya- 
bhusana, however, gives fc about A.D. 1815*' as the date of 
Raghunatha. These two dates viz., A.D. 1815 and 1850 will not 
contradict each other if we presume that Raghunatha lived, say, 
between 1800 and 1850. 

2. CC. I, 309. 

3. Aufrecht, CC. Ill, 66. 


In the above entries of Aufrecht no reference regard- 
ing the date of the author has been recorded. Fitzedward 

Hall, 4 however, while describing in Ms of the ?*TTOTr*T refers 
to its author as '"Raghunatha Sastrin Parvatikara, late of 
the Poona College" As Hall's Bibliography was published 
at Calcutta in 1859, he appears to have had some know- 
ledge of Raghimatha Sastri and his association with the 
Poona College earlier than A.D. 1859. Hall also refers to a 
lithograph copy of the Nydyaratna made at Bombay in 
A.D. 1843. It appears that another lithograph copy 5 was 

4. Bibliography, Calcutta, 1859 HP!! was "Inspector of 
Public Instruction of Saugor and Nerbudda territories." He des- 
cribes a Ms of the WTTTT?^ as follows: "Nvanaralna A Com- 
mentary on the PancavadT Sub-section of No. XLI by Raghunatha 
Sastri Parvatikara, late of the Poona College. This work was 
lithographed in Bombay in the Saka year 1765 or A.D. 1843; 
leaves 316 of the Ms. form, and four leaves of emendations," 

5. This copy is found in the Visramba^ Collection at the 
B.O.R. Institute (Govt. Mss.). It bears the number 550 of 
Visrdma I and begins as follows : 

4C sftiruterw ^JT: ii ^JTre^^fTT^r TO* \\ 

II I ll 

n ^ n 


n ^i 


made at Poona from this Bombay edition of A.D. 1843 in 
Saka 1772 A.D. 1850 as will be seen from the colophon of 
the Poona lithograph edition. 6 But a closer study of this 

6. Ms. No. 550 of Visrama I ends as follows: folio 330 

u ^ li 
: n n 

II ^ II 

n ^ n 

nraf i mto 

The chronogram fg 53^ ^j^5^ = Saka 1772 = >1.D. 1850 which is 
the year of this Poona (<joiqcft|) lithograph. 


colophon shows that Raghunatha composed the Nyaya- 
ratna in Saka 1765 represented by .the chronogram 

" 3fr<JT, Tf , ^f?, f " in verse 6 at the end of the work. 
It is possible therefore, that Hall may have confused the 
date of composition of the Nydyaratna viz., Saka 1765 or 
A.D. 1843 with the date of trie lithograpii copy. At any rate 
we have to believe in the testimony oi the author who 
specifies the year (Saka 1765) called "tiobtiakrt" and also 
the month (Bhddraka or Bhddrapada) . 

In view of the above date of composition of Raghu- 
natha' s Nyayaralna, viz., A.D. 1843, we find it impossible 
to accept the date of Raghunatha's death given by Pt. 
Critrava Sastri 7 in his Caritrakosa viz., "about A.D. 1820." 

7. Madkyayugma Carilra-kosa, Poona, 1937, p. 675 a ;racff$i 

STT^rt q^cT (*$<< & ^H* gut?:) "He favoured intermarriages 
between the bramnin sub-castes, viz., Deshasthds, Kokanasthas 
and Karhadas. In fact he married girls belonging to these castes. 
He took sides in the dispute in the Husabinis iamily of Poona, 
which resulted in some scuffle. Raghunatha was prosecuted and 
sentenced to simple imprisonment for some years. During his 
imprisonment he composed a work called "^T^cqrf rao|" which 
is a commentary on the Bhagavadyua. 'Ihis work has been pub- 
lished by the Anandashram, Poona, in their series. He wrote 
a commentary on the 9Tf !rcfcqT3TT3- He wrote also a work called 

. He was a pupil of the celebrated *;TO3rei$ " (trans- 
lation mine) . 

The editor has not specified the source of the above informa- 
tion. He appears to think that r^r^^is different from TT?T*JRt- 
- In fact ?qnrarc^r is the name of this^^f. Then again 
is different from the Marathi commentary on the 
Bhagavadglid called the ^rfeffo which Mr. B. G. Tilak read 
out to his father during the latter's illness in A.D. 1872, in which 
year Mr. Tilak was only 16 years old (Vide 


Hall's remark of A.D. 1859 viz., "late of the Poona College," 
if considered along with (1) A.D. 1843 the date of composi- 
tion of the *mzK<a and (2) A.D. 1850 the date of the 

Poona litho-copy of the ssrW^T made at the (Vi6ra- 
mabag) Pathasala, leads us to infer that the literary 
activity of Raghunatha may have commenced about 
A.D. 1820, the year about which Pt. Chitrav Sastri states 
he was dead . Perhaps Raghunatha may have been a teacher 
in the Visrambag Patha-Sala, from which he may havfe 
retired aboui 1859 A.D. Apparently Hall knew his con- 
nection with the Poona College viz., the Visrambag Patha- 
sala before A.D. 1859- 

In the Nydyaratna (verse 4 at the beginning and colo- 
phon) Raghunatha definitely states that he was the pupil of 

^rasTTSTT^ft who is called "tftffar^S'TSIT^ " I am 
inclined to identify this ^TSRT^Tqr with u 

who was appointed by the Bombay Government 
as the first Principal of this Sanskrit College at 
Vishrambag, Poona according to a letter 8 dated 6th Octo- 
ber, 1821. This tiqqnm} 1 issued Rules and Regulations 
for the guidance of teachers and students of the Sanskrit 

8. Vide, p. 45 of Peshwa Dajtar Selections (No. 421934). 

The teachers appointed by Government for the Sanskrit 

College were:- (^ ftttVZ Wtt (%) 

qra;*r (y)3?TOi^i^ ( for sr^rc, ro^Fr) ft) *rsrarrat$ ( for 

clause 10 of this letter reads : 



College under his own signature in a document 9 dated 
19th July 1322. In another document 10 dated 17th July 1837 
(along with ?*To5Tjft<tcT m<|, 3?r*ir wewta, srr*ft<fa 

is referred to as advising Maharaja Pratapsinh of 
Satara to confess the charges brought against him. 
Messrs. Natu, Parasnis and Bandre and Raghavacarya 
were pro-Government persons and consequently their 
advice was refused by the Raja of Satara who was not pre- 
pared to do anything against his conscience. 

I am inclined to suppose that Raghunatha the author of 
the rm^ was a pupil of STsraTsrw the first Principal 
of the Vishrambag College which was started in A.D. 1821. 
u <ra*rrsiT^" taught ?3TT in this College and produced able 
pupils like our Raghunatha the author of the wrro*qr and 
5Jfrc<JT3*rear. The chronology of the guru and the pupil 
may now be represented as follows : 


1821 (6th October)- -Poona Sanskrit College started 

by Government with ^TsrapSTTsf * as its 
Principal, and teacher in TW. 

^jsprra <T^ possibly joined at this time 
the above College as a student and studied 


9. P. D. No. 42 (p. 49ff), Letter No. 9 dated 1971822 

srr% ?m 
(P. 51) 

fir n 

10. Ibid., p. 106 Letter No. 56 dated 17-7-1837, 


1821 (19th July) *T5T*T*Tq' issued Rules and Regu- 
lations for the teachers and students of. the 

1837 (17th July) ^rasnsmT advises the Raja 
Pratapsinh to confess charges against him. 

1843 (Month of Bhddrapada) ?^TO nqft the 

pupil of ?!R3r^Tsr composed his JFWW- 

1850 A litho-copy of ?gm*sT is prepared at the 

litho press of the College " 

1859 Fitzedward Hall publishes his Bibliography at 

Calcutta in which he refers to 
as "late of the Poona College". 

1872 Lokamanya B. G. Tilak reads out 

VTTTrfeffer (commentary on Gita in Marathi) 
to his father in his last illness. 11 

The above chronology of Raghunatha's life and works 
is reconstructed on the basis of the Nyayaratna, 12 the letters 

11, Vide infra, foot-note 14. 

12. In verse 3 at the beginning of ^TPTT^ 1 our author 
refers to S^uttjgft - Again in verse 3 at the end of this work we 
find this work referred to as '^Tttrrflgft' 1 This work is a gloss on 
TT^TO^ called ^ratf*ffar by f;s<Tm STlf, a Maratha residing 
at Benares. This gloss has been printed in Telugu characters. 

S. Vidyabhusana states that fjtoivr^ 1 died about 150 years ago," 
i.e., about A.D. 1770. (See p. 486 of His. of Ind. Logic). If 
this d?te is correct Raghunatha's reference to ^TT^nrVT^t * n 
A.D. 1843 appears to have been made after about 133 years from 

the death of $t 


in the Peshwa Daftar and Fitzedward Hall's remarks. We 
must now see what evidence is furnished by another work 

of Raghunatha viz., ST^FTCTT^nn represented by some 
Mss in the Catalogus Catalogorum of Aufrecht 13 and by the 
printed edition of the work in the Anandashrama Sanskrit 
Series. It appears that Raghunatha composed a work in 
Marathi also. This work is a commentary in Marathi prose 
on the Bhagavadglta called the WTffe^fa and it will 
be of special interest to us in view of the fact that Loka- 
manya B. G. Tilak's first contact with the Gita literature 
which later blossomed forth into his monumental work 
Gltdrahasya in Marathi, began with the reading of Raghu- 

natha's wrcrrfafffT in AD. 1872 during the last illness 
of Mr. Tilak's father 14 as stated by him in the Gltdrahasya 
itself. In the Catalogue of Gujarat Mss by Biihler 

13. CCI, 625 "STT^^T^jq-iJT'' Vedanta, by Raghunatha B. 4. 
98. Oppert 3226.11.5575.8374." 

"B. 4.98 "^=p. 98 of Buhler's Catalogue of Gujarat Mss, 
Fasc. IV; Bombay (1873). Ms. No. 346 

5T5rc<IT^VfqroT by ?!S[5rr*T) Folios 311 in the 
possession of ^fcfarofJT ^[| f Bhavanagar. 

14. Gitarahasya, Prastavana (p. 1) dated A.D. 1915 

FPW 'Clf^ etc -" Evidently Mr. Tilak's love for the 
Gita began at the age of 16 on a perusal of Raghunatha'svfTq-tf^^f^r. 
I am thankful to Mr. Achwal of Poona for drawing my attention 
to this important reference. 


published in 1873 he notes a Ms of 
in the possession of a gentleman at Bhavanagar. It would 
thus be seen that the chronology of the works of 
our author so far known is capable of being represented as 

Composed in A.D. 1843. 

15 Composed before A.D. 1872. 
Composed before A.D. 1873. 

15. Bhagavadglta with srrerfeffo of 

Printed in the Vrttaprasaraka Press of Naro Appaji 
Godbole, Sadashiv Peth, Poona, Saka 1809 (A.D. 1887). This 
Maratjhi Commentary begins with 9 Sanskrit verses as follows : 

HTTOT an^l I^f: $wijjg II ? II 

rfq ^ i 

n \ \\ 

W feroft [R ^m^RR^R "I I 

The last verse, viz., verse 9 in the above extract is exactly identi- 
cal with verse 4 at the beginning of rgrq^ . From verse 4 we 
know that ^q^3[ was the father of 

The commentary ends as follows : 



It will be seen from the data recorded above that Raghu- 
natha Sastri, the son of Ramacandra Parvate, flourished 
between A.D. 1821 and 1859 during the time of English 
patronage of Sanskrit learning at Poona. The view of 
Dr. Satischandra Vidyabhusan that this author flourished 
"about 1815" has been also refuted on documentary evid- 
ence. In the same manner the statement of Pandit Chitrav 
gastri that our author "died about 1820" is incorrect be- 
cause it is not supported by any document. Moreover, 
Raghunatha himself states that he composed his Nyayaratna 
in Saka 1765 i.e. in A.D. 1843. The present paper amply 
illustrates how our knowledge of authors and their works 
even of the last century is most inaccurate owing to the 
want of proper historical reconstruction on the strength of 
reliable documentary evidence. 

: II 



The University has been the centre of considerable 
athletic activities since its very foundation in 1929. A 
sound tradition of outdoor activities had already been set 
up in this place by the Sri Minakshi College, thanks to the 
far-sighted policy of the Principal, and the munificent 
patronage of the Rajah Sahib of Chettinad, the Manager. 
Cricket for lovers of the King of Games, Football and 
Hockey for the hardy and fleet-footed, Badminton and 
Volleyball for the less ambitious but active students, were 
all well-established games at the time the Universiy came 
into being. 

With the inception of the University, a programme of 
compulsory physical activities for all students was intro- 
duced, and every able-bodied student is required by the 
regulations to play some game or other of his own choice. 
Facilities have accordingly been provided for a very large 
variety of games and sports; and as many as fourteen clubs 
now form the Athletic Association of the University. 
Daily, the undergraduates may be seen taking part in the 
following games and sports activities : badminton, basket- 
ball, cricket, football, hockey, playground-baseball, quoits, 
tennikoit, tennis, volleyball, boxing, heavy gymnastics, 
group games of all types, and indigenous games. To these 
amenities are to be added shortly two very popular and 
useful kinds of sport, boating and swimming. 


We owe all this great array of activities to the far- 
sightedness and generosity of the Founder-Pro-Chancellor, 
whose interest in every aspect of modern education is well 
known. It is he who chose this " solitary, solubrious " and 
spacious corner of South Arcot for this famous seat of learn- 
ing and art. It is he who planned its rapid development 
from a wide and barren sea of sand and swamp into a small 
paradise of gardens, mansions and playfields. Fields had 
to be raised and levelled, tanks, ponds and hollows filled 
up, and thousands of gaunt, ugly and useless trees felled 
down in order that the wide acres we now have could be 
used either for the active and healthy recreation of the 
undergraduates or for the creation of beautiful parks in 
which the pensive student may amble at will. The cost of 
all this was indeed counted ; but, though high, it has been 
willingly and cheerfully met in order that this place may 
become a great and worthy centre of learning in Tamil Nad. 

The Raja Sahib has given this place of his best, even 
in respect of games and sports. He has endowed attractive 
and valuable trophies, and for the award of these, annually 
inter-collegiate and inter-club tournaments are conducted 
in athletics, cricket and tennis. A big prize is annually 
given in his name to the best all-round student distinguish- 
ing himself in the sports and games competitions of the 
year. The amenities for boating now being added are 
entirely due to his kindly interest and guidance. That his 
interest in athletic activities as a means of education is 
great and sincere is further shown by a magnificent gift he 
has recently made to the Inter-University Board of India 
of a large and artistic trophy for Inter-University Athle- 

To the facilities we possess for games at the Univer- 
sity, its numerous and spacious playfields, the large 


pavilion, office-rooms for the staff, the boat canal and the 
boat-house, we owe a great deal to the successive Vice- 
Chancellors, Dewan Bahadur S. E. Runganadhan, the 
Right Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastri and Sir K. V. Reddi. 
These are due to their benign and active interest in games 
and sports. Physical activities at this place have also 
derived immense encouragement from the youthful and 
valuable co-operation of members of the Teaching Staff 
who have actively participated in the play of the under- 
graduates, and assisted them in its organisation and 

Thus, sports and games have been a marked feature 
of our University life here. To the Founder who has made 
all this possible, may God be pleased to give a long life 
of service and ever-lasting happiness. 




This short play which is ascribed to the authorship of 
the celebrated Sanskrit dramatist Bhasa glorifies Kama 
who figures as one of the great heroes of the Mahabharata. 
It is as exquisite as it is short. The chief theme 
is Kama's bounty which knew no bounds and which, for the 
very reason, made his name for ever "like the Sun, the 
Moon, the Himavan and the Ocean." To-day Kama's name 
is a household word signifying limitless generosity. 

Our dramatist however has, in this little piece of 
hardly half an hour's performance, portrayed the hero with 
a rare insight into the human mind. Kama's generosity 
was not an accident; it was not a freak of his nature. We 
find it fully supported by many a noble quality which makes 
him majestic as well as magnanimous. He was high born, 
valiant in fight and just and honest in conduct. But one 
thing was against him and that was Fate. He was Kunti's 
first born child by favour of the Sun-God. No more auspi- 
cious circumstance is needed for one's prosperity, but for 
Kama it proved otherwise. For fear of scandal Kunti cast 
the baby into the river. A charioteer, Adhiratha by name, 
rescued the child and his wife Radha became the foster- 
mother. Thus nobody could tell Kama's lineage. In the 
eyes of the world he was low born with no stake in society. 
But his personality and attainments were so irresistible that 
they caught the fancy of Duryodhana who elevated him to 
Kingship. No two friends could be more affectionate and 
true to each other. But in the scheme of the Mahabharata, 


this friendship proved fatal to Kama. He came to be as 
much hated and despised as Duryodhana himself by friends 
and foes alike. How could a base born son of a charioteer 
enjoy such confidence with the King ? Hence he should be 
humiliated that is how he was looked down upon even by 
Duryodhana's supporters. And what about his generosity? 
Even this great virtue which the world praises so much 
turned out to be the blunder of his life. His own mother 
Kunti took advantage of it and extracted a promise that he 
would not kill the Pandavas except on* and that he would 
not use the same weapon against a person a second time. 
No less than Indra played the trick on him to the utter dis- 
regard of all ethical principles. 

It is indeed vain to suppose that Kama was all virtue 
and that ms end was thoroughly undeserved ; for, how can 
he be exonerated from the lalsehood that he uttered, quite 
consciously, before Jamadagni's son ? It may be his ex- 
cessive enthusiasm to learn at the feet of the eminent sage 
or it may be a boyish wantonness that encouraged him to 
utter the lie. Nevertheless, it is an error which merited 
the sage's curse and which thereafter steadily worked the 
nemesis of our hero. Kama however reconciled himself to 
the unfortunate incident. He was consecrated on the throne 
of the Anga country, became famous for his skill in archery 
and valour in war and basked in the sunshine of Duryo- 
dhana's friendship. 

Inspite of all the glory he earned, Kama developed a 
rather pessimistic outlook. He was inwardly smitten with 
remorse on account of his early misfortune. His education 
and training ended in the fatal curse of Parasurama. In 
life, too, he came to be associated with wickedness. Kunti, 
Bhisma, Krishna and others chose psychological moments 
to bring home to Kama that the Pandavas were his younger 


brothers and thai he was only out to kill his kith and kin. 
These crucial incidents in his life swayed heavily upon the 
mind resulting in an attitude of diffidence which ever and 
anon oppressed him. He often seemed to betray a deplor- 
able weakness of will as much as magnanimity of nature. 

At ail events, therefore, Kama's is a great personality 
endowed with manly qualities and divine splendour. By 
the decree ol destiny only his magnificent life turned out to 
be a tragedy. Truly his is an instance of the tragic hero as 
conceived by the Grlbks ; and Karnabhara can be described 
as a tragedy with all the appeal of its technique. Recently 
however, Mr. Pusaiker in his Bhasa A Sludy has ex- 
pressed a view dillering from the above opinion. He would 
not concede the title of a tragedy to the play tnough he is 
willing to perceive l '' a pathetic note pervading the whole 
play/ 7 He would have us further interpret the title Karna- 
bhara as follows : 

This appears to be a very far fetched explanation of the title 
which in simple terms means " Kama's Burden " 

(JWl K:, 3Hte9 W TOWLI) whicil easil y reminds us of 
Kama's task or responsibility as commander of Duryo- 
dhana's forces ; he has also a friendly duty to dis- 
charge, that is to secure victory for Duryodhana. 
The title further suggests the heavy handicap under which 
the hero has had to fight the battle. The Sahrdaya 
cannot indeed afford to ignore the tragic appeal of Kama's 
character as brought out in the little play. The technical 
aspect of tragedy too is clear enough. It may however be 
urged that the theme of the play is the gift of the arjtnour 
and the ear-rings, not Kama's end. True, that is the pri- 
mary incident that is related in the piece, a large portion 


of which is taken up by the episode. But ponder over it 
with due regard to the background on which it has been set. 
The sentiment of pathos is overwhelming. Kama finally 
bids Salya drive the chariot to where Arjuna is. That is 
enough to suggest the end of the great warrior. Need it be 
actually included in the play ? We know that it is his final 
fight. The greatness and majesty of his personality have 
already been killed ; only his mortal frame marches to the 
field to perish. Indeed, when fates are against what can 
poor souls do ? 

Tragic as his end was, Kama's fame will endure till the 
end of creation. The world has forgotten all that was 
possibly bad in him. His supreme self-sacrifice and unstint- 
ing generosity will stand unsurpassed for ever. Both by 
example and precept he has taught the world the spirit of 
sacrifice in these memorable words : 


|| (Verse 22) 

As Time lapses, learning fades, trees fall though deep-rooted 
and lakes dry up. But what is sacrificed and what is given 
will remain for ever. And again 

^3 3n ^ II (Verse 17) 

After all, man ought to strive in pursuit of Dharma. King's 
fortunes are wavering as the serpent's tongue. Therefore, 
in solely promoting public weal, while lives are lost, virtues 
will endure. 



(The preliminary worship over, enter the Stage- 
Director immediately) 

Stage-Director : 

May God Vishnu (Bearer of Fortune) 

grant you prosperity Vishnu, the 

slayer of gods' hostile hosts, whose 

Man-Lion form, men, women, gods, 

demons and the denizens of the nether-worlds 

beheld with amazement and who 

ripped open the bosom of the demon-king 

with his axe-edged claws. 1 

This is what I would submit to the honourable gentlemen. 
Hark ! what is it I hear something like a noise while I am 
engaged in making an announcement ? Well, I'll see. 

(In the wings) 
Tell, O tell His Majesty the King of Anga. 

Stage-Director : 

Well, I understand : 

In the tumult of battle, 
the servant perplexed, with 
hands folded, reports to Kama 
under Duryodhana's command. 2 

End of the Prologue 

(Enter the Soldier) 

Soldier : Tell, tell his Majesty King of Anga that 
the hour of battle is nigh. 


With elephants, horses and 

chariots, arranged in battle under 

Partha's banner, the lion-like 

Kings in glee send forth their lion-roar ; 

and he of the serpent-banner, 

world-famed warrior apprised of 

the situation, has set out in haste 

to battle which is dreadful with 

the enemies' war-cries. 3 

(Stepping forward and looking about) Aye, here is 
the Anga King sallying out of his mansion. Accoutred in 
full, he hies this way with King Salya. But what turmoil 
of heart, never before felt, for one who is known for his 
valour and who is prominent in the feast of war ! For he 

conspicuous by his dazzling brilliance, 

counted the first in battle and prowess, 

the skilled one arrives with 

sadness overcome. Kama in his 

native splendour now appears like the 

summer sun besieged by clusters of clouds. 4 

Let me keep aside (Exit) 

(Enter as described Kama with Salya) 

Kama : Not so : will these kings who 
cross my arrows' path ever 
have life left in them ? 
Good must be done to the Kauravas 
on the battle-front ; only 
Dhananjaya must be seen. 5 

King Salya, pray, steer my chariot straight to the place 
where Arjuna is. 


Salya: Certainly (steers). 
Kama : How strange ! 

In this hour of battle, 

a sense of oppression lies heavy 

on the mind even of me whose 

prowess in great wars is like 

Yama's in rage-wars 

in which soldiers, horses, 

elephants and chariots are hacked to 

pieces by volleys of arrows on either side 6 

How hard ! 

First-born of Kunti was I, then known 
to the world as a Radba's son ; 
and that these Pandavas 
Yudhishthira and others are but 
younger brothers to me ! 7 

Now has befallen the moment 

that augurs well for mo. 

The great day is come. 

But alack, vain is the 

weapon I learnt to wield ; 

and besides am I prevented 

by my mother's words. 8 

King of Madra, pray listen to the story of my 

Salya : I am eager too to hear the story. 

Kama : Once before I went to Jamadagni's son. 

Salya : What then ? 

Kama : Then 



Salya : 

Salya : 
Kama : 

Salya : 
Kama : 

Salya : 

Kama : 

Salya : 
Kama : 

Salya : 

going thither I bowed 

and humbly stood before 

the great sage, crest of the 

Bhrigu race and foe 

of the Kshatriyas, with matted 

locks tawny like the lightning 

creeper, and bearing an axe 

enveloped by the halo of its 


And then. 

Then Jamadagni's son blessed me and asked 
who art thou ? and what brought thee 
hither ? 

And then. 

' Holy Sire, I desire to be instructed in all 

the weapons ' said I. 
And then. 

Then spoke the sage ' Only to the Brahmans 
will I impart instruction, not to the 

Yes, there is that old enmity that the sage 
bears to those of the Kshatriya race. 

I averred I was not a Kshatriya, and began 

to take lessons. 
Then : 

Then after some time, I once went with my 
teacher to fetch fruits, roots, flowers, 
dry twigs and kusa grass. Weary with 
wandering in the woods, the master fell 
asleep on my lap. 

And then. 


Kama : Then 

A certain insect witH a sting hard as 


unfortunately bored both my thighs ; 
with fortitude however, did I endure 
the pain, lest I 
disturb f my master's slumber. Wet 


blood he woke up suddenly and 
found me out. 

Inflamed with rage, he cursed me 
let thy weapons fail thee in thy hour of 

Salya : Alas, the holy sage spoke sternly. 

Kama : But let us verify the story of the weapons. 

(Doing so") 

These weapons seem to be powerless ! 


With eyes blinded by despair 
faltering again and again having lost 
control, these steeds, 
and these elephants too with icher 
smelling like the Saptacchada seem to 
forebode retreat in battle. 11 

The conches and the drums have also been 
silent ! 

Salya : 'Tis hard indeed ! 

Kama : King Salya, enough, enough with this des- 

Killed in battle one attains heaven ; 
victorious, of course, one wins glory. Both 
are highly commended in the world. Hence, 
to fight is not in vain. 12 


And Again 

these steeds of excellent Kamboja breed 
have never disappointed my hopes in 
wars. In speed they are equal to 
the King of Birds. 

Surely will they protect us if need be at all. 


Prosperity be to the kine and Brahmans ; Prosperity 
be to virtuous wives ; Prosperity be to warriors who 
do not retreat in battles and good luck be to me whose 
hour is come. Here I am, pleased. 

I will straightway rush 

to the Pandavas' fierce 

battle-front and capture King 

Dharma, famed for many virtues. 

And felling Arjuna with my swift 

arrows will I make the field 

easy of access even as a forest 

when the lion is killed. 14 

King Salya, we shall mount chariot. 
Salya : Certainly. (Both feign mounting the chariot) 
Kama : King Salya, pray steer my chariot to thet 
place where Arjuna is. 

(In the wings.) 

O Kama, a great favour do I beg of thee. 
Kama : (Listening) Aye, it is a powerful voice ! 

Surely a nobleman he, not a mere Brahman, 
as there is great majesty. Hearing his sweet 
and dignified voice, these courses of mine, 

losing control over their bodies, 
stop movement all on a sudden. They 


stand, as in a picture, with ears erect, eyes 

steady and 

the forehead winding to a side with the 

neck. 15 

Call the Brahman. No, no. I will myself call 

him . 
Your worship, this way please. 

(Enter Indra in the guise of a Brahman) 

Sakra : 

Karna : 



Clouds, return ye with the Sun. (Approch- 

ing Karna) O Karna, a great favour do I 
beg of thee. 

1 am very pleased, Your Worship. 

I am now to be counted among the 
blessed in the world. Here do I bow to 


I, Karna, whose lotus-feet are 
illumined by the gems of the coronets of 


but whose crown is now hallowed by 
the dust of a worthy Brahman's feet. 16 
(To himself) what shall I say now ? Should 
I say ' live long ' long will he live. Should I 
not, he would scorn me as a fool. Avoiding 
both what then shall I say ? Well, I have it. 
(Aloud) O Karna, as the sun, the moon, the 
Himavan, the ocean, let thy fame endure. 

Holy sage, would you not wish to say ' live 
long ' ? Rather this alone is worthy. For 
[After all, man ought to strive in pursuit of 


Sakra : 

Sakra : 

Sakra : 

Dharma.J King's fortunes are wavering as 
the serpent's tongue. Therefore in solely 
promoting public weal, while lives are lost, 

virtues will endure. 17 

Your worship, what would you desire and what 
may I offer you ? 

A great favour do 1 beg of thee. 

Yes, I will grant you the great favour. Pray 
listen to what riches I have. 
I would confer upon thee a thousand cows 
excellent and sacred, with horns decked 
with gold ; young, beautiful and much 
coveted by those in need ; yielding a stream 
of nectar-like milk, after their calves are 
suckled to contentment 18 

Cows a thousand ! Their milk 1 may quaff 
for a while. No, Karna, I do not need. 

Your Holiness would not have it. Pray listen 

to this. 

I would at once give away thousands of 
steeds of excellent quality comparable to 
those of the sun. As instruments to 
kingly fortune they deserve to be highly 
regarded by the princes; their mettle is 
tested in battle ; and born as they 
are of the famous Kamboja breed, they 
equal the very Wind in velocity. 19 

Horse ? For a while I ride on it. No Karna, 
I will not have it. 

Your worship won't have it, Pray listen yet 


I would give you many a herd of these 
elephants, of tusks and toe-nails shining, 
able to rout the enemy in battle. Their 
temples streaming with ichor, the bees 
gather about them in 
swarms. Further, they would look 
like a huge range of mountains and 
trumpet deep and resonant as the clouds. 


Sakra : Elephant ? for a moment would I ride. I 

like not, Kama, I like not. 

Kama : Your holiness wouldn't have that either. 
Pray, listen again. Gold beyond count, I 
would give you. 
Safcra : I take and go. (Pacing some distance) No, 

I like not Karna, I like not. 

Kama : Then will I conquer the Earth and give you. 
Sakra : What shall I do with the Earth ? 
Kama : Then, I would make over to you the fruit of 


Sakra : What is the use of the fruit of Agnishtoma ? 
Kama : Then, I give you my head. 
Sakra : Alas, Alas ! 

Kama : Fear not, fear npt. Pardon me, Holy Sir, 
pray, listen yet. 

Born with my own person, this armour 
is protection to my body. Neither 
gods nor demons could pierce it 
with all their weapons. Yet I would 
with pleasure part with the armour 
and also this pair of ear-rings 
should your worship so desire. 21 



Sakra : (Gleefully) Give, do give, 

Kama : (To himself). This after all was his end and 
aim. Could it be the cunning of that highly 
deceitful Krishna ? May be. Fie ! It is un- 
worthy to bewail what is past. There is no 
doubt. (Aloud) Pray accept. 

Salya : Give not, O King of Anga, give not. 

Kama : Don't you prevent me, King Salya. Look 
With the lapse of time, learning suffers 
decay, trees fall though well-rooted ; 
water even in springs and lakes dries up 
But what is sacrificed (into the fire) 
and what is gifted away (to the needy) 
will remain for ever. 22 

Hence, please accept, (tears open and gives). 

Sakra : (To himself after taking) Well, the two 
things have been taken. I have thus accom- 
plished what all the gods proposed to do for 
Arjuna's victory. Let me now mount the 
Airavata and witness the grand duel between 
Arjuna and Kama. (Exit.) 

Sailya : King of Anga, pity thou art deceived. 

Kama : By whom ? 

Salya : By Sakra. 

Kama : Not indeed. Sakra, on the contrary, has 
been deceived by me. Because 

With offerings at many a sacrifice the 
twice-born seek to propitiate him. 
Hosts of demons are crushed by him ; 
he punished Paka. Constant patting 
on the back of the divine elephant has 



hardened his fingers. Arjuna is his 
son. Such a one has, through me, 
gained his purpose ! 

(Enter divine messenger in a Brahman's garb) 


Divine Messenger : O Kama, thou hast been blessed 

by Purandara who regrets for having taken 

away the armour and the ear-rings. Pray, 

accept this unfailing missile, called Vimala, 

to slay one of the Pandavas. 

Kama : Fie ! I do not accept anything in return for 
my gift. 

Divine Messenger : Would you not accept by the 

word of a Brahman ? 
Kama : Word of a Brahman ? Never before have I 

transgressed. When may I have it ? 

Divine Messenger : Whenever you think of it, you 

have it. 

Kama : Very well. I am beholden. Dost thou return. 
Divine Messenger : Certainly. (Exit.) 

Kama : King Salya, let us mount the chariot. 
Salya : Certainly. (They jeign mounting the chariot.) 
Kama : Aye, I hear something like a noise. What 
could it be ? 

It is the blast of the conch, resembling 
the roar of the Ocean of Doom. 
Is it Krishna's ? It may not be. It 
is Arjuna's. Enraged at the defeat 
of Yudhishtira, indeed, Arjuna will 
fight with all his might, 24 


King Salya, pray, steer my chariot to the place 
where Arjuna is. 

Salya : Certainly. 


May prosperity reign everywhere. 
May adversity vanish for all time. 
May our Sovereign full of 
Kingly virtue, alone, rule 
the Earth. 





Steele, the father of the periodical essay, the collabo- 
rator of Addison in the Taller and the Spectator is a familiar 
figure, but Steele the passionate, faulty but loyal-hearted 
lover, the author of the exquisite letters to his wife, is com- 
paratively unknown. Of the great love-letter writers in 
English Steele alone represents the typical eager wooer and 
devoted husband, "hoping and worshipping doubting and 
quarrelling now in the seventh heaven of delight, now 
crying in outer darkness always thinking of the beloved 
with a boy's heart and a man's care." 

The object of his love is Mary Scurlock, a Welsh lady 
of some property and considerable personal attraction. "She 
was a brunette, with a rather high forehead, the height of 
which was ingeniously broken by two short locks upon the 
temples. Moreover, she had distinctly fine eyes, and a 
mouth which, in its normal state must have been arch and 
pretty." Steele falls a victim to her charms within a short 
time after the death of his first wife who, on his own autho- 
rity, "had so extreme a value for him, that she, by fine, 
conveyed to him her whole estate." The passion is recipro- 
cated by Miss Scurlock, who, though less impulsive than 
her wooer, is not less keen on the marriage. The letter that 
she wrote to her mother seeking the latter's consent and 
blessing reveals her opinion of Steele. 

"But he has a competency in worldly goods to make 

easy, with a mind so richly adorned as to exceed an 


equivalent to the greatest estate in the world, in my 
opinion: in short, his person is what I like; his temper 
is what I am sure will make you, as well as myself 
perfectly happy, if the respect of a lover, with ths 
tender fondness of a dutiful son, can make you so; and, 
for his understanding and morals, I refer you to his 
'Christian Hero' which I remember you seemed to ap- 
prove What I desire is, your consent and blessing 

to my putting it out of my power to delay, and so per- 
haps to lose, my first and only inclination; for I shall 
never meet with a prospect of happiness if this should 

Steele is a man of transparent sincerity. To affectation 
of every kind he is a total stranger. He repudiates the arti- 
ficial language of romance from the first. "I shall affect 
plainness and sincerity in my discourse to you, as much as 
other lovers do perplexity and rapture. Instead of saying, 
1 shall die for you/ I profess I should be glad to live my life 
with you/' But the ardour of his passion gushes out in words 
throbbing with emotion. Like all fervent lovers he looks 
upon his beloved as a goddess, and his union with her as the 
consummation of human felicity. 

"You are so good as to let me know I shall have the 
honour of seeing you when I next come here. I will 
live upon that expectation, and mediate on your per- 
fections till that happy hour. The vainest woman upon 
earth never saw in her glasse half the attraction which 
I view in you. Your air, your shape, your every 
glance, motion, and gesture, have such peculiar graces, 
that you possess my whole soul, and I know no life but 
in the hopes of your approbation: I know not what to 
say, but that I love you with the sincerest passion that 
ever entered the heart of man," 


He interrupts her sabbath meditations to tell her in a 
letter that "there is nothing but Heaven itself which I prefer 
to your love which shall be the pursuit of my life." Every 
moment of separation from her is torture to him, and he is 
so full of her that " his books are blank paper, and his 
friends intruders." 


I lay down last night with yr image in my thoughts, 
and have awak'd this morning in the same contempla- 
tion. The pleasing transport with which I'me delighted, 
has a sweetness in it, attended with a train of ten thou- 
sand soft desires, anxieties, and cares. The day arises 
on my hopes with new brightness; youth, beauty, and 
innocence, are the charming objects that steal me from 
myself, and give me joys above the reach of ambition, 
pride, or glory. Believe me, fair one, to throw myself 
at yr feet is giving myself the highest bliss I know on 

His was a whirlwind courtship. Nevertheless he 
grows impatient, and presses her to mention the happy day 
when he can call her his. 

"Dear Mrs. Scurlock, I am tir'd with calling you by 

that name ; therefore say the day in which, you'le take 

that of, Madam, your most obedient, most devoted 

humble ser'nt." 


"Oh hasten ye, minutes! bring on the happy morning 
wherein to be ever hers will make me look down on 
thrones! Dear Molly, I am tenderly, passionately faith- 
fully thine." 


At last the date of the marriage is fixed. It is to come 
off on Tuesday, September 8, 1707. The ecstatic lover is 
on the tenterhooks of expectation, and he can think of 
nothing else. 


It is the hardest thing in the world to be in love and 
yet attend businesse. As for me, all who speake to me 
find me out, and I must lock myself up, or other people 
will do it for me. 

A gentleman asked me this morning. 'What news 
from Lisbon?' and I answered, 'She's exquisitely hand- 
some/ Another desir'd to know 'when I had been last 
at Hampton Court ? ' 'T will be on Tuesday come se'n- 
night.' Pr'ythee allow me at least to kiss your hand 
before that day that my mind may be in some 

On the appointed day they "commit" matrimony, and 
Steele, in course of time, "dwindles" into a tame and sub- 
missive husband. He subscribes himself in his letters to 
her as "your happy slave and obedient husband," or "your 
most obsequious husband and most humble serv'nt." The 
letters are full of references to her as his "absolute gover- 
nesse" and "ruler." He repeatedly acknowledges her sway: 
"You are the head of us and I stoop to a female reign, as 
being naturally made the slave of beauty." After these 
confessions we need not be surprised to hear Dean Swift 
writing to Stella : "He is governed by his wife most abomi- 
nably, as bad as Marlborough." 

But if she governs him it is well for him, for he is a most 
hopeless governor of himself. His improvidence in money- 
matters is notorious, and he is no less aware of it than others. 
"I never can, I own. . . .be what they call thoroughly fru- 


gal." His sanguine Irish nature makes him mistake 
his expectation for his income. He lives mostly 
on airy calculations, and unfounded hopes of coming 
into wealth. "I shall on Michaelmas day have 
593," writes the incurable optimist. Again, " Within 
a day or two I doubt not but we shall have our money, whicli 
will be the introduction to that life we both pant after with 
so much earnestness." And, "1 have that in my pockett 
which within few days will be a great sum of money." He 
repeatedly assures her that the bargain he is making will 
keep them for ever from want, and once he promises her 
that she "shall be provided for better than any other family 
in England." Despite these extravagant hopes and promises 
he has to confess that "all his endeavours and thoughts tend 
only to extricate his condition." She is certainly more pru- 
dent than he, and that is why he calls her his "dear Prue.' 

Again, Steele loved, not wisely but too well, the drink 
that both cheers and inebriates. Without it he could not have 
been what he calls himself, "no undelightful companion," or 
what his wife describes him to be, "as agreeable and pleasant 
a man as any in England." It was a habit all too common 
in his age. Sir Leslie Stephen has classified the men of the 
eighteenth century into those who could drink two bottles 
of port after dinner and those who could not, and Thackeray 
has observed that the wits of the age of Queen Anne were fat: 
"Swift was fat; Addison was fat; Gay and Thomson were 
preposterously fat; all that fuddling and punch drinking, that 
club and coffee-house boozing shortened the lives and en- 
larged the waist-coats of the men of that age." Though 
Steele was not "a mountain of beef" (as Horace Walpole 
described a fellow diner at the table) there is no doubt as 
to which of the two classes of people mentioned by Sir Leslie 
Stephen he belonged. With the morning headache, a disease 


with which most of his contemporaries were familiar, Ste % ele 
confesses his crime to his wife and promises amendment. 

"I have been a little intemperate, and discomposed 
with it; but I will be very sober for the future especially 
for the sake of the most amiable and most deserving 
woman, who has made me her happy slave and obedi- 
ent husband." 

But promises are more easily made than kept. Many 
of the letters are written in drink. "I am, dear Prue, a little 
in drink but at all times yr faithfull husband." In one letter 
he subscribes himself "dead drunk" for love, another in toto 

"Dear Prue, 

Sober or not, I am ever yours." 

One need not be a prophet to guess in what condition 
Steele was when this letter was written. Equally obvious 
is the reason why many letters consist of illegible scrawl. It 
is well that a man so improvident and imprudent as Steele 
has his "Prue" to govern him. 

Like all affectionate couples Steele and his wife fre- 
quently quarrelled with each other. Steele' s irregular habits 
are a constant source of friction. He is often away from 
home, business and conviviality make him stay out at night. 
This "coquette of some years' standing," this "cried up 
beauty" must have found life with her incurably social, 
impractical and extravagant husband somewhat of a trial. 
Evidently she is vexed by his frequent absences, and one of 
Steele's letters written in on unusually serious and wounded 
vein shows that "his absolute Governesse" must have been 
exceptionally disrespectful and cruel. He returns the letter 
to her, complaining about her masterful ways and asserting 


that though he loves her "better than the light of his Eyes 
or the life-blood in his Heart," he will be master of himself, 
that "his time and his will should be under no direction but 
his own." She must also have been guilty of inquiring too 
closely as to how he was spending his time, and of making 
him look ridiculous by "sending after him." How frequent 
these bickerings are is clear from what he once writes to 
her : " I wish I knew how to court you into Good 
Humour ; for Two or Three Quarrels more will despatch 
me quite." 

The embers of misunderstanding flicker and fade, and 
fade and flicker again, but the steady flame of his love never 
dims for a moment. If a frown or a hard word of hers sinks 
him into despair a smile or a compliment sends him into 
ecstasy. Once she addresses him as "dear Dick" in a letter 
written from Wales, and the enraptured husband declares 
that he could forget his gout and walk down to her from 
London. The letters are rull of instructions to her to take 
care of her health. "Pray wrap yourself very warm" is the 
refrain of many of his notes. Her report of "continuall 
pain " in her head gives him " sensible affliction " and he 
gives her his own recipe. 

"I am confident that washing your head in cold water 
will cure you; I mean, having water poured on your 
head, and rubbed with an hand, from the crown of 
your head to the nape of your neck. When I lay in yr 
place and on yr pillow, I assure you, I fell into tears 
last night, to think that my charming little insolent 
might be then awake and in pain, and tooke it to be 
a sin to go to sleep," 

Many of his letters are merely notices of little pre- 
sents sent to her, "I enclose a guinea for your pocket", 


or "I send you some tea which I doubt not you will find very 
good," or again, 

"Dear Prue, 

I send you seven pen'orth of walnutts at five a penny 
which is the greatest proof I can give you of my being, 
with my whole heart yrs." 

Before the letter is despatched he adds in a P.S. "There 
are but 29 walnutts." The next day he sends her "half an 
hundred more of walnutts." In all these letters we have 
the prose of love. "For ihee I die, For thee I languish." 
he says in a short note of two sentences in 1712, six years 
after the marriage, and in 1717 he addresses her as "Ten 
thousand times my dear, dear, pretty Prue," and concludes 
another letter with "Poor, dear, angry, pleased, pretty, 
witty, silly, everything Prue, yours ever." 

Steele's affection and respect for his wife do not appear 
surprising to us when we remember that it is he who in speak- 
ing of Lady Elizabeth Hastings, has paid the most handsome 
compliment that has ever been paid to a woman: "passion so 
high souled and graceful that to love her is a liberal educa- 
tion." As Thackeray has pointed out, Steele is the first of 
English writers who admired and respected women. While 
Congreve looks on it as mere instruments of gallantry, and 
destined like most fortifications to fall after a certain time be- 
fore the arts and bravery of the besieger man, while Swift 
takes no pains to hide his opinion that woman is a fool, while 
Addison watches them as if they are harmless, half-witted 
pretty creatures made only to be men's play things, while 
Pope declares that "every woman is at heart a rake" hungry 
for pleasure and for gain, Steele alone pays a manly homage 
to woman's goodness and understanding as well as to her 
beauty and tenderness. "His breast seems to warm, and his 



eyes to kindle when he meets with a good and beautiful wo- 
man, and it is with his heart as well as with his hat that 
he salutes her/' 

Steele' s letters are also full of tender references to his 
children. "The children are almost always in my head at 
the same time as yourself," he writes to his wife. Again 
(playfully) : "All my public spirit and gallantry is turned 
into the care of a wayward beauty called a wife, and a parcel 
of brats called children." Here is an interesting account of 
one of the sons by the affectionate father: 

"Your son at the present writing, is mighty well em- 
ployed, in tumbling on the floor of the room, and 
sweeping the sand with a feather. He grows a most 
delightful child, and very full of play and spirrit. He is 
also a very great scholar: he can read his Primer; and 
I have brought down by Virgil. He makes very 
shrewd remarks upop the pictures. We are very inti- 
mate friends and play-fellows." 

Indeed Steele must have been a great favourite with his 
children of whom and of whose mother he was very proud. 
"Your son," he writes to Mrs. Steele, "is extremely pretty, 
and has his face sweetened with something of the Venus his 
mother, which is no small delight to the Vulcan who begot 


Steele commits to paper every thought the moment it 
comes into his head. If any letters could be called unpre- 
mediated effusions, undoubtedly Steele' s letters to his wife 
deserve the description. Many of them are dashed off in a 

"I have but few minutes from the duty of my employ- 
ment to write in, and without time to read over what 


I have writ; therefore beseech you to pardon the first 
hints of my mind, which I have expressed in so little 

Sometimes he has "to steal a moment" from a friend 
who is with him and observes him in every gesture and mo- 
tion, to tell "the charmer and the inspirer of his soul" that 
he is "her devoted, obedient servant." 

The open hearted, unreserved, simple and affectionate 
nature of the man reveals itself in everyone of his letters. 
In fact, reading two or three of the short notes scribbled by 
Steele to his wife we get details for a mental portrait of the 
writer such as might be sought in vain in fifty essays of the 
Tatler. But when we read these tender and loving letters 
we feel even now as though we are unjustifiably prying 
into the writer's confidence. Steele expressly begs his wife 
"to show his letters to no one living," for the most excellent 
reason that "other people cannot judge of so delicate a cir- 
cumstance as the commerce between man and wife." They 
answer to the definition of the true letter, a spontaneous non- 
literary production, ephemeral, intimate, personal and pri- 
vate, a substitute for a spoken conversation." Well does 
Steele deserve to be remembered as the ideal letter writer 
no less than as the father of the familiar essay. 



Nowrosjee Wadia College, Poona. 

I deem it a very high honour to be called upon to write 
something for this Commemoration Volume. The services 
of the Founder of the Annamalai University to India have 
been so great that they deserve to be recorded in letters of 
gold. This duty I would naturally leave to the present 
workers in the University. 

I have thought it best to write on Reviews of Books, 
because I wish the University had the opportunity to base its 
choice of Books for its Library on such reviews as I would 
look upon as ideal. 

There was a time when the Reviewer thought that it was 
his duty and his privilege to show up the faults, and the 
faults only, of the books he had to review: to censure them 
or what is virtually the same thing, if not worse -to damn 
them with faint praise. Bishop Coplelton had such 
reviewers in his mind when in the course of his satirical 
'Advice to a young Reviewer' he said: 

1 'You will perhaps wonder why all my instructions are 
pointed towards the censure, and not the praise, of Books; 
but many reasons might be given why it should be so. The 
chief are, that this part is both easier, and will sell better/' 

To-day we have almost reached the other extreme. 
Books do not sell well unless they have a good press, and 


favouritism or worse has often resulted in an undue 
adulation of third rate stuff. 

In either event it is the poor reader who suffers. 
Reviews have in these days become almost indispensable. 
Our very existence as men and women of culture depends 
on them. For, as Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch puts it: 
'Man and this planet being such as they are, for a man to 
read all the books existent on it is impossible; and if possible, 
would be in the highest degree undesirable'. 

We have to make a choice. And to whom shall we go, 
if not to the Reviewer for help in making our choice? 'Some 
books, Bacon tells us, 'may be read by Deputy'. For books 
of this type at least, we shall certainly have to depend on the 
Reviewer in these days when the output of Books has been 
enormous and when our interests have been so varied. For 
such books and the literature of knowledge in general, what 
we expect from the Reviewer may be only a faithful and 
easily intelligible summary of the book he reviews. His task 
is easy, provided, of course, he is somewhat of an expert in 
the subject of the book reviewed. Be it said to the credit of 
the better sort of our periodicals and newspapers that their 
reviews hardly ever fail to give fair satisfaction in this field. 
When, however, we come to the reviews of what De Quincy 
calls the literature of power, we have often a different tale 
to tell. For one thing, all literature of power is subjective 
at least more subjective than objective, and its appeal cannot 
be the same to everybody. Tastes differ. What the 
reviewer dislikes the reader may like and what the 
reviewer relishes the reader may hate. Theoretically 
speaking, this position must be conceded. But, as a matter 
of fact, normally, this situation must not and does not arise. 
If the Reviewer is what Dr. I. A. Richards calls an adequate 
reader a man of normal feelings, with no special preposses- 


sions or prejudices, a man of Catholic tastes, widely read, 
conversant with bad as well as good literature, there is no 
reason why his judgment should not be ordinarily acceptable 
to the reader. Whether the reviewer is such a man is what 
the reader is keen on knowing. And that is why signed 
reviews arc so much in demand. We ask for guidance from 
a man on whom we can rely. This reliance on great names 
may not be without its own peculiar risks, but on the whole 
the system of signed reviews works better than any other. 

i have, by impiicauon at least, included judgment as a 
iactor ot some importance in a review, and nere I am in good 
company. Jb'or instance, the Century Dictionary cieimes a 
leview as 'A critical Examination; a Critique; particularly a 
written discussion oj the merits and dejects oi a literary 
worK/ I must admit, however, that tins delimtion may riot 
be universally accepted. The shorter Oxiord tells us tiiat 
a review is 'a general account or criticism oi a 
literary work/ 'ihe iact is, ol iate, all criticibm iias 
tenaed to become impressionist. Anatoie France looked 
upon criticism as 'the adventures ol a soul througii master- 
pieces' ana Benedetto Croce would have us believe tiuu tiie 
critics sole busmess is to reproduce the work 01 arc as tne 
autnor conceived it. 'lo me it appears that tins tendency is 
a reaction against the dogmatic criticism 01 earner days. 
Tne tins won t-do-sort ol criticism is deiiiiitely worse tnan an 
attempt to get at tne author's point oi view. Ihe en tic can 
oiten ao nothing oetter than initiate tiie reader into the 
inmost recesses ol the writer's heart. j.o reproduce tiie con- 
ditions at tiie time the work oi art was conceived is an 
achievement ol the highest merit, and we should be grateiui 
to a critic who suceeds in doing it. But when ail his due 
praise is given to such a critic, we nave also tne right to ask 
him whether, while giving Ins author ins uue, ne has con- 


sidered the position of the reader or the reader's point of 
view. How the work of art is concieved is one thing, 
and how it would affect the reader is quite another 
thing. Those critics who adventure through masterpieces 
may not give a moment's thought to the reader, but the 
reader's point of view is at least as important as the author's, 
so long as authors write for the readers and not for them- 
selves. And when a critic thinks of giving any importance 
what-so-ever to the readers point of view, he has, ipso facto, 
to include judgment of some sort in his critique. 

What is true of criticism on a large scale is true also of 
reviews such as appear in periodicals and newspapers. 
Reviews have to be brief the briefer the better, provided 
they have all the essentials of criticism on a large scale they 
must recreate the original work of art that is due from 
them to the author and they must understand the reader 
and make him feel at ease in the presence of the work of art. 
Judgment of some sort is implicit in this second part of the 
Reviewer's duty. 




As a Medical Examiner of the University women stu- 
dents of Poona for the last few years, I have arrived at some 
conclusions, which I take this opportunity to place before 
the Public, in this volume which commemorates the services 
of a great man to the Public of India. 

At the outset, I must point out that there is a great 
improvement in the height and health of our girl students in 
schools and colleges during the last five years. This is due 
as much to the greater freedom of life which now has been 
theirs, as to the Compulsory Physical Training to which they 
have been subjected in recent times. 

Those girls who have at least a moderate kind of freedom 
in their daily life at home and in the teaching institutions and 
who take part in sports are the best in health. 

Poverty is one of the causes of undernourishment and 
deficient diet among us and our students are a prey to it. 
But considering the money that is spent by our students, I 
must say that the undernourishment and deficiency in diet 
are due more to our lack of knowledge of balanced diet than 
to poverty. We must create a real interest in balanced diet 
among our men and women. 

The sight of a good many of our girls is bad owing to 
uncorrected eyesight. I may say that this is often due to 


their working when they are not keeping fit, or are convales- 
cent afer some disease like malaria or some infectious fever. 
We often neglect convalescence and that is often the root 
cause of many diseases and bad health amongst us. The girl 
who is deeply engrossed in her studies and does not take any 
part in the social life of her college is often anaemic or weak. 
The girl who lives in the college hostel and enjoys a freer 
life is often better in health than a girl who comes from her 
home, as I believe the home atmosphere and environments 
of our girls are not often as free and congenial as they ought 
to be. 

The educated woman is not worse in her married or 
social life than her uneducated sister, nor does she suffer 
more in any of the complaints peculiar to women, or in 
pregnancy, nor does she have more difficult child-labour than 
her uneducated sister. 

It must also be admitted that both our men and women 
are often ignorant of the rudimentary principles of health 
of sex-hygiene, or antenatal and postnatal care, and this is 
a great handicap in life. Somebody perhaps the Univer- 
sity or the heads of our schools ought to make the rudi- 
mentary knowledge of the rules of hygiene and health sex 
hygiene, balanced diet, first aid, antenatal and postnatal care 
compulsory for our students both men and women, if our 
future generation is to be strong and healthy and hardy 
enough to take a leading part in our country's social and 
political life. Without this knowledge, mere culture or deep 
learning is no good to our boys and girls. For, we ought to 
know that a sound mind exists only in a sound body. 

There are very few facilities for sports and physical 
exercise for our women students, and many cannot and will 
not take part in sports, and therefore I think Physical Train- 


ing must be made compulsory for all students from the pri- 
mary education stage to the University stage. I must say here 
that if Compulsory Physical Training is to be successful, a 
genuine interest in Physical Training has to be created not 
only among the students, but also among the parents and the 
managers of the teaching institutions. Without the co-ope- 
ration of all these three groups of people, Physical Training 
tends to become a mere farce. Last but not the least in 
importance is the medical examination of students. It is 
medical examination which points out the defects and defici- 
encies and abnormalities in the student. The guardians and 
the heads of institutions have to look into these matters. 

In conclusion, I would suggest that our teaching insti- 
tutions ought to take more interest in the physique of our 
students. They ought to impart to them the knowledge of 
the rules of hygiene, create a freer and more congenial 
atmosphere, provide good and adequate though not neces- 
sarily costly sports facilities and introduce medical exami- 
nation and Compulsory Physical Training. Only then can we 
hope to make our young men and women fit to take their due 
share in the burdens of life. 




Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar, the Founder of 
the Annamalai University, evinced his practical interest in 
education when he made his first efforts to found a college 
in Madura which found fruition ultimately in the starting 
of what was the Sri Minakshi College in Chidambaram. As 
is usual with Sir Annamalai Chettiar, it was a whole-hearted 
effort as he is known not to do things by halves. It is his 
efforts to make the college many ways a model institution 
under the Madras University that brought about the acquain- 
tance between us. The college rapidly advanced from step 
to step, and had almost reached the position of being one of 
the comparatively few fully equipped colleges in the Presi- 
dency, when the agitation for a separate University for the 
Tamil districts resulted in the appointment of a Tamil Uni- 
versity Commission, which was to tour the Tamil districts 
taking evidence and submit its recommendations in regard 
to this. The University of Madras was seriously making 
efforts to become a teaching University contemplated by the 
Act of 1923. The normal development expected by the 
sponsors of the new Act was the creation of the teaching 
University at Madras, which would have become, with its 
constituent colleges, a teaching centre like Oxford or Cam- 
bridge, the affiliated colleges constituting more or less a 
distinct section of this University, ultimately to become a 


separate affiliating University. This course of development 
was marked out for the Allahabad University and resulted 
in the creation of the teaching University of Allahabad and 
the affiliating University of Agra. The Tamil University 
Committee went about making its enquiries in this view. 
Differences of opinion soon developed as to the centre of 
this new University and it became a matter of conten- 
tion whether Trichinopoly or Madura should have this 
honour. The majority of the members, however, were 
opposed to the separation and did not favour it mostly on the 
ground it would have tended to create a much less efficient 
affiliating University than the Madras University was during 
more than sixty years of its existence. In the course of this 
enquiry and the discussions in connection with it, Sir Anna- 
malai Chettiar's intention to develop the Sri Minakshi Col- 
lege into a unitary teaching institution raised to the rank of 
a University, was discussed. I took occasion, when the re- 
port was got ready, to file a note that the recommendation 
of the Committee against starting a new University in the 
Tamil districts should not prejudice the question of the Sri 
Minakshi College developing into a unitary teaching Univer- 
sity. Whether this had any influence or no, the idea fruc- 
tified in the foundation of the Annamalai University, and 
took its character readily as a unitary, teaching University. 
In the course of normal development in earlier years, it held 
out promise of becoming a University centre of learning 
very much like the German Universities of the old regime. 
This position was due entirely to the active exertions all 
round of Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar. 

The Annamalai University started under very favoura- 
ble auspices, thanks to the active interest of this gentleman, 
and set before itself two specific objects in view. 
It was to be a residential unitary teaching University. 


Secondly it had laid itself out deliberately to 
foster South Indian culture specifically, and work for the 
special promotion of the study of the history, culture and 
literature of the Tamils, involving, as it naturally should, the 
promotion of the study of Tamil and Sanskrit in all their 
branches to the highest specialised work possible. 
Having regard to the active personal interest 
taken by the Pro-Chancellor, there was every hope 
that this double ambition would be realised to the full. 
Courses were accordingly laid. During the earlier years 
therefore work went on along the lines laid down and care- 
fully selected appointments were made to fill the various 
Chairs and, in respect of certain subjects, even provision 
was made for sending out young men for training in various 
branches of teaching under terms of indenture to serve the 
University on their return. These early acts naturally 
gave the best promise of realising the objects with which 
the University started. Naturally in the present condition 
of opinion in regard to University education, there came in 
the external influences which led on to the expansion of the 
University along new lines. Certain schemes like schemes 
of agriculture and industry were brought in, to claim their 
quota of attention and diversion of funds. We have 
the fullest appreciation of the development so far in orien- 
tal studies and institutions brought into existence therefor, 
such as the Sanskrit and the Tamil Colleges, the College for 
Music which promised to develop into a real academy of 
music, a good library and numbers of up-to-date laboratories, 
with a residential system and promotion of social life. We 
feel certain that the distinguished Rajah Saheb who has 
done so much already to promote this unique institution 
would find it possible to put the University on the rails for a 
fuller and a freer and a brighter development, his original 


ambition. We congratulate the Rajah Saheb upon his 
having completed his 60th year, and reaching his Sashti- 
yabdapurti in orthodox parlance. Let us hope that he will 
step forward steadily from this milestone to the further 
Biblical three score and ten, to the more orthodox Sata- 
bhisheka or the 80th year, and the real Vedic Satayush or 
the 101st birthday. 

Before concluding, however, we take the liberty of 
appealing to the Rajah Saheb to exert his influence, both 
among the wealthy members of his community and others 
similarly happily placed, to secure if necessary their 
co-joperation and good offices to place this University 
beyond all need. It is his function as the original 
founder of the institution to hold aloft the high 
ideal. Promotion of the culture characteristic of 
India involves an equal and impartial treatment of all 
subjects coming within the purview of Indian studies. 
Linguistic studies of the most general character imply, 
as it does in distant foreign countries, the study of Sanskrit 
language and literature essentially as a basic study, and 
the understanding of the Indian culture as such, or of its 
preservation and promotion on right lines, equally demand 
the cultivation of its philosophy, history and the sciences 
of India. In the realm of Sanskrit studies, South Indian 
Sanskrit studies have a very important and peculiar role 
to play in the study of Indian literature and culture. May 
the Almighty God help him to fulfil his aims, and place 
his own foundation on a permanent footing to achieve his 
high cultural ambition. May the Almighty God shower 
on Him His blessings to enable him to do this good work. 


Professor of Applied Mathematics, University of Mysore, 


The first notable success of astrophysics was the theory 
of ionisation of stellar atmospheres. Later work related to 
constitution of stars dealing with problems of equilibrium 
and energy transport leading to the mass luminosity rela- 
tion, which can be taken to characterise the second stage of 
this development. As long as considerations relating to 
energy-production were not tackled rigorously, there was 
no hope of proceeding further and reaching the third stage 
of explaining the mysteries of the Russell-Hertzsprung dia- 
gram. The development of nuclear physics in the last few 
years has made it possible to obtain definite results regard- 
ing energy generation. Just as in the first stage it was 
the theory of atomic structure that helped in the develop- 
ment, it is appropriate that in this third stage we should 
invoke the help of nuclear structure. Some of the achieve- 
ments of these latest ideas, their bearing on stellar evolu- 
tion and the difficulties still to be surmounted are indicated 
in this article. 

It is a great pleasure to offer this as my humble con- 
tribution to the volume commemorating the 61st birth- 
day of one whose ideals in founding this University have 
been as lofty and sublime in conception as the subject of 
this article. 


I. Internal constitution of stars 

A general theory of the internal constitution of stars 
has been shown to be possible on the basis of the laws of 
gravitation, of radiation, of atomic structure and of simple 
gas laws. The theory is not too complicated mainly on 
account of the fact that the properties of matter in its 
gaseous and highly ionised state in the interior due to the 
enormous pressures and temperatures ruling there are 
much simpler than in any other state. 

The principle of mechanical equilibrium permits the 
calculation of the pressure P at any point of a siar if one 
knows the way in which the density e varies with the dis- 
tance from the centre in other words if the "model" be 

In the simple gaseous ionisated state the mean 
molecular weight H can be calculated from atomic theory, 
and the equation of state for the perfect gas is also valid. For 
a given model therefore the temperature T at any point can 
also be calculated. 

The next important consideration is that at the high 
temperatures in the interior, radiation pressure is as im- 
portant as gas pressure. Taking this into account and using 
the fact that radiation pressure varies as the fourth power 
of the temperature, one could calculate the internal tem- 
perature of a star for any given model. The calculations 
become particularly simple on Eddington's model for which 
<><~28 that of water, 

Pc=36X10 9 atm; T.~2'9X10 7 K for the sun. 

To relate the above quantities with conditions at the 
surface, one has next got to calculate the escape of radiation 
from the interior. On general principles it is evident that 


the heat will flow, inside the star, from regions where the 
radiation pressure is greater to those where it is smaller. 
This flow of heat however meets with a resistance due to 
the opacity of the gas, and the co-efficient of opacity * 
can be calculated as a function of P, v and T by applying 
the general methods of the quantum theory of the inter- 
action of matter and radiation. It is thus possible, start- 
ing with pure theory, to calculate the luminosity of a star 
of given mass and radius and built on a given model. It is 
found that the luminosity increases very rapidly with the 
star's mass-rather faster than its fourth power on the 
average. For the same mass it changes but slowly with 
the star's size (inversely as Vr) . Differences in the model 
make surprisingly little difference in the luminosity. The 
chemical composition makes little difference too except for 
the abundance of hydrogen, the luminosity of a star of 
almost pure hydrogen being less by a factor of 300. Apply- 
ing this to the sun, an agreement between calculated and 
observed luminosities is obtained if hydrogen forms 35% 
by weight of the interior mass, the rest being heavy ele- 

This conclusion that the luminosity of a star depends 
mainly upon its mass is in effect Eddington's well known 
"mass-luminosity relation," and it will be shown later that 
it is really a consequence of the fact that the hydrogen con- 
tent of a star does not vary at random for a given mass. 

2. The Russell-Hertzsprung diagram. 

The theory of constitution of stars described above 
accounts for the close correlation between luminosities and 
masses, but it gives no explanation at all of the equally 
conspicuous relations connecting luminosity and spectral 




class as is brought out clearly in the Russell Hertzsprung 
diagram, R.H.D. in brief. Experience has shown that, up to 
a certain approximation, all stars are characterised by two 
numbers which might be chosen in general as the luminosity 
L and the surface temperature T. These at the same time 
also define the radius of the star R, In the R.H.D. these 
co-ordinates are plotted as log L and log T; alternatively 
one could also plot log (R/R ) and log (L/L and call 

O O 

this the modified R.H.D. or the R-L plane. The diagram 
shows (Fig. I) that stars favour only certain regions of 
the plane. The great majority of the stars belong to the so 

* 1 t3 L /U* Bu>e 

+y - 

Fro. I. Showhif the relation 
between msc*, radii and lumi- 
nosities of various stars and the 
division of stars into the normal 
start or ttw tara of the mam 
sequrncr. red giants (including 
Ophrid variables) ami white 
Udncludmg probably Wolf- 



-80 -1.0 





Fig. I 

called main-sequence; their luminosities and radii increase 
rather regularly with their mass, as also the effective tem- 
perature. So the stars of this group range from hot and 
luminous blue giants down to the cool and faint red dwarfs. 
According to the best observations it is practically a sharp 
line, and the stars belonging to it therefore form a one- 
parameter group. Besides the stars of the main sequence, 


and to the right of them above lie the red giants (L large 
T small) with L and R larger than for stars of the same 
mass in the main sequence. In the R-L diagram these 
form a separate branch (giant branch) branching off near 
the middle of the main sequence. It should also be noted 
that some particular stars located in this region possess a 
property of periodic luminosity changes (Cepheid varia- 
ables and others of long period) and represent the upper 
boundary, in respect of L, of the giant branch. Again to 
the left and below the main sequence are the white dwarj 
states (T large, L small) corresponding to smaller lumino- 
sities and radii than stars of corresponding masses in the 
main sequence. Probably related to the white dwarfs are 
the central stars of planetary nebulae (Wolf -Ray et stars) 
which also possess small radii for given luminosities. 

A proper understanding of this distribution of stars 
in the R-L diagram is of fundamental importance for ques- 
tions of stellar evolution and it can be seen from very 
general considerations that this understanding depends on 
a knowledge of the mechanism of energy production in 
stars. In consonance with the theorem of Vogt and Russell 
one must expect theoretically that under certain assump- 
tions the state of a star is completely characterised by two 
parameters and accordingly by its position in the R.H.D. 
Further the matter which a star consists of is determined 
by specifying its total mass and its chemical composition. 
If now the original chemical composition of stellar material 
be universally the same (and our knowledge of the abun- 
dance relations of chemical elements makes this assumption 
plausible) a difference in the chemical composition of stars 
can only be a result of the energy-generating nuclear reac- 
tions which on their part are determined by the state of the 


star. Therefore there remain, besides, only the mass and 
the age of the star as independent parameters. 

The calculation of the empirical parameters L and T 
from the mass and the parameter of chemical composition 
assumes a theory of the internal constitution of the star. 
On the theory of Eddington sketched in 1 which assumes 
the conditions of equilibrium and energy-transport as 
fundamental but not the energy-generation, the mass-lumi- 
nosity relation is obtained as a relation between two para- 
meters, the stars of different luminosities in the main 
sequence being also stars o( different masses. But it is obvi- 
ous however that the mass-luminosity relation merely des- 
cribes their uniform chemical composition. The principal 
problem of the theory of nuclear reactions in stars is to derive 
the dependence of energy-generation on chemical composi- 
tion, and thereby elucidate the structure of the R.H.D. 

3. Stellar nuclear reactions 

The magnitude of the problem of energy-generation 
inside a star can be best illustrated by considering the Sun, 
a typical star. The Sun radiates 2 ergs per second per gram 
of its mass which corresponds to a loss of 4,200,000 metric 
tons per second, and since there is equilibrium between 
generation and loss of energy, energy of the same 
order must have continued to be generated throughout geo- 
logical times during the last 2*10 9 years. Besides the Sun 
there are sta v s which thiow out nearly thousand times as 
much energy. The question naturally arises: where does 
this energy come from? According to the ideas of modern 
Physics, there are four possible sources: 

(i) Contraction of a star without change of chemical 
constitution the energy liberated is gravita- 
tional energy. 


(ii) The building up of heavy atomic nucleii out of 
lighter ones the energy liberated is nuclear 

(iii) Contraction by transformation of a part of the 
matter into densely packed neutrons. 

(iv) Complete annihilation of matter energy liber- 
ated is the rest energy of matter. 

Of these the last source can be left out of account in 
view of the fact that it has not been so far observed in the 
laboratory, and even from a theoretical point of view the 
discovery of the neutron and positron has shown that by 
the equalisation of positive and negative charges only the 
electron mass is transformed into radiation while the pro- 
ton mass is unaltered. On very general thermodynamic 
arguments it can be shown that the third source postulated 
is improbable for normal stars but might be invoked for 
explaining catastrophic phenomena. Thus we have to 
make the assumption that during the life time of a star, 
in so far as it is subject to our observation, only the first 
two sources need be considered. Of these the first alone is 
not sufficient to explain the production of energy as for 
example, in the case of the Sun whose present rate of 
radiation would exhaust this source in 4*10 7 years. One is 
led almost by a process of exhaustion to the second as the 
most likely one. Although this had been surmised some 
years ago it is only the progress of nuclear physics in the last 
few years that has made it possible to prove this surmise 
and decide rather definitely which process can and which 
cannot occur in the interior of stars. A careful analysis by 
Bethe of all the possible processes has shown that the only 
thermonuclear reactions which can occur at sufficiently large 
rates at the temperatures of stellar interiors are those bet- 



ween protons and the light nuclei!. In general terms one 
might say that the energy production of stars is due entirely 
to the combination of four protons and two electrons into 
an a particle. As can be seen from Table I this formation of 
four atoms of hydrogens into one of helium results in a dia- 
mution of the combined masses of the interacting nucleii 
by 1 part in 135. This simplifies the discussion of stellar 
evolution in as much as the amount of heavy matter, and 
therefore the opacity, r^es not change with the time. 

TABLE Corrected and additional nutlear masses, 
and binding energies. 



n 1 



He 8 





4.025 4 

0.6 1 


4.003 86 


Li 4 

4.026 9 

-1 1 



-0.9 0.2 



5.013 6 

-1.6 0.3 

Be 6 

6.021 9 

-1.8 0.8 


Be 7 

7.019 28 




8.007 80 

-0.08 0.04 


B 8 

8.027 4 

0.0 0.4 




-0.5 0.2 


C 10 

10.020 2 




12.0225 -243 

0.0 0.9 


N 13 





14.013 1 



Table I 

These reactions of hydrogen with the lighter nucleii 
are shown in Table II which gives the energy evolution Q 
of the reaction, its probability per second and also the life 
time, all calculated for a temperature of 2X10 7 degrees, 


As has been shown by Bethe no elements heavier than 
helium can be built up to any appreciable extent perma- 
nently in the interior of stars under present conditions. An 
extract from table II of reactions leading to He 4 is given in 
Table III, along with the average energy produced in ergs/gm 

TABLE Probability of author reaelitri al J-/fl' drgtftt 

t AC lion 



P(MC ' 

L\tt. roi *. *j 



Kef Id 





1.2 10U yr 

2 sec 

H'4- II II*' 1 

21 3 



17-10" 1 

0.2 sec. 

HfJ-t-H -l i'* 




j 10-' 


H-'+ 11 = 1 ** 




6 10" 


4 t 


7 10" J 

t|'-f|| ml Hf* 

4 -10*^ 


6 10'* 

1 mm 

Hc r + ll * B n 


002 D 

38 I 

6 10-'* 

2000 yr. . 



10* X 

38 t 

4 10- 

15 mm. 

t ^ 

2 D 


2 10"' 

5000 yr 

B"+ll < " 





1000 yr 

HU4-H * ) He* 




t.2 10-^ 

3 days 

t ii + H-N" 







0.6 X 


4 !()-" 

25 10* yr 









s iy 


2 J0" 1? 

5 10' yr 




^. jo -11 

2000 yr 

If'-f H r " 


0.02 > 

61 6 

g 10" M 

10" yr 

r'+H "<>"* H< 



4 10~ l> 

3 10' yr. 

Ne 5l + H NJ' J 


10 D 

71 7 

5 JO"** 


M(f"-f H - At" 






S** 4- H I*" 


10 /) 



3 10yi 

CV-f-M * A'* 


10 D 



2* 10* yr 

H' + tl'-flc'+ii 


.* 10* Af 


Be'--H s H* 

18 5 



2 '10-** 

Be '-4 H' H' -f " 


10* K 


2* 10""'* 





3* 10*** 





Mc' + Hc'-lfe' 


0^ Z>' 



S "!o^ 

J tO'yr. 

l.i'-f-Hr 1 R" 


I > 


/ 5- lO- 

B*' + Hf'-( 






3 HP'yt. 

w^"*i/7r T/M ofT" n M?T o'^,Il l ^?i* I u v *'T < .i D L"t. < * u / l ?i?? for d J** radiauon - f "> K* <*fl. *' - 

:y tre lintwl mtrrlv lar the akv n dto- 

Tkr Irnrrt In the column giving tlw trvfl wiJih mran X ciprMmtnt*! V^JIK, O^r^Iculated for 
<lipOf radiatidi with struU npfoficcJurff J/4 l 1/20 of b<} (12;, (? -quarfrupol* r Ji .tion hq (I2) ux 
Tbrgt rf ciioiu,jrf not br lirvfd to orrur nc thf a product or on* of the rractuit* n unnhir . Thcv 

Table II 

per second. As can be seen at once from this table it is 
the nitrogen reaction alone which gives energy generation in 
consonance with the observed data for the sun. We can 
divide these reactions into three classes: 

with the deuteron being next transferred into He 4 by further 
capture of protons. From the life time value in Table II 
and energy generation value in Table III, this appears a pro- 
bable reaction, but there is a possibility that this reaction 
itself may be forbidden by selection rules. 


TABLE Energy production in the sun for several nuclear reactions. 


H'+HH +++/.* 02 

H'+Hi=He 3X10" 

Li 7 +H2He 4X10'* 


* "+/" means that the energy production in the reactions following 
the one listed, is included- E.g. the figure for the N^+H 1 includes the 
complete chain (1). 

Table III 

(ii) the reactions in which the light elements Li, 
Be, B are involved 

Li 7 + H 1 - 2 He 4 
Be 9 + H 1 - Li 6 + He 4 
B 11 + H 1 - 3 He 4 

Li begins to be used up at about 2X10 6 deg, Be at 3 '5 X 10 6 
deg and the isotopes of B at about 9X10 6 degrees. As seen 
from Table II these light elements would "burn" in a very 
short time, and moreover they are destroyed permanently 
and will not be replaced. Thus for example, Be would act 
in the following way 

Be 9 + H 1 - Li 6 + He 4 
Li 6 + H 1 - Be 7 
Be 7 + E- = Li 7 
Li 7 + H 1 = 2 He 4 

(iii) N 14 H 1 - O 15 

which written out fully as a chain reaction is given in Table 
IV. This is in fact the most important source of stellar 


N 13 

C l H-H l =N 14 , 
N H +H 1 =O 15 , 
O 15 

Table IV 

energy and in it carbon and nitrogen isotopes serve merely 
as catalysts for the combination. It can conveniently be 
called the carbon-nitrogen cycle. As seen from Table II, a 
given C 12 nucleus will, at the centre of the sun, capture a 
proton once in 2' 5 X 10 6 years, a given N 14 once in 5 X 10 7 
years. These times are short compared with the age of 
the sun, and therefore the cycle will have repeated itself 
many times in the history of the sun so that statistical 
equilibrium has been established between all the nucleii 
occuring in the cycle. Another important point about this 
cycle is its very strong dependence on temperature viz. T 18 
and this has important astrophysical consequences. 

The one thing that is common to all the above reac- 
tions is the end product He 4 , the a-particle. Obviously 
nothing can happen to it since the reaction He 4 + H = Li 5 
is unstable because of the non-existence of Li 5 . The 



a -particle appears to be the only thing stable in this micro- 
cosm of changes, and if hydrogen be the "fuel of the stars" 
helium is the ashes. 

4. The Sun 

As has already been remarked in connection with* 
Table II it is the carbon-nitrogen cycle that keeps the sun 
shining. This can be brought out in a more striking way 
by answering the following question. Neglecting all nuclear 
considerations regarding the cycle, which nucleus will give 
us the right energy evolution in the sun ? or conversely ; 
given an energy evolution of 20 ergs/g-sec at the centre, 
and 2 ergs/g.sec at the surface, which nuclear reaction will 
give us the right central temperature (~19X10 6 degrees)? 

TABLE Central temperatures necessary for giving ob- 

served energy production in sun, with various nuclear 




H'+H-He* (U6 





Ne^+H-Na 23 37 

Table V 

This calculation has been carried out in Table V. It has 
been assumed that the density is 80, the hydrogen-concen- 



tration 35% that of the other reactant 10% by weight. It 
is seen from the table that all nucleii up to boron require 
extremely low temperatures in order not to give too much 
energy-production; these temperatures (<10 7 degrees) are 
quite irreconcilable with the equations of hydrostatic and 
radiation equilibrium. On the other hand, oxygen and 
neon would require much too high temperatures. Only 
carbon and nitrogen require nearly, and nitrogen in fact 
exactly, the central temperature obtained from the Edding- 
ton integrations (19 X 10 6 degrees). Thus from stellar 
data alone we could have predicted that the carbon-nitro- 
gen cycle is the process responsible for the energy produc- 

TABLE Comparison of the carbon-nitrogen reaction with 




















19 18.5 

Sirius A 




26 22 





6 32 

U Ophiuchi 




25 26 


Y Cygni 




32 30 



Table VI 
The main sequence 

The theory that the main sequence stars owe their 
energy generation chiefly to the carbon-nitrogen reaction 
is very satisfactorily verified from observational data. In 
table VI a comparison of the theory with observation is 


made in the case of five stars for which the data are suffici- 
ently well-known. The last column in the table is calcu- 
lated as the necessary central temperature to give the 
correct energy evolution as observed. In the calculations 
the N 14 content is taken as 10 /o. The last column but one 
gives the temperatures as calculated on Eddington's theory. 
The agreement between the two columns is highly satisfac- 
tory, the only exception being the star Capella which cannot 
really be considered as belongirg to the main sequence. 

Russell had suggested, long ago that the central tem- 
peratures of all stars of the main sequence are nearly the 
same although the luminosities of these stars varied by 
factors of the order 10 U . This is easily understood on the 
present theory if we assume that in general all these stars 
have the same energy source. In fact the very strong 
dependence of the N-C cycle on temperature (^T ld ) 
shows that a small variation of the central temperature 
brings about a large change in the luminosity. 

As pointed out by Von Weiszsacker it is also possible on 
this theory to understand the bend in the R'H'D (See 
Fig. 1) in the region of the red dwarfs. The reaction 
H + H D + + already considered before plays a role in 
this connection. Due to its weak dependence on tempera- 
ture this reaction is not of much importance for the major 
part of stars in the main sequence whose central tempera- 
ture are ^ 2 X 10 7 degrees. In the region of smaller tempe- 
ratures of the order 15X10 6 degraes and less, this reaction 
appears to be concurrent with the N~C reaction and as 
shown by Fig. 2. even of greater importance. The bend in 
the main sequence is to be attributed to the weak depend- 
ence of luminosity on central temperature in this region of 

red dwarfs of mass (Ho^M nearly. 




tcr 4 




FIG. The energy production in ergs/g sec. due to the 
proton-proton combination (curve H-f-H) and the carbon- 
nitrogen cycle (N + H), as a function of the central tem- 
perature of the star. Solid curve: total energy production 
caused by both reactions. The following assumptions were 
made: central density = 100, hydrogen concentration 35 
percent, nitrogen 10 percent: average energy production 
1/5 of central production for H + H, 1/10 for N-f H. 

Fig. II 

The narrow width of the main sequence can be under- 
stood if we observe that its stars are prescribed to lie in a 
region which corresponds to certain allowed variations in 
their chemical composition. These stars must satisfy both 
the following conditions (a) they must not be so young 
that their energy-generation is due either to contraction or 
the burning of elements lighter than carbon and (b) on the 
other hand they must not fail to possess hydrogen. We 
describe gaints as those stars which do not satisfy (a) and 
the white dwarfs as those which do not satisfy (b). 

6. Giants and Variable Stars. 

The central temperatures of these stars are less by a 
factor 10 than those of main sequence stars, which also 



amounts to low densities. Under these circumstances it is 
impossible for the carbon cycle to work, and one has to 
assume that the energy is generated either by contraction 
or by the transformation of very light atoms. In either 
case the giants must still be young stars. Since the elements 
Li, Be and B are scarce on the sun and the earth it is plausi- 
ble to assume that these elements have been burnt away in 
normal stars but exist in abundance in very young stars.: 

-1.0 +10 +'10 t-3O 

Fir, Pulsating variables and different nuclear reactions. 
Fig. Ill 

On the assumption that the energy generation in giants 
is due to reactions of the lighter elements, Gamow and 
Teller have drawn in the R-L diagram calculated curves for 
each reaction parallel to the main sequence (See Fig. 3). A 
star which contains all these nucleii in large quantities would 


stay along one of these curve as long as the correspond- 
ing isotope was completely burnt out, and then make a 
transition to the curve of next higher temperature and 
finally land in the main sequence. On this picture such a 
star should spend a comparatively long time within each of 
these bands and undergo a more rapid gravitational con- 
traction during the transition from one such region to an- 
other. As is well known these variable stars from a one- 
parameter sequence, all their characteristics being depend- 
ent on the vibration period. Thus the knowledge of this 
period fixes the position of the star on the R L diagram. 
In fig 3. the region of pulsating stars in shown by the shad- 
ed area, the width of each area being proportional to the 
number of stars observed. It is seen that there are definite 
concentrations of the stars near the regions where the 
nuclear reactions of light elements become import- 
ant. The three regions corresponding to cluster, Cepheid 
and long-period variables might be associated with the B 10 
arid Li, Be, and perhaps the D reactions respectively. 
Gamow goes even further in explaining the line of the 
pulsating stars as a limit to the distribution of red-giants in 
the R L diagram. According to him this line is to be inter- 
preted as the limit above which the evolution is purely 
gravitational (until the star gets into the main sequence) 
and below which it is due to nuclear reactions. Because of 
the short time scale of gravitational contraction the number 
of stars observed above this line must be statistically small, 
and this explains the gap between this line and the main 
sequence. The pulsative instability of the stars near this 
limiting line can be explained as due to the conditions exist- 
ing during the transition from the state of thermonuclear 
evolution into the state of purely gravitational contraction. 


This theory, charming as it is, meets with the difficulty 
that the abundance of the lighter elements in red giants 
does not appear to be sufficient to retard the process of con- 
traction suitably, and it may be still necessary to assume 
that either pure contraction and some other unknown source 
of energy plays a part in the evolution of giants. 

7. White dwarfs and Novae 

In connection with the Vogt-Russell theorem it has 
already been remarked that the mass and a parameter de- 
noting chemical composition can be chosen as independent 
numbers characterising a star. For stars in the region to 
the left of the main sequence we can take the hydrogen 
content as the parameter of this chemical composition in so 
far as nuclear reactions are concerned. From the theory of 
nuclear reactions it follows at once that a star to the left of 
the main sequence can contain little or no hydrogen, for if it 
did the state of high temperature and density would, inspite 
of gravitation, induce sufficient energy generation to prevent 

Before understanding the evolutionary significance of 
white dwarfs it is necessary to get some theoretical ideas 
about them which, thanks to the work of Chandrasekhar, 
are very satisfactory. They represent senility, almost the 
approach to the final state of a contracting star in which 
all the energy, gravitational, nuclear or what not, has been 
exhausted and radiated away into space, and nothing more 
can happen to it. Within them the electrons are degenerate 
jammed together as closely as the quantum laws permit. 
It has been shown that the radius and density of a star in this 
state are determined by its mass (and H-content if any) . If 
the mass of a star does not exceed the value Mo =5 - 7M /|x 2 



(^molecular weight and equal to 2 for no hydrogen) i.e. 

1*4 M , the final state by contraction will be a sphere of 

completely degenerate (partially relativistic) electron gas. 

For such masses less than M , each mass gives a definite 


value Emm for the final radius the least value or Rum 
corresponding to Mo itself. For masses larger than Mo the 
critical conditions will not be reached, and as far as present 
knowledge goes such a star might contract indefinitely. 
Another interesting point in connection with stars of mass ^ 
Mo might also be noticed. For the mass lying between 

5'7 M /M~ and 6'6 M /V 2 , the degeneracy of an electron 

O O 

gas will always begin at a certain stage while for still heavier 
stars the electrons will always remain in the state of an ideal 
gas. The evolutionary significance of these ideas will be 
discussed in the last section. 

As intermediate states between the main sequence and 
white dwarfs are the novae, according lo ideas put forth by 
Biermann. This theory is based on the following facts: 

(i) For a normal nova outburst the energy generat- 
ed is small as compared with the thermal 
energy content of the stars. 

(ii) The luminosity of a nova before and after the 
outburst is the same within the limit of errors 
of observation. 

(iii) As far as the best observations go, the final state 
after an outburst is intermediate bet- 
ween the main-sequence and white dwarf 
states. The first two observations which are 
mutually compatible show that the outburst 
does not materially alter the inner structure 



of the star, and this shows that, in view of 
(iii) the star was also in the intermediate 
state before the outburst. 

The origin of the outburst itself has been ascribed by 
Vogt to the fact that the onset cf degeneracy would auto- 
matically liberate the great quantity of radiant energy 
previously trapped in the gas, since degenerate gas has 
very small opacity. 

8. Evolution of Stars 

If we accept the evolutionary hypothesis and postulate 
the energy sources as in section, 3 it follows that small and 
large masses should have a rather different evolutionary 
history, since the mass or a star during its whole life his- 
tory is almost invariant changing by less than 1 per cent. 

Consider first a star of small mass. This would start 
from the main sequence, and for its further evolution the 
H-content might be taken as the parameter. The energy- 
generation would be due to the N-C cycle and the lumino- 
sity would increase by nearly a factor of 100 as the H-con- 
tent is decreasing. The existence of the empirical mass- 
luminosity relation can be interpreted as a statistical corre- 
lation intrinsically due to the fact that the star spends most 
of its life time in the low luminosity part of its evolution- 
ary track. This track based on the N-H reaction is shown 
schematically in Fig. 4 for the sun. After the hydrogen 
content has fallen below a certain limit the star will start a 
contraction which steadily increases in speed. When the H- 
contents falls to nearly 0*002 per cent the nuclear energy 
liberation becomes negligible as compared with the gravita- 
tional. The evolutionary track due to contraction, is shown 
further in the same figure, and gives rise to a continuous 
increase in luminosity during a comparatively long period of 



time. The last stage of contraction will now essentially 

depend on the mass. For masses < 1'4 M the contractive 


evolution begins to deviate because of the beginning of 
the formation of a degenerate electron gas in the central 
region. The rate of contraction will considerably slow 
down, and the star reaches the white dwarf stage where it 
acquires a long lease of life. Going still further in evolution 

-SO -10 +1.0 

FlG. ' Evolutionary track of a light star. 

Fig. IV 

after the white dwarf stage, the increasing exhaustion would 
result in the outer non-degenerate layers becoming thinner, 
and the star would shrink and grow fainter and cooler be- 
coming "a yellow dwarf 7 ' and ending as a "black dwarf/' 

For stars with masses larger than 1*4 M (but small) the 


process of gravitational contraction is not limited by any 


maximum density and such stars are apparently destined to 
unlimited contraction with central density and temperature 
rising above any given value. Fig. 4 also shows, according 
to Gamow, that white dwarfs are at present far from the 
finite stage of contraction, as the difference between the 

actual track for a star of mass M and the dotted track 


R^Rmin indicates. Another very interesting suggestion 

made by Gamow is that stars of mass between 5'7M /M< 2 

and 6*6 M /V 2 can explain, while they are getting into a 

degenerate state, the formation of "super-novae" by the 
propess of neutron-formation. 

We now come to consider the evolution of large masses. 
The first stage of evolution for these viz., the red giant state, 
and the transition through the pulsating state to the region 
of blue giants in the main sequence appear fairly simple to 
understand. The second stage as to what to happens to 
these when they go over to the left of the main sequence 
does not appear to be quite clear at present. If one postu- 
lated that they met the same fate as stars of masses greater 

than the Chandrasekhar-Landau limit of 1/4 M viz. con- 

traction to arbitrarily large densities, we ought to find dense 

states of large masses; but these have never been observed. 
Two ways, perhaps not mutually exclusive, have been sug- 
gested to meet this difficulty Gamow has pointed out that 
such contraction cannot take place indefinitely because, on 
account of the angular momentum of the stars, the centri- 
fugal forces soon become large and cause the breaking of 
such a massive star into several small pieces (see Fig. 5) 
with the masses below the critical value. These pieces will 
then continue to exist indefinitely in the form of white 



dwarfs. Such an explanation would amount to the drastic 
assumption that existing white dwarfs do not represent a 
finite stage of evolution of a single star but are fragments 
of the explosion of heavy stars. The other way is based 
on the suggestion of Chandrasekhar that all stars of large 
mass when they come near the region of white dwarfs 
actually cast off their masses on account of excessive radia- 


Fio Evolutionary tiack of a heavy btar 

Fig. V 

tion pressure, as is observed in the Wolf-Rayet stars. After 
casting off their mass, these stars would reach the white 
dwarf stage. This suggestion like that of Gamow also makes 
the white dwarf stage not a finite one but the result of a 
catastrophic change. 


While the results based on the carbon cycle energy- 
generation can be considered quite satisfactory for the main- 
sequence stars, the above considerations relating to giants 
and white dwarfs are not quite satisfactory and there appear 
some contradictions which will now be pointed out. The 
first difficulty is presented by the existence of stars of very 
high luminosity like the blue giant Y-Cygni near the top of the 

main sequence (M=17 ) and the red super giant) C- 


Aurigae. These giants radiate as much as 1000 erg/g. sec. or 
more, and at this rate the preponderant initial hydrogen con- 
tent would be completely consumed in 10 s or even 10 7 years 
O.i\ in a time much shorter than even the ape 10 9 years 
usually piven to the stars). The simplest explanation of this 
would perhaps be that these are comparative younsr stars 
former! long after the separation of the galaxies (on the ex- 
panding Universe hypothesis) . Tn view of the fact that even 
at the present time the mass of interstellar matter is comTnen- 
qiTvpto with that of the stars, there is perhaps intrinsically 
nothin<* against such an assumption, But it has to face the 
difficulty that in star-clusters to which a common origin is to 
bo aserihod there exist together <*innts and faint main- sequ- 
foch cannot certainly be eoually old. Moreover 
only stars of front mass be younger than the 

nnrl why should there not be stars to the right of 
the mrnn sequence having low Ifiminositv and **oin* over 
of the solar tyne or fainter tvnes? The second 

r r rx] n f O c, | o ^p, ^ T Vi^f o r ] xv ^ v ^ neh n star havin^ 

of th^ <3iin, anrl np rf li<*i^<~* VTrr1ro<^^n content wonlrl 
for it** formnt?o^, throi^h t^o nrocoss of normal 
ovohi^ion at least 10 n years i.e. period^ lonrf^r than the 
orf^ ^^ fk<- crplr|vifs. TV>o pn^^e^fion of Onmow that white 
dwarfs known at present rlo not represent the finite stages 


of normal evolution of smaller masses but fragments of 
larger stars broken into pieces would no doubt remove this 
difficulty, but it would be hard to assume this unless it 
can be shown independently that the present white dwarfs 
are not the result of the normal evolution of a star of mass 

< 1*4 M starting from the main sequence. Another way 


of escape out of the difficulty suggested by DeSitter is to 
assume that the white dwarfs are really older than the 
galaxies, and being dense "hard nuts to crack" they actual- 
ly came through the period when the galaxies were all to- 
gether and had not begun to separate. This again appears 
difficult to understand if the idea were applied to Sirius A 
and Sirius B, components of a double star and the latter a 
white dwarf. 

In conclusion we might say that while we know why 
the main sequence stars are there shining, we do not know 
why the giant stars still shine, and why the white dwarfs 
are already there. 


1. Russell-Dugan-Stewart Astronomy II Chaps. 15, 16 

and Supplement. 

2. C. F. von Weiszsacker Astronomischc Hinweis auf die 

Eigcnschaften der Elementarteilchen (report for the 
8th Solvay Congress) . 

3. H. A. Bethe Phys. Rev., 55 (1939) p. 434. 

4. G. Gamow ibid., 55, 1939, p. 718. 

5. Gamow & Teller ibid., p. 791, p. 796. 

6. H. N. Russell 9th James Arthur Lecture, Science, 92, 

1940, p. 19. 




Modern dramatic criticism, and also the practice of 
present-day playwrights are definitely against the use of 
soliloquies in dramas. They are condemned as old-fashion- 
ed, childish and conventional. The soliloquy might have 
coine in handy for Shakespeare to reveal the workings of 
the mind of the villain lago, and also incidentally to indulge 
in his poetic outbursts, but, is it natural, asks the twentieth 
century dramatist. Do people soliloquise when they go shop- 
ping or run to catch trains or even when they get married? 
On these grounds all soliloquies have been completely banish- 
ed from modern plays, and especially the realistic ones deal- 
ing with every-day life. If an unwary playwright should 
introduce one or two of these unfortunate soliloquies, he is 
immediately branded as out-of-date, and medieval. 

But before we examine the question in detail let us see 
what is a soliloquy. It is the speech in which a character 
speaks aloud without, or regardless, of the presence of hear- 
ers, directly, to the audience. Very often in Elizabethan 
plays we will have the villain for example laying aside his 
mask and baring his soul to the audience in a speech deliver- 
ed to them in confidence. We can also include under this 
head the 'asides,' which are common in old plays. These were 
the means employed by dramatists to take us down into the 
hidden recesses of a person's nature, and to reveal the mo- 
tives of conduct which could not be disclosed in the course 
of ordinary dialogue. Such knowledge would be necessary 


for the spectators to understand the characters and their 
actions completely. The dramatist is at a disadvantage when 
compared to the novelist; the latter can dissect his charac- 
ters and reveal their inmost thoughts, but the dramatist can 
have no chance of doing it. That is why the old playwrights 
had recourse to soliloquies. (It is curious how even when 
there is no necessity, some modern novelists, make use of 
soliloquies in their novels!) While the characters are think- 
ing aloud, we are permitted to over-hear what they say. It 
should not be taken that they are addressing their remarks 
directly to the audience, though some actors might recite 
their soliloquies in that style. 

The soliloquy played an important part in ancient Greek 
Drama. In Aeschylus we have the bound Prometheus pro- 
claiming his woes to the heavens, before the daughters of 
Ocean come to comfort him. Even in Sophocles and Euri- 
pides there are several long speeches which are spoken at 
large in the manner of soliloquies; they are not directly 
addressed to the chorus. But even when speeches are 
addressed to the chorus, they are in the nature of confessions 
of the inmost thoughts of the chief characters. In French 
Drama also the same system is followed; the chorus has 
shrunk to a single attendant for each of the chief characters, 
who always accompanies his hero or heorine, and hears all 
that is said by the chief figures. Thus the clever French 
dramatists, while avoiding all semblance of the soliloquy, 
profited by all its advantages. These confidants were 
colourless creatures, drawn vaguely and existed for the 
sole purpose of being talked to. Victor Hugo dismissed 
these pale figures from his plays; he was therefore driven 
back to the soliloquy. The argumentative monologue of 
the king in "Hernani" is one of the longest soliloquies in all 
dramatic literature. It is full of Hugo's swelling rhetoric 



and soaring figures of speech. Shakespeare and Moliere, 
born-playwrights that they were, knew instinctively how 
valuable the soliloquy could be to them. They never wor- 
ried about the naturalness or otherwise of the convention. 
Whatever was acceptable to their audiences, they made use 
of without any hesitation. In Shakespeare we find his chief 
characters again and again revealing their intimate thoughts 
and desires through their soliloquies. Almost Always these 
are helpful in making us understand clearly the workings of 
the mind of his more complex characters. If these soliloquies 
were not there, we may not be able to follow some of the 
actions of some of his more intricate creations. But for 
these self-revealing passages we may not be able to under- 
stand the character of some of his men and women. Shakes- 
peare makes use of the soliloquy most in his "Othello." He 
uses it again and again to let lago reveal his own villainy, as 
if he did not want the groundlings to have any doubts about 
the wickedness of his honest lago! 

But neither Shakespeare nor Moliere distinguished 
between the proper use and abuse of soliloquy. There is 
soliloquy which reveals character, and that which informs 
us about the further development of the plot. The former 
is certainly on a higher plane, which is absolutely necessary 
when depicting deep conflict of emotions or psychological 
conditions. "It lets a tortured hero unpack his heart; it 
provides a window to his soul; it gives the spectator a plea- 
sure not to be had otherwise." Professor Bradley remarks in 
his "Shakespearean Tragedy" "in listening to a soliloquy we 
ought never to feel that we are being addressed; in this res- 
pect, as in others, many of Shakespeare's soliloquies are 
masterpieces; in some the purpose of giving information lies 
bare, and in one or two the actor openly speaks to the 
audience." Moliere was as bad Shakespeare in this res- 


pect. They did not even make sure that there was no 
one else present on the stage, when some characters were 
soliloquizing: Romeo overhears Juliet's soliloquy from the 
balcony ; in Moliere's "Miser" also there are such situa- 

The soliloquy has been defended ably by many writers. 
William Congreve in his Epistle Dedicatory to the "Double 
Dealer" puts up a stout fight in favour of soliloquies. "I 
grant that for a man to talk to himself appears absurd and 
unnatural: and indeed it is so in most cases; but the cir- 
cumstances which may attend the occasion make great 
alteration. It oftentimes happens to man to have designs 
which require him to himself, and in their nature cannot 
admit of a confidant. Such for certain, is all villainy; and 
otlier less mischievous intentions may be very improper 

to be communicated to a second person when a man 

in soliloquy reasons with himself, and weighs all his designs 
we ought not to imagine that this man either talks to us or 
to himself; he is only thinking, and thinking such matter as 
were inexcusable folly in him to speak. But because we are 
concealed spectators of the plot in agitation, and the poet 
finds necessary to let us know the whole mystery of his 
contrivance, he is willing to inform us of this person's 
thoughts; and to that end is forced to make use of the ex- 
pedient of speech, no other better way being yet invented 
for the communication of thought/' Victor Hugo in the 
"Miserables" declared that it was wrong to believe that the 
soliloquy was unnatural, because often a strong agitation 
speaks out aloud. Prof. Bradley says; "Neither soliloquy 
nor the use of verse can be condemned on the mere ground 
that it is unnatural. No dramatic language is natural/' 

It is curious how when modern audiences allow many 
unnatural conventions on the stage, the soliloquy alone has 


been consigned to the limbo of the past. In certain kinds 
of plays like light-comedy, the comic-opera, the poetic- 
play the fantasy etc., the soliloquy still plays an important 
part. Only in realistic prose-drama is the soliloquy com- 
pletely tabooed. But even here it can be allowed in certain 
circumstances; for example when a mischievous character 
is plotting his schemes, or a man is thinking aloud about 
his engagements for the day, or a woman is cursing her 
fate when things go awry nothing is so natural as to soli- 
loquize. Merely because the Elizabethans used it, we 
should not think it to be old-fashioned, and therefore re- 
ject it. It was certainly a convention in those days to have 
soliloquies in plays. At the present day it has become the 
convention not to have soliloquies! Conventionalism either 
way is not sound; will it not be better to leave it to the con- 
venience and ability of writers to use what technique they 
choose to make their plays effective ? 




Along this fascinating road, for ages past, have passed 
and re-passed, countless Indians from the coast of Coro- 
mandel. This statement ignores in advance the criticism of 
the meticulous-minded that Mandalay itself was only a 
recent creation, having been built by King Mindon in the 
attempted fulfilment of a dream. The road, however, has 
always been there and led to Ava and Amarapura, whose 
very names breathe romance. It held an irresistible lure 
for Indians and, from the deltaic regions in the south to the 
upper reaches of the Irrawaddy, travellers and traffickers, 
bards and Buddhist monks, princes and peasants from all 
over India have moved in an unending stream. 

It all began long ago and the beginnings are lost in the 
mists of antiquity. The trek across the Assam frontier must 
have begun long before King Asoka sent his missioneries to 
Burma to preach Buddhist gospel. There Buddhism found a 
favourable field for growth. There it grew and flourished 
and helped to link the two countries more securely than a 
mere military conquest or political association could have 
done. Tamilnad's connection with Burma is several 
centuries old. Rajendra Chola, runs a well-authenticated 
tradition, led an expedition to Burma and proved the might 
of Tamil arms on the banks of the Irrawaddy. Not very 
long ago, there were discovered outside the city walls of 


Pegu, two stone pillars erected by the Chola king to com- 
memorate his victory. One of them used to stand in 
front of the District Court of Pegu, a preserved monument. 
There is a theory that Kidaram, one of the Chola con- 
quests, was identical with Pegu and Kidaram is unmis- 
takably a Tamil name. King Anahwrata, greatest of the 
kings of the Pagan dynasty, for his greater glory, sent to 
India for a wife and married Panchakalyani, a princess of 
Vaisali, and Kyanzhitta, the builder of the beautiful 
Ananda pagoda at Pagan, was her son. All Burma's 
legends and folk-lore are derived from India; the names of 
her towns and rivers the Irrawaddy, for instance, and 
Ussa, the ancient name of Pegu, which was colonised from 
Orissa, (I am leaving out of account for the moment 
Chauthalon, Burmese for 'single stone/ which Chettiars 
have rechristened as Sivasthalam and made into the abode 
of the God Subramania) attest a long and almost integral 
connection with India. The Talaings are believed to derive 
from the people of Telingana, who crossed over in large 
numbers, while the Corganghis doubtless came from Corin- 
gha, near Coconada. Burma has always been hospitable to 
her western neighbour, and it is undeniable that the inter- 
mingling of Indian and Burman has been full, free and 
complete. The Indians met a definite economic need; they 
provided the drive and the organising energy which were 
apparently beyond the easy-going art-loving Burmese. 
India and Burma were doubtless meant to live in neigh- 
bourly intimacy; the Geological Survey of India reveals the 
interesting fact that the terrain of Upper Burma is very 
similar to that of Assam. All things point to a close and 
considerable contact between the two countries going back 
to pre-historic times, a fact worth remembering at a time 


when twentieth-century man would play at sundering 
those whom God, in his wisdom, has joined. 

In the unceasing stream of traffic with Burma have 
mingled, for longer than one cares to remember, the Chetti- 
ars or, to give them their traditional name, the Nagarathars 
of the ninety-six oors. It is a far cry from their sun-baked 
homeland in the south country to the basins of the Sittang 
and the Salween. It is true that nowadays one can cross 
over in the space of a few hours; one can board an Imperial 
Airways liner or a K.L.M. flying boat at Calcutta and land 
at Mingladon aerodrome in time for breakfast at the Strand 
Hotel on Rangoon's river-front or to do an early stroke of 
business in Moghul Street or Fychte Square. But the 
'temerarious' souls among the Chettiars who would essay 
the (to their minds) not unperilous flight across the Arakan 
Yomas or the pretty paddy-fields of Hanthawaddy, can be 
counted on the fingers of one hand. Air-travel is still a novel 
form of locomotion and the Chettiars are not bitten by the 
modern speed-bug and they do not long to get there before 
anybody else. Life is long, at all events, reasonably long 
enough, and undue haste, when you come to think of it, is 
undignified, and only upsets the digestion and discomposes 
the nerves. They prefer to go about their business in the 
way their ancestors did and for the thrill of putting a girdle 
round the earth in lightning speed they have no taste. 

This does not mean, however, that the Chettiars are 
not adventurous. Adventure for the sake of adventure is 
not their metier. But of risks, whether physical or finan- 
cial, in the realm of business, they are wholly unafraid. 
They have all along been true to the old saw which exhorts 
the business man to seek his fortune by trading beyond the 
seas. In the old days, before the turbine screw was in- 


vented, these merchant adventurers worshipped the tribal 
gods, knelt for a blessing before their elders and, bidding 
farewell to their family and friends, set sail from some 
Coromandel port and, hugging the coast, reached Rangoon 
after many weeks, the discomforts of the voyage by no means 
diminished by their enforced subsistence upon the home- 
made rice and curry, rendered flat and tasteless by the act- 
ion of the sea-wind. In this way, they traded with Malaya 
and ultimately found their way to the Gulf of Martaban, on 
whose shores, by all accounts, the first Chettiar firms were 
started. Once landed, they opened their ledgers and com- 
menced business, sustained by an infinite trust in Heaven 
and the confidence of the local population, to whom their 
proved integrity was the main passport. Wherever they 
went, they carried with them the sense of hospitality for 
which their community is noted and the mild, gentle- 
mannered Chettiars soon found an abiding place in the 
affections of the Burmans. They usually laboured for terms 
of three years and then returned home for a three-year 
period of rest before going back to resume their business 
beyond the seas. 

Herein lies the romance of Chettiar business. Romance 
and banking! It may seem a strange combination, as 
though the bamboo-mats on which they squatted could 
turn into magic carpets on which one could fly 
and the figures in their ledgers could turn into 
fairies and knights-in-armour. But if grit and 
guts, the readiness to take risks, great and small and the 
determined quest for the goods which make for beauty, 
quality and independance in life are the essence of romance^ 
the Chettiars had it in ample measure. At all events, with 
no hint of the Biblical exhortation, they succeeded in 
making two blades of grass grow where there was only one 


or none before. And that is their magnificent record in 

It all followed in the wake of the opening of the Suez 
Canal. On the quayside at Port Said stands a statue of 
Ferdinand de Lesseps. The statue, with equal propriety, 
could stand in front of the Sule Pagoda Wharf or the Brook- 
ing Street jetty in Rangoon. For de Lesseps was the 
wizard who brought prosperity to Burma. Inspired by the 
researches of the Saint Simonites and with the active 
assistance of his friend, the Khedive Mohamed Said, he set 
to work and, undeterred by opposition or ridicule, succeed- 
ed in cutting open a canal, of which Napoleon had dreamed 
and of whose immense possibilities Palmerston had more 
than a hazy notion. The canal was opened in 1869 and 
that dates the commencement of Burma's commercial 
prosperity. The markets of the West were clamouring for 
rice and more rice, far more than the East could supply. 
Lower Burma had a plentiful rainfall and was admirably 
suited for the cultivation of rice but she had never till then 
grown more than what was necessary for domestic con- 
sumption. But when the canal was opened she sat up and 
took notice. There were vast areas of malaria-ridden swamp 
awaiting the operations of the pioneer. An immediate pro- 
gramme of land reclamation on a colossal scale was taken in 

All this meant money and a lot of it at that. Govern- 
ment was either unable or unwilling to give the financial 
backing needed but they actively encouraged the employ- 
ment of private-owned capital for the purpose. The 
Chettiars came forward and advanced the capital required 
and enabled to open up the province to agriculture. Thanks 
to their timely aid, cultivation went up a hundredfold: as 


much as seven million tons of paddy were cultivated every 
year of which nearly half was regularly exported. Rangoon 
harbour was crowded with shipping waiting to carry the 
nutritious paddy stocks to the markets of Europe. All 
Burmese economy, in the lasi analysis, is uaseci on agricul- 
ture and nearly ninety per cent of the population depend 
upon the land for their livelihood. Profits went up and there 
was prosperity all round, and the smile on the Burman's 
face grew larger and the lilt of his pwe dancing livelier. 

It is only fair to add that the Chettiars and other 
Indians shared in these benefits. The Chettiars had a 
remarkably developed banking organisation which played a 
very important part in the economy of Burma. In the 
words of Sir Harcourt Butler, " Without the assist- 
ance of the Cheitiar banking system, Burma would 
never have achieved the wonderful advance of the last 25 
to 30 years. The Chettiars provide the necessary finance 
to the agriculturists in practically every village in the Pro- 
vince, and while enabling the Burman to greatly increase 
his production, they have, at the same time, undoubtedly 
inculcated ideas of thrift and economy by their insisting 
on regular payments as regards both principal and interest. 
The Burman to-day is a much wealthier man than he was 
twenty-five years ago and for this state of things the 

Chettiar deserves his share of thanks I feel confident 

that whatever future developments of banking may do for 
Burma, the Chettiar will always hold his own and prove 
himself in the years to come, as he has done in the past, 
the real backbone of the Banking system throughout this 
Province/ The Burman was not wanting in appreciation 
either. Chettiar firms were dotted all over the province 
and the utmost friendliness prevailed between the Chettiars 


and the Burmese. In spite of the high profits which they 
were enabled to earn, the Chettiars retained their charac- 
terestic simplicity and spent large sums in charity. To them 
might have been addressed Burns' lines: 

To catch dame Fortune's golden smile, 

Assiduous wait upon her; 

And gather gear by every wile, 

That's justified by honour: 

Not for to hide it in a hedge, 

Nor for a train attendant, 

But for the glorious privilege 

Of being independant. 

"And", I may add, with apologies to the spirit of Robert 
Burns for the baldness of the amending prose, "for bringing 
a ray of sunshine into the drab lives of their poorer fellow- 


We have good authority for saying that most of the 
charitable institutions in Burma, barring those of a religious 
character intended to secure spiritual merit, were presented 
by Indians; and in this laudable effort, the Chettiars have 
done their bit. In their own homeland, they habitu- 
ally spend large sums of money for the extension of the 
amenities of life. Until recently, these were of a stereo- 
typed character, such as, tho building of tanks and temples 
(these latter according to the most exuberant Dravidian 
formula), of choultries, where the wayfarer could get food 
and shelter, and the promotion of fairs and festivals, be- 
loved of the peasantry. South Indian art and architecture 
have in them some of their most discerning patrons, and 
though the rococo palaces in which an earlier generation 
delighted may not have been the last word in architectural 


beauty, they, at any rate, provided the artisans and labour- 
ing men of Chettinad with the means of livelihood. On 
occasion, the Chettiars will fling their money about and 
forget to count the cost and organise a festival and turn 
the countryside over to gaiety and general jollification. 
As they did, for instance, when the Nagarathars of the 
ninety-six oors decided to celebrate the honour of heredi- 
tary Rajah conferred on the subject of this memoir, Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar. 

For, on a memorable April afternoon in 1929, in the 
village of Kovilur, in the heart of Chettinad, occurred a 
remarkable gathering of clans. From every one of the 
ninety-six oors they came, flocking to participate in the 
honour which was being done to the man who, more than 
anybody else, had helped to put his community on ^he social 
map of India. The broad, water-besprinkled streets were 
hung thick with festoons, over which dangled innumerable 
fairy lamps in every shade of the rainbow, over rows and 
rows of tables, laden with the best cheer which the country 
could afford. Men of light and leading from all over the 
presidency had assembled to join in the demonstration, and 
the Chair was appropriately filled by Rajah Sir Annamalai' s 
old friend, The Right Hon'ble V. S. Srinivasa Sastriar, whose 
appreciation of the Rajah's public spirit had been heighten- 
ed into positive admiration by .his magnificent endowments 
in the cause of education. For it was a well-known fact 
that the Rajah had changed the direction and quickened the 
tempo of the eleemosynary activities of his community. 
Bearing in mind the establishment of the Minakshi College, 
and its early conversion into the nucleus of the Annamalai 
University, the Right Hon'ble Srinivasa Sastriar had previ- 
ously sent a telegram of congratulation which, as conveying 






the general sentiment, could not have been better expressed 
"A noble deed nobly rewarded." 

The Kovilur meeting was a landmark in Nagarathar 
history. Never before, within recent memory, had there 
been such a gathering of clans, or such a demonstration of 
unrehearsed affection for a leader of the community. Rajah 
Sir Annamalai, however, did not rest on his laurels. It will 
not be proper or possible to treat of the other benefactions 
of the Rajah or of his other services in the public cause 
within the limits of this article. His services to the com- 
munity in regard to their interests in Burma and, in this 
particular, they were identical with the interests of the 
country in general can more appropriately be indicated 
here. It was not very long before a situation arose which 
laid under contribution Sir Annamalai's untiring energy and 
practical wisdom for the preservation of their carefully built- 
up interests in Burma and to this end, the Rajah devoted 
himself fully, freely and unreservedly. 

When the Statutory Commission visited India, Sir John 
Simon conceived a bright idea and that was that Burma 
should be seperated from India. He was charmed with the 
province, its vernal woods, flowing rivers and its forests of 
virgin teak, all her untapped natural resources, and as a 
quid pro quo for the pleasure he had received, resolved 
on the snapping of old ties. The idea, once broadcast, 
took root, grew and became a rather noisy bee in the bon- 
nets of a few people. Separation became a burning ques- 
tion at the time of the Round Table Conference. There 
were many in Burma who looked with definite disfavour 
on the idea. Mr. Ramsay MacDonald, the Premier, pres- 
cribed a test which met with general approval. He propos- 
ed to leave the decision to Burma herself. In a historic 


declaration, he said, "The first step is to ascertain whether 
the people of Burma endorse the provisional decision that 

separation should take place The people of Burma 

will be in a position to decide whether, or not, they are in 
favour of separation from India. His Majesty's Govern- 
ment consider that the general decision might best be taken 
after a general election at v/hich the broad issue had been 
placed before the electorate" and, he expressly stated, that 
in the event of Burma deciding to remain within the Indian 
Federation, "it should be remembered that if an Indian 
Federation is established it cannot bo on the basis that the 
members can leave it as and when they choose/' It was a 
time when generous ideas were in the air and the principle 
of self-determination so presented for practical action was 
calculated to satisfy all parties. Indian leaders considered 
it the best way of solving the problem and stood aside, wait- 
ing to see the sequel. An election was fought on the broad 
issue propounded by the Prime Minister and it resulted in a 
resounding victory for the anti-separationists. This was a 
rather smart smack in the face for those who had sv/orn that 
the Burmese, as one man, were clamouring for separation. 
Doubts were cast vague, indefinite elusive uncertainties, 
impossible to lay hold of and assail on the manner in which 
the election had been run. It was alleged that the issue had 
not been properly placed before the people and His Majesty's 
Government decided to ask the Council which had been elect- 
ed to decide afresh on the issue. They gave their verdict in a 
special session of the legislature convened for the purpose 
in February, 1935. 37 of the elected representatives voted 
for remaining within the Indian Federation, while 31 voted 
against, but by a piece of jugglery to which legislatures with 
a strong nominated bloc are peculiarly susceptible, by add- 


ing the votes of non-official members, the figures given above 
gave place to 47 for, and 37 against, separation. 

Before this, a memorandum signed by 44 of the elect- 
ed representatives had been sent up to the Government, 
pleading for retention within the Indian Federation. The 
Burmese representatives who gave evidence before the 
Joint Select Committee, including Dr. Ba Maw, sometime 
Premier of Burma, were emphatically in favour of "the 
federal alternative as being in keeping with the clear man- 
date we have obtained from the country." 

And yet separation was decided on. The question was 
hotly debated in Indian circles whether India should not 
enter the field against separation, and the general decision 
was that India should not queer the Burman pitch by any 
action on this side of the Bay of Bengal. The Nattukkottai 
Chettiar Association in Burma was greatly perturbed, and 
it was mainly as a result of Rajah Sir Annamalai's attitude, 
which was in conformity with the general view of the Indian 
leaders, that the Association stood aloof. 

Detachment in regard to the issue as to separation did 
not dispose of the matter. The recommendations of the 
Joint Select Committee gave rise to apprehensions that the 
future of Indians in Burma would be gravely jeopardised. 
There was no cleavage of opinion in any particular among 
the Indians in Burma as to the dangers inherent in the posi- 
tion envisaged by the Joint Select Committee, and it was 
decided that steps should be taken to safeguard the posi- 
tion of Indians in Burma. An All-Burma Indian Conference 
was held at Rangoon on the 29th and the 30th December, 
1934, and it was presided over by Mr. Mirza JVTohamed 
Rafi, Mayor of Rangoon who had been associated with the 


Burma Round Table Conference. Mr. S. A. S. Tyabji, who 
was recently in India at die head oi a Delegation from 
Burma to protest against the Iiido-Burma Immigration 
Agreement, was the Chairman of the Reception Committee. 
Various resolutions were passed and a Delegation was 
appointed to proceed to England for the purpose of making 
representations to His Majesty's Government with a view 
to securing adequate safeguards. 

The Delegation left for England in February 1935. 
Meanwhile, The Government of India Bill had been pub- 
lished and the apprehensions expressed at the Rangoon Con- 
ference were found to be justified. The provisions enabling 
the Burmese legislature to impose restrictions on the rights 
of Indians to enter Burma and on the right of alienation of 
land were calculated to cut at the root of Indian business in 
Burma. That Indians would be subject, in the future, to 
highly discriminatory treatment was a conclusion from which 
there seemed to be no escape. 

From the start, it was clear tJnat the position called for 
careful handling. The delegation held several discussions in 
Bury Street among themselves and the task of negotiating a 
satisfactory amendment oi the Bill fell upon the shoulders 
of Rajah Sir Annamaiai Chettiar. 

Rajah Sir Annamaiai actually arrived in London on 
February the 23rd, and lust no time m getting into touch 
with the India Office and leading members of Parliament. 
He met the Right Hon'ble the Secretary of State 
and Mr. R. A. Butler, the Under Secretary, both of whom he 
was able to impress with the strength of the Indian case. 
He also took an early opportunity of meeting Earl 
Winterton and discussing with him the questions agitating 


the Delegation. Very early in the proceedings, the dele- 
gation had the advantage of a thorough examination of the 
position with Lord (then Sir Malcolm) Hailey, and it look- 
ed as though modification was possible of the clause relat- 
ing to land alienation and, as to Indian immigration, all that 
the Government apparently had in mind was the confer- 
ment of the right to restrict the immigration of unskilled 
labour into Burma. 

In addition to the two points indicated already, Sir 
Annamalai was definitely of the opinion, that it was a matter 
of the first importance to Chettiars, that they should have 
separate representation in the Burmese legislature. The 
enormous interests which they owned in Burma were held 
to justify the reservation of a seat for the Nattukkottai 
Chettiars' Association, Burma. 

While in London, Sir Annamalai's attention was 
drawn to a serious omission in tiie safguarding provisions of 
the Bill. While a certain degree of security in regard to the 
carrying on of trade and business and connected matters was 
guaranteed to British Indian subjects, no such safeguard 
was provided in the case of subjects of Indian States simi- 
larly situated in regard to Burma. Knowing the commit- 
ments of the Chettiars of the Pudukotah State, and of the 
large numbers of men from the States of Western India who 
had been carrying business in Burma for generations, Rajah 
Sir Annamalai was quick to realise the gravity of the omis- 
sion and he forthwith took the matter up with the Secretary 
of State. The omission was repaired by the Government 
themselves introducing the necessary amendment. 

Several informal discussions were held with the India 
Office authorities who displayed, in the words of the Rajah, 
"a gratifying readiness to appreciate the Indian case and to 



do what they could do to safeguard Indian interests in 
Burma." His discussion with Mr. Geoitrey Peto, M.P., 
Mr. Kirkpatrick, M.P. arid the Right Hon'ble Major Hills 
were particularly helpful. 

The discussions disclosed that die Government were not 
unalive to the risks involved in leaving the clauses on land 
alienation unrectified. These clauses were so framed as to 
give the Burmese legislature freedom to promote legislation 
prohibiting the sale or mortgage of lands to persons who 
were not agriculturists. Sir Annamalai drew pointed 
attention to the large accumulations of land in the hands of 
Indians, as a result of circumstances, purely fortuitous. 
To any one who knew the real position, it was crystal clear 
that land was the last thing which the Indian business men 
wished to own in Burma, and that it was their main pur- 
pose and preoccupation to get rid of the lands which had, 
so to speak, come unsought into their possession. Rajah 
Sir Annamalai was able to convince the Secretary of State 
that Indian landowners in Burma were not land-grabbers 
and that, though as landlords, they had been markedly con- 
siderate to their tenantry with whom their relations were, 
on the whole, extremely cordial, they did not fancy the 
role which accident had thrust upon them. He pointed 
out that the restrictive legislation foreshadowed would result 
in an artifical restriction of the land market and a serious 
reduction of land values. He suggested that the desired 
protection of agriculturists from the consequences of their 
improvident dealings with land could be achieved by pre- 
venting the sale or mortgage of land in the hands of the 
agriculturists to anyone who was not an agriculturist him- 
self. The suggestion commended itself to the Secretary of 
State and the clause in question was amended in the sense 


Clause 340 disturbed the delegation a good deal. It 
began well, it conceded to Indians the right to reside in 
Burma and to carry on tiade or do business, without any 
restriction whatsoever: it put the Indians exactly in the 
same position as subjects of the United Kingdom in 
regard to these and cognate matters but with a differ- 
ence. The clause contained a proviso that all the rights con- 
ceded by the clause were subject to "any restriction on the 
right of entry" or "any condition lawfully imposed as a con- 
dition of entry' ' which the legislature of Burma might 
impose. Therein lay the rub. The clause seemed designed 
to have the effect of taking away with one hand what had 
been given by the other. Representations were made to the 
Secretary of State about the unfairness of such a provision 
and the reply was given that it was felt that there was an 
uneconomic excess of cheap, unskilled Indian labour which 
flooded the Burmese market and that the clause was 
designed only to enable legislation restricting the immigra- 
tion of unskilled labour from India. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
and Mr. Haji drew attention to the fact that there was 
nothing to show that Indian labour was assuming menacing 
proportions but, on this head the Government was firm; 
but, at the same time, they made it perfectly clear that it 
was not at all their intention to strike at other Indians, who 
would be at perfect liberty to come and go as they please. 
This assurance was repeated at the formal interview which 
the Delegation had with the Secretary of State. 

The delegation was strongly of the opinion that, in that 
case, the matter should be placed beyond the possibility of 
doubt by a suitable amendment of the proviso. Lord 
Winterton and Mr. Godfrey Nicholson were good enough to 
table amendments in the sense that the Burmese legis- 
lature may promote legislation designed to restrict the 


immigration of cheap unskilled labour. When the clause 
came up for discussion, the Attorney General, Sir Thomas 
Inskip dealt with Lord Winterton's amendment and observ- 
ed that "it passed the wit of parliamentary counsel or drafts- 
men to devise a form of words' ' which would adequately 
define the phrase "unskilled labour" and that therefore the 
best plan would be to instruct the Governor to reserve any 
Bills which contain racial discrimination and to reserve also 
Bills which contain restrictions upon professional or busi- 
ness men who, while India and Burma have been united, 
have carried on business in either country." Sir Samuel 
Hoare, the Secretary of State, referring to the discussions 
which he had had with the delegation said that he was ablq 
to convince them "that the best way of meeting their 
anxieties was to adopt the method of the Instrument of 
Instructions." After such a full and clear statement of 
intention, the delegation felt that there was no further need 
to be anxious on this score. Moreover, when the Instru- 
ment of Instructions was under consideration in the House 
of Commons, in November 1936, Mr. Butler observed that 
the fears entertained "on this score by Indians who wished 
to enter Burma may be quietened in view of the contents of 
Paragraph XX of the Instrument of Instructions." He 
added that "the reason that we cannot make a simple rule is 
that we have to make this differentiation in regard to 
unskilled labour while, at the same time, we do not want 
to stop the free entry of Indians in general." It was assum- 
ed that these assurances given by such high authorities 
would, in the words of Mahatmaji "have the effect of pro- 
missory notes." The delegation had not the slightest 
suspicion then that a day would come when these assurances 
would be ignored and that Government would take its stand 
on the letter of the law which was, after all, like advancing 


a plea of limitation to defeat a just debt. It may be a pro- 
missory note, but some people always ask, "Is it in the 

Rajah Sir Annamalai, while he was in England, pleaded 
for separate representation of the Nattukkottai Chettiars' 
Association in the Burmese Legislature. He was able to 
present his case with such reason and moderation that the 
Government readily accepted his suggestion. In moving 
the amendment Mr. R. A. Butler, the Under Secretary of 
State said "The Chettiar Association have a very important 
position in Burma. It is composed mainly of merchant 
bankers, who perform services absolutely vital to Burma. 
It occupies a very important position in the national life and 
performs duties which Burma can ill afford to lose." 

It may be worth recording in this connection that after 
Rajah Sir Annamalai had left, Mr. R. A. Butler told the pre- 
sent writer (who had the privilege of being associated with 
the delegation and particularly with the Rajah all through) 
that it was a pleasure to conduct talks with the Rajah who 
had always "put his case moderately" and hoped that his 
labours will be appreciated in India. 

Mr. Butler's hope was justified. On his return to India 
the Rajah was the recipient of letters and telegrams expres- 
sing the warmest appreciation of his work. 

A special meeting of the Nagarathars was held at 
Kovilur where a resolution expressing the community's 
appreciation and gratitude was formally passed. The 
Hindu was appreciative and stated in a leading article "that 
the concessions that have been gained are valuable. They, 
in fact, make it clear that the authorities in England are 
convinced that every one of the claims made by Indians is 
wholly justifiable." 


Since separation new problems have arisen and the 
Rajah has always been ready to tackle them as and when 
they arose. In 1937, an attempt was made to tax agricul- 
tural income which had accrued to Indians in Burma in 
1936. This was indefensible as, under the Indian Income- 
tax Act, agricultural income is excmnt from liability for 
income-tax and in the ' previous year, ' which was the 
accounting year Burma was a part of India. The Rajah was 
almost the first to perceive the point and he took the matter 
up in his capacity as the President of the Nattukkottai 
Npcjarathar Association with the Central Board of Revenue 
and also submitted a memorial to His Excellency the 
Governor-General-in-Council. It is gratifying to be able to 
record that the Government of India directed the cancella- 
tion of the levy. 

Land legislation became a vexed question in Burma and 
came to be taken in hand in 1938. The question was 
whether occupancy rights were to be given to Burmese 
peasants and what steps should be taken to protect them 
from the consequences of their improvident dealings with 
their land. The System of landholding in Burma is ryot- 
wari and virtually modelled on the Madras system. Rajah 
Sir Annamalai Chettiar and his fellow-Nattukkottai 
Chettiars were in entire sympathy with the promotion 
of schemes calculated to improve the economic position of 
the Burmese peasant. But they pleaded that the methods 
adopted should be such as to achieve the object and at 
the same time be above reproach. He cited the example of 
the Malabar Tenancy Act and indicated that the remedy 
lay in the direction of providing for something like an 
option of renewal on a fair and equitable rent, to be settled 
by the Revenue Officer assisted by a kind of local jury, and 


for equitable enhancement. The main thing to be guarded 
against was unconditional or improper ejectment. One 
point which Sir Annamalai has always stressed is that the 
Indians ought to be prepared to part with their lands in 
their possession at the earliest opportunity a view in which 
the Indian community are in entire accord. 

Many and various are the practical problems which 
Separation has brought to the fore and these require to be 
studied with care and dispassion. Rajah Sir Annamalai 
keeps an alert and watchful eye on them and has been ever 
ready and willing to take steps for their preservation. 

The need for vigilence and vigorous action has never 
been greater than at the present moment. We have all heard 
of the Indo-Burma Immigration Agreement which was 
recently concluded between the Government of India and 
the Government of Burma. The whole matter is, in a 
manner of speaking, subjudice, but there can be no harm 
in saying that the whole country is cursing it by bell, book 
and candle. The strongest criticism to which there has, 
so far, been no answer is that the agreement runs counter 
to the assurance given in and outside Parliament that the 
checks on Indian Immigration would be limited to the case 
of unskilled labour. 

A public meeting was held in Madras on the 28th of 
July to condemn the agreement. Sir Mahomed Usman pre- 
sided and expressed his disapproval in no uncertain terms. 
Kumararajah Sir Muthiah Chettiar, Rajah Sir Annamalai's 
son, who has already made a name for himself by his 
philanthropy and public spirit, subjected the agreement to 
a scathing analysis. A strong and influential Committee 
has been appointed to take steps to obtain a rectification of 
the agreement. Rajah Sir Annamalai, naturally, is on this 


Committee where his intimate first-hand knowledge of 
affairs is found to be of great practical help. Along with 
other members of the deputation, he waited on His Excel- 
lency the Viceroy and presented the case for India forcefully 
and yet fairly. 

A Delegation from Burma was in Simla recently and 
Bombay and Bengal have taken up the matter vigorously. 
It is hoped that the joint labours of the various bodies which 
have taken up the matter will result in the substitution of 
an arrangement which will be in consonance with justice, 
equity and good conscience. Sir Annamalai's own feeling is 
that "someone has blundered". The Burmese people acting 
in consullation with Indians would have been able to pro- 
duce an arrangement fairly and reasonably reconciling then- 
different claims. The Burmese, he is convinced, have noth- 
ing but the liveliest affection for the Indians, based upon an 
intercourse which goes back through the ages and will not 
readily consent to cut the painter regardless. They are not 
at all likely to contemplate with equanimity the cessation of 
the free flow of thought and commerce which has charac- 
terised the relations between the two countries. And, as 
for the Indians themselves, they can never forget what 
Burma and the Burmese have meant to them, and whatever 
happens, mingling with the wind in the palm-trees and the 
tinkle of the temple-bells, the .voice of the kindly Burmese 
people will be wafted over the waters of the Bengal Bay. 

"Come you back to Mandalay, 
Where the flyin' fishes play, 
An' the dawn comes up like thunder outer China 

'crost the Bay!" 



The Library Movement means the education of the 
masses with the aid of Libraries and the scope of the sub- 
ject is confined to popular public libraries and other subjects 
like the Commercial, Special, National, University, Prison 
and Hospital Libraries are excluded. The oft-quoted dictum 
of Carlyle 'The true University of these days is a collection 
of books" is only a half truth. "A collection of books is 
neither more nor less than a collection of books, no more 
a library than a heap of bricks is a building. The books, qua 
books are little or nothing they must be made productive 
by the work of the Librarian, books selected, classified and 
catalogued and intelligently displayed. That is a library " 
(Stanley Jast: Libraries and Living, page 4). 

It wa* in the year 1910 the modern Library Movement 
began in our country when that enlightened ruler and 
sagacious statesman, the late Sayaji Rao Gaekwad 
brought the American Librarian, Borden to introduce 
and plan modern libraries in his state. To him belongs 
the credit of having inaugurated the Library Movement in 
our country. Libraries were long ago recognized as im- 
portant auxiliaries to any system of national education in the 
European countries and the State financed and maintained 
libraries which became effective instruments of adult educa- 
tion and centres of learning. On account of the cultural 
value and immense influence on the people the library 



movement in the West converted a great majority of nation- 
alities into literate citizens who were fully able to appreci- 
ate the significance of political and social rights they were 
capable of enjoying under democratic governments. A 
brief review of the progress of Libraries in a few European 
countries may help us to understand the problem better. 

Belgium is the oldest country to have developed the 
public library in the 14th and 15ih centuries. So eariy as 
1772 Maria Theresa opened the Library oi the Dukes oi 
Burgundy and in I7i*2 the National Convention decreed 
4 'There shall be close to every school a puohc library and a 
small museum of national history/' The Teaching League 
took an active part in the i^tn century, in Ib20 every Com- 
mune was obliged to start a library li i|5 oi the electoral 
body demanded it. in li)2y for a population ol 8 millions 
there were over 3*8 million booKs and 2,188 public libraries. 

Equally interesting is the progress ot Jbuigarian Libra- 
ries which were tounded in Ibob and pavea the way ior 
tuture democracy. ufc lhe Jruoiic Libraries were miniature 
departments ot j&ciucaiion, wao appointed teachers, provid- 
ed poor students with text books and clothing, tounded the 

Bulgarian Academy oi Sciences at Braila jtfuigarian 

national drama and theatre were lostered within the wails 
of the libraries ttostwicK l Popular Libraries of the 
World ; pages 36 and 37. Portions of state lands were set 
apart out oi revenues, of which the libraries were maintained. 

In 1920 68 per cent of the population of the Soviet Union 
were illiterate and the work of the Commissariat of Educa- 
tion was the education of adult population and "creation of 
centres for the liquidation of illiteracy; political, cultural 
clubs and reading rooms (Lenin Corners); workers and 
peasants' houses; permanent and itinerant libraries; 


quick learners help the slower; semi-illiterates the illite- 
rates/' Good (W.T.) "School Teachers and scholars in 
Soviet Russia" pages 61-63. Thus over ten million people 
were taught to read and write and the love of books was 
such that even in lobbies of Cinemas there is a Reading Room 
to keep the visitors occupied in the intervals of performances, 
and the number of literates has come up to 90 per cent in 
recent times because the Soviet Libraries were an active 
social and educational force, 

In England the Public Library Act was passed in 1850 
and from that time onward the state has undertaken the 
maintenance and control of libraries. By 1927 with the 
benefactions of Andrew Carnegie the whole country was 
covered with a network of county libraries, the next stage 
being the establishment of Regional System of Co-operation 
and National Central Library. Sir Frederick George Ken- 
yon, Director, British Museum, in his Message to Indian 
Library Association states "You in India can profit by our 
experience. It may take generations to form a library sys- 
tem to cover this vast country. The lesson of Librarians is 
mutual help and common service to entire nation and man- 

When compared to this state of affairs elsewhere the 
Library movement may be said to be still in its infancy in 
our country. Judged by the literacy test in the last decade 
which is only 8 per cent for the whole of India (though a few 
states fare better) the gulf separating the educated and the 
uneducated is so enormously wide and no society or nation 
can be said to be civilized or enlightened under such condi- 

The Indian peasant is steeped in ignorance, superstition 
and bigotry in addition to his proverbial poverty. A com- 


pulsory (not optional as it is now) system of primary edu- 
cation can surely eradicate the evil but without the aid of 
libraries, even this will be useless. The Government 
Reports of Education Departments have often deplored the 
lapses into illiteracy in the stages of primary education. The 
dictum of Loe Strachey (Editor of the Spectator) "To 
educate people and not to provide them with tools to work 
with (books) is obviously an absurdity, if not a crime' ' still 
holds good. The only solution and immediate need of the 
hour is the establishment of village libraries whereby the 
wastage of money on primary education could be avoided 
and full benefits be reaped by the villager. The economic, 
cultural and political advancement of our country is closely 
connected with the education of the masses and libraries 
play the most important part in this nation-building activity. 
It is for the State to maintain and build up as many libraries 
as possible or to initiate legislation to enable local authori- 
ties to raise funds by taxation. 

Let us examine if this movement is entirely foreign or 
if there are traces of libraries in our country in ancient days. 
Long ago our venerable sage and lawgiver Manu declared 
that to carry knowledge to the doors of the poor was the 
greatest act of charity a nation could be capable of doing 
and knowledge was imparted in very ancient times by word 
of mouth before the days of printing. 

Literature and learning were the sole monopoly of the 
priestly classes who carried the whole of the Vedas in their 
memories and were thus Ambulatory Librarians. Even to 
this day we find traces of them in the Dwivedi and Trivedis 
of Gujarat. The secular literature was spread by the bards 
who were entertained at royal courts and sang the exploits 
of warriors. It was from the amalgamation of these epics 
we get the Mahabharata. 


From the accounts of the Chinese pilgrims Fa-hien, 
Hiuen Tsiang and I-tsing of the 5th and 7th centuries we get 
some description of libraries in the Universities of Nalanda, 
Taxila and Pataliputra. The Nalanda University had a 
library in a nine storied building with 300 apartments. 

In the Inscriptions of Nagai published in 1928 (Hydera- 
bad Archaeological Series No. 8 pages 7 and 40) under the 
Chalukyan king of the llth century we find "Equipment of 
a Library (Sarasvati bhandara) with Librarians who were 
called Sarasvati bhandarikas." There were six of them who 
with six other teachers were teaching a body of 252 students. 
King Bhoja is said to have had a big library. 

Under the Mohammadan rule we find emperors taking 
interest in Hindu books and Kalilah Damnah was translated 
into Persian as Anwar-i Suheili. Jalaluddin, founder of the 
Khilji dynasty, appointed the reputed poet and scholar Amir 
Khusru as his Imperial Librarian and raised him to the 
status of a peer. In the Bahmini dynasty there was a big 
library at Ahmednagar. Mohammad Gawan who lived in 
the 15th century was the Andrew Carnegie of those days. 
He was a minister and poet who built a number of libraries. 
At Bijapur there was a library under the Adil Shahi kings. 

Fergusson an English architect who visited the place 
in the 19th century concluded from the ruins that it must 
have been a fine library. 

Among the Moghul kings Great Akbar was an enthusi- 
astic bibliophile, who acquired the library of his minister 
Faizi and also the Library of the Gujarati king whom he 
conquered. It was in his reign we have the practice of 
illuminating books with pictures and much attention was 
paid to sumptuous bindings. The recent work of historic 
importance throwing light on miniature painting and book 


decorations of the ancient Persians is that publication of the 
Oxford University Press under the editorship of Pope (Sur- 
vey of Persian Art, Volume III). Humayun also was a 
lover of books. There seems to have been some system of 
classification also. Books were divided into three groups 
(1) Poetry, Medicine, Astrology and Music, (2) Philology, 
Philosophy, Sufism, Astronomy and Geometry, (3) Com- 
mentaries, traditions, theology and Law. It is too much to 
expect that the equipment, methods and ideals of modern 
Library service were prevalent in our country long ago. 

Coming to recent times in the pioneer State of Baroda 
there are over 1,100 Village Libraries for a total of 3000 
villages in the State and the system of State grant is as 
follows. In District towns the Government gives a grant 
of Rs. 700 provided the people raise Rs. 700 and local boards 
contribute an equal sum of Rs. 700. In the case of less im- 
portant towns the amount is Rs. 300 and for villages 100 
with equal contributions from the people and local boards. 
Similar rules apply for buildings also (Rs. 1000). On mar- 
riage occasions a small fee is collected for libraries. The 
travelling libraries are maintained solely by Government. 
With its network of village and town libraries, Baroda is 
the most advanced state in our country and serves over 82 
per cent of the state population. 

Another American A. D. Dickson reorganized the Libra- 
ries of the Punjab in 1915 and started training classes. In 
1929 there was a Librarians' Club in Lahore which ultimate- 
ly developed into the Punjab Library Association and 
Modern Librarian is the leading journal in the field now, 
In 1932 the Indian Library Association was formed which 
has held four conferences. The compilation of a Union 
Catalogue of Scientific Periodicals, a Scheme for inter-loan 


of books, expansion of Dewey System to suit Indian subjects 
are some subjects on which it is at work. It has also taken 
up the establishment of provincial copyright libraries in the 

Much useful work has also been done by the Library 
Associations of the Provinces of Madras, Bombay, Bengal 
Bihar and United Provinces. The Andhra Desa Library 
Association has been organizing libraries amongst the 
Andhras north of Madras. The All Kerala Library Associa- 
tion is doing much in the States of Travancore and Cochin. 

The Governments of the Punjab, Bombay, Bihar, United 
Provinces and Madras are doing some efforts for establishing 
libraries in rural parts; but still much remains to be done 
and there is enough scope ror private philanthropy to under- 
take this work of national reconstruction. 


"A Critical Evalution" 

P. S. NAIDU, M.A., 

ivimd-maUer dualism, it has been argued, is the 
hiduen rock on wmch many systems 01 European thought 
have been wrecked, it has raised so many insoluble pro- 
blems that one looks aghast at the dead wall to which one 
is led up ii' its implications are uncritically accepted. 
Courageous attempts have been made to break through this 
wall by denying the one or the other element in the 
dualistic partnership, or by reducing one to the status of a 
mere function or even an appearance of the other. But 
these attempts have been sorry failures. What is ejected 
out of the front creeps in by the back door. From Plato 
down to Bergson dualism has persisted in some form or other. 
Mind and Matter; thought and extension; substance and 
attribute ; reality and appearance ; phenomenon and 
noumenon; these are a lew of the many forms which the 
dualism has assumed. Of these mind-matter dualism is the 
most refractory type. We do not propose to tackle this pro- 
blem in this very short paper, but shall attempt to deal with 
something which is much simpler, but at the same time very 
important for a general understanding of the problem in its 
proper perspective. We shall deal with the metaphysical 
origins of this problem in Cartesian philosophy. 

Dualism of mind and matter has been a most 
unwelcome legacy to the long line of European thinkers. It 


haunted the minds of philosophers and psychologists, and 
produced bizarre hallucinations and strange delusions. Its 
remote origins are, no doubt, lost in the dim past of ancient 
Greek speculations, but its immediate ancestry may be 
readily traced to the 'father of modern philosophy'. Renes 
Descartes it was who gave it philosophic standing, and since 
his time it has been a thorn in the side of the philosopher. 

There are critical thinkers who believe that it is not the 
method of doubt, not the 'cogito ergo sum\ but the dualism 
of mind and matter that is the foundation for Cartesian 
philosophy. It is a datum, and not a deduction, say they. 
The steps in the proof, though styled deductive, by which 
Descartes passes from the self to the external world on the 
one hand, and to God on the other, are so many immediate 
intuitive apprehensions, and not syllogistic deductions. 
Each step in the demonstration, Descartes himself holds, 
shares the compelling character of the 'cogito'. We are pre- 
pared to admit this, but we are forced to agree with the critic 
who says that unless a dualism is postulated as a pre-condi- 
tion of the demonstration, the conclusion cannot be obtained. 
Descartes contends that the 'cogito' is an axiom in the 
strictest mathematical sense. Even so, all that the Cartesian 
deducation can establish is that there is a material world and 
that our knowledge of it is not deceptive. How that know- 
ledge is possible at all is not made clear. 

The whole difficulty arises out of a subtle unanalysed 
fallacy in the 'cogito' itself. When Descartes argued, "I 
think ; therefore, I am, " he created an unbridgable gulf be- 
tween the subject who thinks and the object of his thought. 
Thereafter a reconciliation between subject and object could 
be attempted only through some such highly mechanical 
and artificial device as the 'Deus ex machina' of Occasiona- 



The situation became so distressing that Spinoza had 
to adopt very desperate measures to rescue the toundations 
of metaphysics. As an alternative to occasionalism 
Spinoza chose the device of raising the methodological 
principle of universal Cartesian doubt to the status of a 
meta-physical principle. He stated it in the form so well 
known to us, 'All determination is negation.' But in doing 
so he emptied his central metaphysical concept of all con- 
tent. It is true that dualism of the Cartesian type is elimi- 
nated here, but the conception of the absolute which 
Spinoza arrived at by thinking away all its determinations 
is so significantly empty of any content that a learned 
philosopher remarked that it is 'the empty idea of being, 
which idea is indistinguishable from the idea of empty 
being.' If, therefore, we exclude from the absolute com- 
pletely the positive element which the relations of the 
finite supply, we must find ourselves confronted by an un- 
knowable absolute an absolute which because it leaves 
the finite unexplained is philosophically useless, and which 
because it excludes the finite from itself is faced by it as an 
other, and so ceases to be absolute. This is the final con- 
clusion if we accept the rigorous exclusion of determination 
championed by Spinoza and others in the same line of 
philosophic thought. 

But, even so has Spinoza succeeded in maintaining con- 
sistently the position reached by systematic deduction from 
his metaphysical principle? Alongside his empty absolute he 
postualtes 'God' with innumerable auspicious qualities. The 
dualism which Spinoza sought to overcome by reducing 
thought and extension to the subordinate status of attributes 
of the absolute now reappears in another form. And this 
persistent dualism may in the last resort be traced to the 
Cartesian 'Cogito'. 


How are we to break through this dualism? Leibnitz, 
the third in the line of European rationalistic succession, 
attempted to resolve the difficulty by taking up relation into 
substance itself, and by attempting to reconcile the idea of 
substance as a continum with that of substance as com- 
posed of discrete elements. We have seen already that 
Descartes created a gulf between subject and object, and 
then struggled to bridge it by interactionism. The cartesian 
system is predominantly logical, and so efficient causation 
has no place in it. Yet efficient causation is introduced by 
Descartes and made to function in an illogical manner. In 
Spinoza efficient causation has no place at all. Has not 
Spinoza definitely thrown out interactionism, and chosen 
logical ground and consequence instead of cause and effect 
as his guiding principles? But this discarded element 
suddenly makes its appearance in the Spinozistic doctrine 
of modes. Leibnitz shrewdly noticing these defects in his 
predecessor's systems, proposed to take up efficient causa- 
tion into his principle of sufficient reason. But in the 
Monadology of Leibnitz the principle of contradiction plays 
an important part. And Leibnitz is unable to bring this 
principle into harmony with efficient causation. And finally 
we are landed in the grand Leibnitzian doctrine of 'Pre- 
established Harmony'. Moreover the Leibnitzian denial of 
the reality of space is in response to the demand made by 
the very definition of the Monad itself. The philosophical 
quagmire into which our thinker lands himself may be traced 
to his incapacity to resolve the two principles of contradic- 
tion and efficient reason in a higher synthesis. If he had 
treated these as merely two aspects of self-consciousness he 
would have had no difficulty at all in his metaphysics. 

And that takes us back to the beginning of our story. 
The blame for all the ills that European rationalism is heir 


to may be laid at the door of Descartes. The Cartesian 
Cogito, and the assumption that the rationality of the 
universe may be deduced from this principle are the 
sources of all these difficulties. It was open to Descartes 
to have made the right start by taking the rationality of 
the universe or the veracity of God as the indispensable 
first principle or the unquestioned datum. Then the scio, 
and not the cogito would have been the ruling doctrine in 
Cartesianism. And in the scio Descartes would have 
found such a vital union betwen subject and object 
as would have made the dualistic position absolutely impossi- 
ble. The cogito necessarily resolves into a subject who 
perceives his own ideas which may or may not be true repre- 
sentations of the reality outside, whereas in the scio we have 
a subject who know:; objects. Ropresentationism could 
have been completely avoided by making the fact of know- 
ledge instead of the fact of thinking the central point in the 

The cogito with interactionism as its prop challenges 
parallelism and brings this into prominence, and finally 
evolves into pre-established harmony. Throughout the 
course of this evolution the principle of efficient causation 
championed by science is making its appearance at critical 
points in a most inconvenient manner. All these unrecon- 
ciled and irreconcilable logical and psychological principles 
may be resolved in a higher synthesis if we make 1 know' 
instead of 1 think' the starting point for a rationalistic 



Lecturer in Economics, University of Madras. 

For a long time the city of Madras and the coastal 
districts to the north do not appear to have been self-suffi- 
cient in the matter of food supply. An English writer of 
the 18th century refers to its dependence on foreign supplies 
of food grains and the consequent vulnerability to an econo- 
mic blockade: 

"Madras, with most other places on the Coast of 
Corromondel (which is in general barren and does not 
produce grain enough for the subsistence of its inhabi- 
tants) is obliged to be yearly supplied from the more 
fertile coasts of Orissa and Bengal, with vast quantities 
of rice, which is the chief food of the most of the people 
in the East Indies; so that an Enemy that is superior at 
sea, may easily distress them very much, by taking the 
vessels laden with rice coming from the Northward." 1 

Among the records of the East India Company we find 
statistics of the import of "rice, wheat and all other grain 
and pulse" from 1796-97 to 1828-29. These statistics pre- 
pared by the elder Mill, in his capacity as the Examiner of 

1. A Narrative of the transactions of British Squadrons 
in the East Indies during the late war : By an Officer who served 
in those Squadrons (1751) , p. 30, 



India Correspondence, does not give the import figures for 
rice separately, but it is certain that the bulk of it consisted 
of rice. The following figures give the periodical averages 
of import in quantity and value of grains from "the several 
ports of Bengal to the several ports and places on the Coro- 
mandel coast" from 1796-97 to 1828-29. 2 


Period Average No. Average No. Average 
Years of Bags of Maunds Value 


1796-7 to 1800-1 





1801-2 to 1805-6 





1806-7 to 1810-11 





1811-12 to 1815-16 





1816-17 to 1820-21 





1821-22 to 1825-26 





1826-27 to 1828-29 





A closer study of the statistics shows that these imports 
came to meet a real want since they had been the heaviest 
in years when the Presidency or parts of it were experiencing 
a drought or famine, as in 1806-7 and 1807-8, in 1812-13 
and 1813-14 and in 1823-24 to 1825-26. The imports were 
confined to the city of Madras (and its vicinities including 
Chingleput and North Arcot Districts) and to the northern 
districts such as Godavary, Kistna, Vizagapatam and Gan- 
jam. In the south, Tanjore was acting as a great granary and 
was even exporting to Ceylon. On the West Coast, Canara 

2. Compiled from the Report of the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons, 1832, Appendix No. 109. 


was exporting rice to Arabia and Bombay. 3 The Ceded 
Districts received their supplies mainly from Mysore. The 
markets of Tanjore and Canara would have met the internal 
demands had there been an adequate development of in- 
land communications. However, up to about 1825 rice im- 
ports from Bengal were regular. " A large fleet of dhonies 
regularly plied between the Coromandel Coast and Bengal 
conveying salt to Calcutta and returning with cargo of 
grain. Their chief resort was the port of Coringa from 
which place grain could be distributed not only throughout 
the Northern Circars but also through Hyderabad. 4 

In the twenties, a new source of supply for rice sprang 
up from Burma, which ultimately displaced Bengal as an ex- 
porter. It subsequently assumed such proportions during 
the economic depression that prevailed in the Madras Presi- 
dency during the years 1825-54 5 that an analogy as to its 
effects can be found only in the Burmese imports of rice in 
the recent depression. History repeats itself. 

The development of rice trade in Burma reads like a 
romance. In 1826 the provinces of Arakan and Tenasserim 
were annexed by the British. At that time they were so 
thinly populated and undeveloped that it was seriously con- 

3. Evidence of Mr. Hodgson to the Select Committee of the 
House of Commons, dated May 1830. 

4. Henry St. G. Tucker : Memorials of India Government, 
p. 461. 

The important part played by the port of Coringa (near 
Cocanada) in the commercial intercourse with Burma is seen from 
the fact that even to-day Telugu labourers from whichever part 
they come are called Corangees by the Burmese. 

5. Thomas and Natarajan : Economic Depression in the 
Madras Presidency (1825-54), (Economic History Review, Vol. 
VII No. 1.) 


templated whether they should not be restored to the Burman 
king. But in the subsequent thirty years the two provinces 
witnessed unparalleled economic development under the 
aegis of British rule. 6 Vast tracts of virgin soil were brought 
under the plough and sown with paddy. The total increase 
in the cultivated area in Arakan alone between 1826 and 
1855 was 250 per cent. 


Area of assessed 



Land Revenue 















A similar development took place in Tenasserim also, 
where the land revenue from cultivated area rose from 
Rs. 26,760 in 1825-26 to Rs. 8,33,000 in 1855-56. In 1843 
the acreage under cultivation was 1,00,657. In 1855-56 it 
rose to 1,81,681. Meanwhile population also grew but not 
at a pace to substantiate the truth of the Malthusian law. 
While the density per square mile increased from 5*5 
and 2-5 in 1826 to 20 and 7 in 1855 in Arakan and Tenas- 
serim respectively, the area under cultivation increased at a 
faster pace in the newly developing country. 

6. Col. A. Fytche, Chief Commissioner, British Burma and 
Agent to the Governor-General : Memorandum on the compara- 
tive progress of the Provinces now forming British Burma under 
British and Native Rule, 2381867. 


An increase in the two factors of production, land and 
labour, under British political organisation resulted in in- 
tense exploitation of resources. Till then these provinces 
had few ports of importance and the number of vessels which 
called at those ports were few and far between; now they saw 
the rise of Akyab in Arakan and Moulmein in Tenasserim. 
The former reached a population of 20,000 during the period 
and the latter from a fishing village became a port of 60,000 
inhabitants. In 1855 the value of trade of Arakan amounted 
to Rs. 187,69,980 and that of Tenasserim to Rs. 83,63,050. 
The increased production of rice found an outlet in the 
markets of Madras and northwards. 

A number of factors helped to give a fillip to the Bur- 
mese export trade in grain. Firstly, ine iandnoiders in Bri- 
tish Burma had numerous advantages over those in Madras, 
The swamps of Arakan required but little manual labour to 
ensure abundant crops. The land tax was no more than a 
fourth of what it was in most parts of the Presidency. 7 Waste 
lands were granted on very tavourable terms. Lands were 
divided into 5 classes according to fertility and were given 
rent-free for periods varying from 4 to 34 years. After that 
assessments starting with a minimum of 6d. per acre 
were levied and they increased at a progressive rate within 
a period ranging from 8 to 64 years as the case might be, 
until the maximum of Is. 6d. per acre was reached. Even 
at that stage one-fourth of the holdings was permanently 
held free of assessment. 8 

Secondly, the prices that ruled in the markets of the 
Madras Presidency were higher than those obtainable in the 

7. Madras Public Works Commission Report (1852), p. 129. 

8. Nassau Lees : Land and Labour of India (1861). 



home market; and the higher the price in the Indian market 
due to scarcity or famine, the greater the incentive to export 
from Arakan. Thus, for instance, in 1846 rice was selling 
at Arakan at 1 rupee per maund while in Madras it fetched 
1 pagoda per maund; in other words it was 2 l /2 times as 
great. 9 

Thirdly, the freight charges from Arakan to Madras 
were not considerable. Paddy ireight took the position oi: 
a ballast to vessels which returned to Madras to take salt 
to Calcutta. Freight facility was even a greater advan- 
tage in those days when inland communications were uu- 

Fourthly, grain from Arakan was a commodity on the 
free list, except in tne port oi Maaras, where it was suoject 
to a duty oi i> per cent. Tne home grown produce, on tne 
other hand, was subject to a duty oi i per cent 
ad valorem on ail mter-porxai shipments as well as 
on internal transit oi grain irorn one place to another/ Xiua 
was an important factor in keeping supplies from Tanjore 
and the southern districts ott the markets northward 
of Madras. The "protection oi distance" that domestic pro- 
duction would otherwise have enjoyed was thus denied to 

Finally, the frequent i amines to which the country was 
subject in those times disposed the Goveinment to en- 
courage tins import trade, mspite oi tne iact tiiat tney were 
last wedded to iaissez jaire. in 1824 when famine threat- 
ened the Presidency, Sir Thomas Munro, the then Governor, 

9. Friend oj India, 811846. 

10. CIV Regulation II of 1812 ; Sections 4 and 17, clauses 8 
and 13. 


threw the official laissez faire policy to the winds and said 
that State interference was permissible when "the lives of a 
great population are at stake." 11 He therefore recommended 
a reduction in the price of salt taken to Bengal on condition 
that the controllers of the carrying trade agreed to return 
with a cargo of rice. 12 This was in effect a bounty to the 
Arakan trade. Next year, finding thib inadequate, he 
granted a direct bounty of Rs. 30 per garce of rice imported, 
which according to his estimate involved the Government an 
expenditure of 3 to 4% lakhs of rupees per annum. 13 This was 
a temporary measure, but it no doubt introduced the thin 
end of Burmese competition. When these preferences were 
repeated in 1832, as the coming famine of Nandana year 
(1833) cast its shadows before, 14 they opened the flood-gates 
of foreign competition. 

The Arakan imports which thus came to succour stayed 
to compete with local production. Although the cheap im- 
port was not a cause of the depression, it was one of those 
factors that kept the prices low and held up economic re- 
covery unduly. In 1843 the Collector of Rajahmundry 
drew the attention of the Board of Revenue 15 to this disturb- 
ing element and the Board, convinced that it was an import- 
ant factor deserving their consideration, 16 addressed the Dis- 

H. Minutes of Sir Thomas Munro, 2311824. Also, vide 
B. Natarajan : Economic Doctrines of Sir Thomas Munro, Father 
Cartv Commemoration Volume. 

12. Ibid. 

13. Ibid. 

14. From the Government of Madras to the Board of Revenue, 
In Consultations, 17121832. 

15. Settlement Report of Rajahmundry District for Fasli, 1252- 

16. Proceedings of the Board of Revenue, 3 4 1844. 


trict Collectors of Ganjam, Vizagapatam, Masulipatam and 
the Collector of Sea Customs at Madras to make detailed 
enquiries into the subject. In 1844, Sir Henry Montgomery, 
who was appointed to enquire into the causes of econo- 
mic depression in the Northen circars, wrote in his report: 
"The present price of paddy will not be exceeded so long as 
the unrestrained import of Arakan grain is permitted, for 
no sooner does the price of home produce begin to rise to a 
standard remunerating the landholders than the market is 
flushed with this foreign rice and home-grown grain is a 
drug. The evil to this is annually increasing and demands 
speedy correction by the imposition of suitable restrictions 
to this importation." 17 During the 10 years between 1833-34 
and 1843-44, the total value of paddy and rice imported into 
Madras Presidency from Arakan was Rs. 1,08,14,248 of 
which Rs. 62,43,540 was the share of the six ports north of 
Madras, and Rs. 45,70,708 the share of Madras. 18 

The Arakan trade in rice just at this time received a 
fillip from another source. The Supreme Government at 
Calcutta passed the Act VI of 1844 with the object of abolish- 
ing the sayer or the transit duties that were hampering in- 
ternal trade and of bringing the customs tariff at Madras in 
a line with the other ports of India. 19 But this measure far 
from removing the inter-portal duty within Madras Presi- 
dency had the effect of raising it so as to conform to the All- 
India customs tariff; and therefore still kept off grain from 
districts like Tanjore and Canara which could come mainly 
by sea, as inland communication was in a parlous condition. 
This inter-portal duty imposed by the new Act was not 

17. Montgomery Report, (Mss) 2851844. 

18. Madras Government consultations, 16 2 1846. 

19. Notification of the Government of India, 1631844. 


only inequitable, being a uniform rate on rice and paddy, 
it also amounted to 10 to 15 per cent ad valorem on rice 
and 20 to 30 per cent on paddy and acted as "a tax heavy 
enough for protection " to the foreign interests. 20 Further, 
although the said act authorised the levy of a higher duty 
on foreign goods or goods brought in foreign bottoms, 21 
its provisions were inapplicable to imports from Arakan 
as Arakan was then under Bengal Government and there- 
fore was a British province and "not strictly foreign." 

The question of giving the home-grown grain some 
protection with a view to relieve the distress of the peasants 
thus received an added force. But the Government was 
against it. 22 They held that prices in the home market 
were not materially influenced by imports, "as foreign grain 
to any extent has been imported hitherto only when prices 
were high." 23 Further, they believed that the inferior 
quality of Arakan rice as an article of food would always 
act as a limitation on its consumption on a large scale The 
most weighty consideration, however, was that such a res- 
triction by cutting off the supplies of an essential article of 
food in times of famine, would, they feared, aggravate its 
horrors. Although more than one Collector suggested that 
at such times the prohibitive duties might be relaxed, 24 the 
Government preferred to watch the working of the Act VI of 

20. From the Collector of Ganjam to the Board of Revenue 

21. Sections 16 and 17. 

22. Madras Government Consultations, 2 2 1846. 

23. Madras Government Consultations, 16 2 1846, 

24. From the Collector of Rajahmundry to the Board of Rev- 
enue, 11121845. In Consultations 26121845; from the 
Collector of Vizagapatam to the Board of Revenue, 29111845, 
In Consultation, 8121845. 


1844 for one or two years more. In 1848, the continued 
downward trend of agricultural prices at home convinced 
them of the necessity to take some action inspite of all 
doctrinaire opposition to Protection. Hence the Act VII 
of 1848 was passed, which made the imports of grain from 
Arakan liable to a protective duty. But this did not have 
the intended effect, on account of evasions. Vessels taking 
salt to Chittagong after unloading at that port obtained port 
clearances in anticipation cf goods to be shipped at some of 
the adjoining ports and then with great facility ran into 
any one of the ports of Arakan and took a complement cf 
rice cargo. With the document for port clearance obtained 
at Chittagong they entered the Madras port free of duty. 25 
Thus on account of irregularities at the Customs Office at 
Chittagong, Arakan rice evaded the duty imposed by the 
Act of 1848 and flooded the Madras market "greatly to the 
prejudice of the Madras grower." 26 The Madras Govern- 
ment addressed the Government of Bengal on the subject, 
requesting the latter to correct the irregularities. But the 
Act itself did not remain on the Statute book for long. In 
1858-59, the preferences and discriminations based on the 
old colonial system were done away with and the whole 
tariff underwent complete revision. The necessities of the 
Mutiny again raised the tariff wall, but all these measures 
were of little avail when Burma was annexed to the Indian 
Empire, Although subsequent growth of population and 
development of communications and irrigation works im- 
proved the lot of the Madias ryot, the price for his produce 

25. From the Board of Revenue to the Government of Mad- 
ras, 2041851. 

26. From the Board of Revenue to the Government of Madras, 


was determined by the prices prevailing in Burma. 27 The 
export duty on rice levied in later days undoubtedly had 
the effect of worsening the position of Madras in relation to 
Burma. The free import of Burmese rice in Madras had dis- 
astrous effects during the recent depression. But the pheno- 
menon is a century old. 

27, P. J. Thomas : Recent Trends in the Price of Rice in 
Madras (Paper to the Indian Rice Committee) . 




District Judge, North Arcot. 

A university differs from a high school, secondary 
school, elementary school, guild school, and other sucn insti- 
tutions engaged in the same mission oi education, in that it 
caters, or ought to cater, to the cream of a nation's intelli- 
gentsia, including therein of course, the leaders in every 
form of art, and not merely people who think. Naturally, 
five striking things will be found in it. 

The first will be the nature of its alumni. These will 
be carefully selected in an ideal university, only those fit to 
profit by university education being taken, and all those lit 
to profit being someiiow gathered together. In the univer- 
sity of Nalanda, for instance, there was a preliminary test 
of ability, corresponding to the responsions in Oxford, in 
which it has been left on record, by Yuan Chwang, that 70 
or 80 per cent would fail. There will, of course, be no out- 
cry regarding the 'slaughter of -the innocents/ as, in a well- 
constituted society, all will agree that those innocent of 
knowledge should be refused admission, at the outset, instead 
of being admitted and slaughtered, alter a good deal of waste 
of time, money and energy. Since the idea will 
be to collect the very best talents in the nation, even those 
who cannot afford to pay, but are eminently suitable for 
university education, will be sent up by local committees 


to undergo the kind of education, whether in arts or in 
science or in fine arts or applied science, they are suited for. 
In an ancient Indian University, the problem was simple, as 
every student, rich or poor, had to beg for his food, as the 
daily routine. It is obvious that no modern country can 
afford to allow its geniuses and men of talents to run to 
waste. Of course, everybody will have a right to be admit- 
ted to a school and there should even be compulsory educa- 
tion up to the school final standard, for both boys and girls in 
a combined literary and vocational fashion. Universities 
alone will cater only to select and suitable persons. 

The second distinguishing feature will lie in the asking 
and anwering of profound questions. Here, too, Yuan 
Chwang remarks that, in Nalanda, they engaged in discus- 
sions from morning till night, the old and the young mutu- 
ally helping one another, and tutors unable to answer ques- 
tions being obliged to hide themselves, for shame. Natu- 
rally, the conscript classes, common in some Indian Univer- 
sities, will disappear, and Upanishadic classes, of free dis* 
cussions between tutors and pupils, will take their place. 
It follows that a professor cannot have a herd of students, 
and that the maximum he would be allowed to attend to 
would be only 10 to 12, so that individual attention and 
personal discussion would be easy. 

Thirdly, teachers and students will live together in the 
hostels, and have a kind of family relationship, as in ancient 
India, students attending on the teacher and he on them, 
mutual nursing in time of sickness being one of the inci- 
dents. Thus, they will grow to understand and love one 
another, and the relationship will cease to be one of 
routine, as is too often the case now. Perfect equality and 
a love of freedom and independence will be the hallmark 
of students and professors alike. Of course, several hygie- 



nic, moral and religious precepts would also be thus taught, 
besides good manners, and the ancient Indian ideal of get- 
ting three-fourths of one's education (viz., one-fourth from 
the teacher, one-fourth from the fellow students, and one- 
fourth from oneself, the remaining one-fourth having al- 
ready been supposed to have been given by the parents at 
home) will be realised. 

Fourthly, there will be a periodical and careful weed- 
ing out of the unfits and misfits among the students, admit- 
ted by error, and of the unfits and misfits among the profes- 
sors, appointed by error. As Kautilya remarks, a student 
or teacher without the requisite equipment or discipline is 
no good. Discipline is of two kinds, artificial and natural, 
and the study of arts or sciences can bring maximum profit 
only to those who are possessed of such mental faculties 
as obedience, hearing, grasping, retentive memory, discri- 
mination, inference, and deliberation. A pupil not posses- 
ing such faculties will not only not profit by university 
education, but will also diminish the profit derived by the 
rest, like one rotten tooth or fruit spoiling the healthy teeth 
or fruits. As Kautilya remarks again, natural discipline 
alone will count vitally, artificial discipline, that is, disci- 
pline by punishment, sufficing only to correct acquired 
errors, something like imported cases of plague being cura- 
ble by superficial methods, like fumigation, exposure to 
sun, etc., endemic cases not being curable in those ways. 
Just as unfit students should be periodically weeded out, by 
notices to quit, which would be no disqualification whatever, 
by itself, for civic or othei employment, professors and lec- 
turers who are found, in practice, to be useless for teaching, 
should also be given notices to quit, from time to time, un- 
less they are found fit for research work, in which case, they 
should be put on that work. Even the best of truths come 


to nought, when taught by incompetent teachers, just as the 
best of seeds will come to nought if sown at the wrong sea- 
son by a person ignorant of cultivation. 

The fifth feature is that a university education aims not 
so much at making a man capable of earning a living, 
which very necessary job will be taken on by the high 
schools, but at producing first-rate scholars and men and 
women of culture devoid of prejudice of caste, class, colour, 
creed or country; people who welcome knowledge from 
whatever quarter it is got; who have no false values either 
regarding themselves or about things around them; and who 
are valuable members of society and servants of humanity, 
ready to place their knowledge, experience, reason, wealth 
.,-nJ ntTenrjth at t T '<o clispr- ;] of thr ; r MV?\v-boincrs, and to 
help the poor, the ignorant, the oppressed, the wicked, the 
degraded and the depressed, to get out of their miserable 
state, and thus leave the world a shade better than they 
found it. They would not swear either by matter or by 
spirit, and would be so harmoniously developed in body, 
mind and soul, that, while regarding this life as a field of 
action and sacrifice, thev will not accept either the extreme 
view of one school that life in this world is a myth, and, so, 
we need not make any effort to improve it, or the extreme 
view of another school that death is the end of everything 
and that we should concentrate merely on eating, drinking 
and making merry or other selfish activity as long as we 

If we survey the Universities of India to-day from this 
point of view, we may be disposed to cry out with Bernier: 
"Is it possible to establish m India model academies and col- 
leges properly endowed? Where shall we seek for founders, 
or, should they be found, where are the scholars? Where 
are the benefices, employments, offices of trust and dignity 


that require ability and science, and are calculated to ex- 
cite the impulses and hopes of young students, which are 
likely to be given to the products of these academies and 
colleges?" In a nation like ours, overrun with a cry for 
communal representation in every benefice, employment, 
office of trust and dignity requiring ability and science, 
where the best, even though absolutely free from communal 
prejudice, caste superiority complex, racial arrogance etc, 
are forced to await their communal turn, and allowed to 
rust till then, it is obvious that the last difficulty mention- 
ed by Bernier is a colorsal, and almost insuperable, one. 
Alas, for knowledge, as Kama exclaims in Kama Bhara of 
Bhasa, mere lapse of lime is enough to make it not only use- 
less, but out of date and pernicious, and while the best man, 
classified communally in spite of himself, is waiting for his 
turn, he may not remain the best when his turn comes, and 
may, indeed, be among the worst by then. 

At present, in many universities all over the world, 
more attention is paid to the material side, and less to the 
spiritual side. Most research is for destructive purposes, 
like the discovery of deadly weapons against present and 
future enemies, than for constructive purposes. And nation- 
al or racial arrogance is tacitly encouraged, even books on 
history and science being vitiated by this virulent germ. Nor 
is the education imparted by the professors of our modern 
universities always of the broadest variety or imbued with 
a desire to expound Truth in its thousand facets. Indeed, 
sometimes, it reminds one of the education imparted by 
Aurangazeb's old tutor. 

The emperor Aurangazeb had an old tutor, Mulla Shah. 
Hearing that his pupil had become the emperor, the old 
Mulla rushed to see him, expecting huge rewards and 
appointments. Aurangazeb refused to see him for 3 months. 


Finally, he was so pestered by the Mulla that he saw him, 
but only to tell him the following home truths: "Pray, what 
is your pleasure with me, Mulla ji? Do you pretend that I 
ought to exalt you to the first honours of the State? Let us 
examine your title to any mark of distinction. I do not deny 
that you would possess such title if you had filled my young 
mind with suitable instruction. Show me a well-educated 
youth, and I will say that it is doubtful who has the stronger 
claim to his gratitude, his father or his teacher. But, what 
was the knowledge that I derived under your tuition? You 
taught me that the whole of Frankistan (Europe) was no 
more than some inconsiderable island of which the most 
powerful monarch was formerly the King of Portugal, then 
he of Holland and, afterwards, the king of England. With 
regard to the other sovereigns of Frankistan, such as the 
king of France and him of Andalusia, you told me that they 
resembled our petty rajahs, and that the potentates of 
Hindustan eclipsed the glory of all other kings, that they 
alone were Humayuns, Akbars, Jehangirs, or Shah Jahans, 
the happy, the great, the conquerors of the world and the 
Kings of the world,* and that Persia, Uzbek, Kashgar, Tar- 
tary. Cathay, Pegu, Siam and China trembled at the names 
of the kings of the Indies Admirable Geographer! Deep- 
ly-read historian! Was it not incumbent upon my precep- 
tor to make me acquainted with the distinguishing features 
of every nation on earth, its resources and strength, its mode 
of warfare, its manners, religion, form of government and 
wherein its interests principally consist, and, by a regu- 
lar course of historical reading, to render me familiar with 
the origin of states, their progress and decline, the events, 
incidents or wars owing to which such great changes and 

*These are the meanings of the names of the sovereigns. 


mighty revolutions have been effected? Far from having 
imparted to me a profound and comprehensive knowledge 
of the history of mankind, scarcely did I learn from you the 
names of my ancestors, the renowned founders of this 
empire. You kept me in total ignorance of their 
lives, of the events which preceded and the extraordi- 
nary talents that enabled them to achieve their extensive 
acquisitions. A familiarity with the language of the sur- 
rounding nations is necessary in a king, but you insisted 
on teaching me to read and write Arabic, doubtless con- 
ceiving that you placed me in an everlasting obligation for 
sacrificing so large a portion of the time to the study of a 
language wherein no one can hope to become proficient 
without 10 or 12 years of close application. Forgetting how 
many important subjects ought to be embraced in the edu- 
cation of the prince, you acted as if it were chiefly necessary 
that he should possess a great skill in grammar and such 
knowledge as belongs to a Doctor of Law, and thus did 
you waste precious hours of my youth in the dry, unprofi- 
table, and never-ending task of learning mere words. 
Were you not aware that it is during the period of 
studenthood that the memory is so retentive that the mind 
receives a thousand wise precepts, and is easily furnished with 
such valuable instruction as will elevate it with lofty con- 
ceptions and render the individual capable of glorious deeds? 
Can we read our prayers or acquire knowledge of the law 
and the science onlij through the medium of Arabic? May 
not our devotions be as acceptable, and solid information 
communicated as easily in our mother tongue? You gave 
my father, Shah Jahan, to understand that you instructed 
me in philosophy, and indeed, I have perfect remembrance 
of your having, during several years, harassed my brain with 
idle and foolish propositions, the solution of which yields no 


satisfaction to the mind, propositions which seldom enter 
into the business of life; extravagant reveries conceived with 
great labour, and forgotten as soon as conceived; their only 
effect is to fatigue and ruin the intellect, and to render the 
man head strong, intolerant and insufferable. Oh, yes, you 
caused me to devote the most valuable years of my life to 
your favourifcu hypotheses and systems, and, when i leiL you, 
I could boast of no greater knowledge in the sciences than 
the use of many absurd, obsolete, arid uncouth terms calcu- 
lated to discourage, confuse, confound and appal a youth 
of the most virile understanding; terms invented to cover 
the vanity and ignorance of pretenders to philosophy; of 
men, who, like yourself, would impose the belief that they 
transcend others of their situation in wisdom, and that their 
dark and ambiguous jargon conceals many profound myste- 
ries known only to themselves. If you had taught me that 
philosophy which adapts the mind to reason, and will not 
suffer it to rest satisfied with anything short of the most 
solid arguments; if you had inculcated lessons which elevate 
the soul and fortify it against the assaults of fortune, 
tending to produce that enviable equanimity which neither 
insolently elated by prosperity nor basely depressed by 
adversity; if you had made me acquainted with the nature 
of men; accustomed me always to refer to first principles, and 
given me a sublime and adequate conception of the universe 
and of the order and regular motion of its parts; if such, I 
say, had been the nature of the philosophy imbibed under 
your tuition, I should be more indebted to you than 
Alexander was to Aristotle, and should consider it my duty 
to bestow a very different reward on you than Aristotle re- 
ceived from that prince. Answer me, sycophant, ought you 
not to have instructed me on one point at least, so essential 
to be known by a king, viz., on the reciprocal duties between 


a sovereign and his subjects? Ought you not also to have 
foreseen that I might, at some future period, be compelled to 
contend with my brothers, sword in hand, for the crown and 
for my very existence, such as, you must well know, has been 
the fate of the children of almost every King ot Hindustan. 
Did you ever instruct me in the art of war, how to beseige a 
town, or draw up an army in battle array? Happy for me 
that I consulted wiser heads than thine on these subjects! 
Go. Withdraw to thy village. Henceforth, let no person 
know either who thou art or what has become of thee." 

How to avoid such useless and pernicious teaching? 
First of all, incompetent teachers, like this Mullah, should 
never be appointed as professors, and, ii appointed by error, 
should be weeded out, as unfits and misfits at the very 
earliest opportunity. Secondly, proper text-books, in the 
language of the pupils, carefully selected by well-known 
scholars of repute, should be prescribed in all subjects. 
Thirdly, regimentation in education should be avoided, and 
the aim of education should be clearly laid down as the deve- 
lopment of human personality and culture, instead of pro- 
viding for future "hands" in factories, "bayonets" in war, 
and what not. Fourthly, there must be periodic exchange 
of professors between universities in the same country and 
in different countries. And lastly, there must be an inter- 
national board of world-famous scholars to periodically 
inspect, through some of its members, and report on the 
workings of all universities every five years, persistently bad 
or useless universities being liable to be closed down on such 



Of the several famous plays in Samskrt, King Sri 
Harsa's Ndgdnanda stands unique; for it presents a blend of 
the principles of the two great religions of India, namely, 
Hinduism and Buddhism and presents a hero, Jimutavahana 
by name, whose dominant characteristic is a matter of dis- 
pute between two schools of Rasa. Anandavardhana finds 
him a Santa hero. Dhanika would have him a Daydvlra. 

Rules of Samskrt dramaturgy require f that Love or 
Heroism should be the dominant Rasa in a drama. In this 
play neither is prominent; nor are they clean forgotten. 
Srngara is fully developed in the first three acts. Jimutava- 
hana is not desirous of conquest. He spurns material wealth 
and worldly pleasures. Noble deed of benevolence and self- 
less acts of charity affl^ and <ttTwt are his ideals and these 
two virtues form the cardinal tenets of Buddhism as well as 

Srngdra and Vlran not being the main Rasa, what then 
is the Rasa of the play one has to enquire. The Ananda- 
vardhana school claims Santa to be the chief Rasa but 
Dhanika claims Jimutavahana a Daydvlra. 

In this paper an attempt is made to show how the two 
views may be easily reconciled. 

A resume of the story at this point will be helpful. 

Jimutavahana, a Vidyadhara prince, banishes himself from 


his kingdom and spends his life in the forest in the service 
of his aged parents. In a Gaurl temple there he meets 
Malayavati, a Siddha princess. Love at first sight, separa- 
tion and reunion with consent of parents occupy the next 
acts of the play. Mitravasu, the brother-in-law of the 
hero, butts in during the honey moon with the news of the 
invasion of Jimutavahana's kingdom by Matahga, his foe. 
The loss is welcome to the hero. He dissuades Mitravasu 
from marching an army against his enemy. 

One day, strolling on the beach, the hero sees a ser- 
pent, named Sankhacuda, on his way to satisfy the appetite 
of Garuda. Moved with pity the hero offers himself; but 
the serpent would not permit the substitution. But fortune 
favours the hero. Sarikhacuda steps aside to worship 
Siva preliminary to sacrificing himself to Garuda and 
Jimutavahana steps in quickly, dons the red garments and 
is therefore taken up by Garuda for his victim. On his 
return Sarikhacuda finds Jimutavahana gone and begins a 
search with the help of the blood streak on the road while 
on the way Jimutavahana's family join him in his search. 
They trace him only to find him all but dead. Sarikhacuda 
tells Garuda the story of the substitution. Immediately 
Garuda repents his cruelty and promises to abstain from 
killing serpents thenceforward. The Goddess Gaurl hears 
the piteous moan of MalayavatJ and helps Jimutavahana 
back to life. Garuda for his part, succeeds in getting Indra 
to bring back to life the serpents he had eaten. With this 
general rebirth, the prince becomes the king of the Vidya- 

Now for the reconciliation of the two views. Ananda- 
vardhana defines Santa as the "bliss arising from the control 
of desires/' By knowing the Truth or by Tattvajfiana (i.e. 


the transitory nature of all life) the seeker after the Truth 
controls desires. He is moved by compassion for others. 
His frame of mind then is that of a Santa and therefore he 
is prepared to sacrifice his transitory life for the good 
of others. 

This Santa is prominently present throughout the play. 
The play opens with a reference to Jimutavahana's doings 
to keep his people contented and happy. He feels he has 
done all he should and proposes to go to the forest to render 
service to his parents. He crowns his deeds of charity with 
the giving away of the Kalpaka tree and renounces his king- 
ship to do his duty by his parents in spite of advice to stay 
on. When his brother-in-law gives him the bad news that 
his foe was in occupation of his land he is most unconcerned. 
He has no foes other than his passions. The brother-in-law 
offers to go upon the foe but Jimutavahana answers that he 
pities Matanga, for he has been conquered by his passion for 
wealth and adds he is more to be pitied than punished. The 
brother-in-law receives this advice in derision and is ad- 
monished by a reference to the Sun who, even while in the 
act of setting, is the object of praise by many because He 
expects no return for His services from the several object? 
He enlightens and His life-long endeavour is doing good to 

The hero sacrifices his person to save a serpent. Here 
again he does so because he knows life is transient. A 
soldier dying in battle is no hero; for he sacrifices himself 
in hope either to get victory and become more famous or 
to get to a better Loka. Even Sahkhacuda offering his life 
to Garuda is no hero; for he does so in fear of the royal 
command. If he hesitates to permit Jimutavahana to step 
into his place, it is because, as he himself says, he wants to 


safeguard the honour of his family. Without a knowledge 
of the Truth none can be a hero. Jimutavahana has 
nothing but contempt for Vasuki with two thousand 
tongues, for, not even one of the tongues was useful to 
make him say that he would sacrifice himself first before 
agreeing to an arrangement for the death of his subjects. 
He ascribed this failure on the part of Vasuki to 
love for his own filthy and perishable body. Verily did 
Sarikhacuda admire the conduct of the hero opposed as it 
was to that of great sages like Visvamitra. 

Jimutavahana offers to be the prey for Garuda in place 
of Sankhacuda. When he is away for a minute he dons the 
red robes and offers himself to Garuda. Garuda gulps him 
little by little. Jimutavahana enjoys as more and more bits 
of his flesh are taken by Garuda. No pain results; but 
great joy is felt by the hero. His countenance beams with 
gratitude to the devouring Garuda, the benefactor. Garuda 
marvels to see the beam in the eye of his victim and stops 
eating further. But Jimutavahana eggs him on to eat 
the remaining flesh and drink the effusing blood. Then 
Sankhacuda appears. This disturbs the hero for he is 
afraid that he might not succeed in sacrificing his entire 
body. His mother who felt that his beauty was being muti- 
lated he answers there can be no beauty in what is called 
a 'body' as a 'body', according to him, consists of nothing 
but fat, bones, flesh and blood. 

In each one of these points Jimutavahana shows he 
has mastered the Truth arid he is realising his Self. The 
hero is not content with his own knowing the Truth and 
acting thereon. But he would try to convert others who 
come in contact with him to the realisation of the Truth. 
On this basis he got Garuda out of the darkness of Ignor- 


ance in which he was. The hero thus shows himself a 
true Santa in having realised the Truth and having renounced 
first the desire for wealth, then kingship and later sacrificing 
his body. Here is Santarasa in its perfection. 

Others argue that, though the hero renounced his 
kingdom and sacrificed his life he cannot be called 
a true Santa. A true Santa, according to them, 
would seek solitude for purposes of meditation with a view 
to final freedom from birth. But Jimutavahana does not 
like the solitude of the forest and rejects it as it does not 
afford him an opportunity to serve and help his fellow crea- 
tures. He is mad for a life spent in duty to parents and 
social service. Again, a true Santa, though he would like 
to do good to others, would never persist long in any course. 
But Jimutavahana persists in doing good to others from 
first to last. He insists on saving Sankhacuda even 
against his wish. He argues with him and seeks every 
means to do him service. He takes advantage of Sankha- 
cuda's temporary absence and steps into the slaughter-slab 
in his place. When Sankhacuda comes back Jimutavahana 
feels his noble purpose was about to be defeated. He prays 
for thousands of births in preference to final emancipation 
so that he may do social service. 

Again a true Santa cannot be a lover. But the hero 
falls in love with Malayavati and his Srngara with her is 
fully developed in both its aspects (Vipralambha and Sara- 
toga) in the first three acts of the play. Lastly if Jimuta- 
vahana had been a true Santa he should have ended his life 
and attained Moksa. He should not have been restored to 
life and reinstalled as king with Malayavati as his queen. 

Therefore Jimutavahana is rather a Dayavira (i.e. a 
cosmopolitan philanthropist keen on doing good to others) 


and not a true Santa. Vlrarasa is of many kinds. In all types 
of Vlrarasa "enthusiasm" is a common feature. If heroes 
like Rama in the Mahdvlracarita who are keen on conquest 
are called Yuddhavlras, Jimutavahana who is persistent in 
doing good to others may be called a Daydvlra. 

The case is thus one of Santa versus Daydvlra in the 
Ndgdnanda. But the two views may be easily reconciled. 
Seen from the view point of the Mahay ana school of Bud- 
dhism this Daydvlra is Santa itself. King Sri Harsa, the 
author of the play, lived when Hinduism and Buddhism had 
learnt to accommodate each other in the same land and Harsa 
himself in the latter part of his life is said to have had a 
leaning towards Buddhism, So in this play, the author, 
with a view to illustrating the main doctrines of Buddhism 

3f|flr and <rfta$R selected a character reputed in 
legend for his benevolence and generosity as the hero of 
the play and portrayed him as Bodhisattva himself. So in 
this Buddhist play the hero's characteristic is Sama accord- 
ing to the Mahayanist view. 

According to Mahayanists, emancipation is achieved by 
what they call STfrrTRnrcfT or Discriminative Knowledge 
and this STfWRftffiT gets to be strong by what they call 
wrarcRrar and SffiTRfacfl (i.e. "acts of compassion and 
benevolence"). A true Mahayanist having attained the 
JWroRftar would not desire Emancipation for himself. He 
would like to have it only after the whole universe gets it. 
According to the Mahayanists, Buddha himself has not yet 
attained Emancipation as tBe universe has not yet got it. 
Moved by unbounded compassion to his fellow creatures, a 
Mahayanist is keen on deeds of charity and benevolence to 
others for they are only an expansion of his Self. 


Viewed in this light, Jimutavahana may be called a 
true Santa not only because he has attained the snrnTKfiKTT 
(i.e. he has realised the 'transcientnes^' or the 'voidness' of 
the universe) but also because of his great anxiety to find 
out opportunities for social service. His obstinate persis- 
tence to work for universal good and his longing for newer 
and newer births are more easily explained. A Mahayanist 
is per force led by his own logic to court a long series of 
births in order to help the universe to Emancipation. 
Jimutavahana's perpetual advice to Garuda who devoured 
him is based mainly on this Truth. He knew that Garuda's 
sacrifice of his life in the absence of sifRTRfacir or True 
Knowledge would not help him to Emancipation. As a true 
Mahayanist he was anxious that Garuda should live well, 
reform himself, use his kingly influence on his subjects and 
help himself and them to attain True Knowledge. 

The objection to the hero's wedded life may not be 
valid. The objection to wedded life is that its distractions 
may hinder Tattvajnana. But there are shining instances 
like the great Janaka who realised Tattvajnana even as a 
householder and a king with all the wealth of a great king. 
Jimutavahana, endowed with a very strong feeling of re- 
nunciation from birth, enjoyed married felicity in perfect 
detachment. When Mitravasu's father told him that he had 
chosen Jimutavahana as his son-in-law did not Mitravasu say 
that he was glad because the bridegroom was every 
way noble; but sad because he was likely to abandon his wife 
immediately he got an opportunity to do a philanthropic 
deed? True, Jimutavahana was very much attracted by 
Malaya vati; but even within ten days of the wedding he 
abandoned her as he had a noble chance of saving Sarikha- 
cuda by sacrificing his life. Did he not feel that his wed- 
ding with Malayavati was useful to him and that it helped 


him to two red garments in which he became immediately 
acceptable to Garuda? In this case Srngdra subserved 
Santa and ennobled it. Again he felt that the joy caused by 
the touch of the slaughter-slab was superior to the joys of 
wedded life. Who can hold that in Jimutavahana's case 
wedded life was an obstruction to Tattvajfiana? Though he 
was newly married, he rose above worldly temptations and 
became, in Garuda's words Bodhisattva himself. Perhaps 
this was the truth the poet sought to emphasise when he 
introduced the scene of Jimutavahana's married life which 
he could have avoided with perfect ease. 

. The objection that if Jimutavahana were a true Santa 
he ought to have ended his life and attained Nirvana has 
already been answered. He was not a Hinayanist who 
would care only for his own Emancipation. He was a 
Mahayanist and so he prayed for many births to help others 
also to attain Tattvajfiana. So he was, at the end of the play, 
restored to life. As in this case so in many other works 
Indian writers do portray the tragic element in life but the 
last scene does not end in death; for according to them, death 
in one life is but the beginning of another in a series of lives 
the soul has to pass through before attaining Emancipation. 
Further, the poet shows here a truth that good actions al- 
ways bring a reward greater than expected. Jimutavahana 
sought to save one serpent by sacrificing his life; but he 
actually saved his own life and also generations of serpents 
of the past and of the future. Jimutavahana, the Dayavlra, 
is thus not different from Jimutavahana, the Santa. 

Further, even without bringing in the Buddhist way 
of thinking, critics like Anandavardhana establish that 
Jimutavahana, in spite of his great enthusiasm, is only a 
Santa and not a Vira. They contend that the essence of 
Santa is complete negation of 'egoism' while the Vira is 


essentially 'egoistic.' Jlmutavahana's enthusiasm is of a 
peculiar kind. It is free from "egoism" because all his 
actions are utterly selfless. His enthusiasm free from 'ego- 
ism' is not opposed to Santa but it nourishes it. Jimuta- 
vahana is thus a Santa par excellence. 

Lastly opinions that Santa cannot be a Rasa in poetry 
and drama have no place as many works like the Nagananda 
have Santa not only as one of the Rasas delineated in them 
but have it as the dominant Rasa. From the Nagananda and 
similar works critics have established that like Srngara and 
Vira Santa also may be the main Rasa in poetry and drama. 

Jlmutavahana's is a life consecrated to service for 
others. As if to remind us of old world heroes the illustri- 
ous Founder of this University, Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar, has striven hard and saved well in order to serve 
nobly. He has been an example of service and sacrifice. 
If Jimutavahana gave away the Kalpaka tree, the Rajah 
has planted a tree of Knowledge and given South India a 
temple of Learning so that all irrespective of caste or creed 
might enjoy the fruits thereof. In the service of his coun- 
try and his countrymen the Rajah has established choultries 
to feed the poor, provided filtered water to ward off disease, 
built hospitals to restore those stricken with disease to 
health and happiness and renovated and con- 
structed temples to lift them to God. Above all he has 
helped generations of people to all kinds of education so that 
the thirsty might drink deep of the fountain of Learning, cast 
off mental as well as physical dirt and reach heaven by scal- 
ing the heights of Knowledge. May he live long to pro- 
mote the ancient culture of this land and continue to sup- 
port in an ever increasing measure all Samskrt studies in 
this part of the country ! 



Maharaja's College, Ernakulam 

Every genuine drama is intended to be staged and the 
true dramatist conveys his appeal through a double medium, 
the ear and the eye. He is a complete master so far as the 
former is concerned; but as regards the latter, the nature 
and equipment of the theatre and its varied accessories no 
less than the artistic skill of the artistes constitute very 
serious limitations on the work of the dramatist. Hence 
every true artist will certainly take stock of the varied 
Visual aids he can command, when he conceives and perfects 
his work of art. The appreciation of a drama cannot have 
any pretence to completeness, unless and until one knows 
also the nature of the stage and its equipment where the 
drama is to be presented. This aspect of the study of the 
drama it seems, has been completely forgotten and with it 
we have also forgotten our theatrical traditions, even if we 
had any. The question therefore deserves to be asked: had 
we any such tradition? The answer to this question is defi- 
nitely in the affirmative. On the theoritical side we have in 
the first place the valuable work of Bharata, called the 
Natya-astra and in the second place the numerous stage 
directions, found scattered about in the extant Samskrit 
plays, though unfortunately no serious attention seems to 
have been paid to them in interpreting dramas. On the prac- 
tical side we have the peculiar mode of acting; Samskrit dra- 
mas which is current in Kerala even to-day. These necessarily 


would show that we perfected a stage technique long long 
ago, though we did not care to keep up the stage tradition 
living, except in Kerala. The subject, then, is very import- 
ant and it has a practical bearing in that it helps us to appre- 
ciate our national heritage of dramatic literature better; but 
it is at the same time not an easy one to deal with. A full 
and detailed exposition of the subject requires an intensive 
study of the following: (i) The Ndtya Sastra of Bharata; 
(ii) the chapters dealing with Natyagrhas, in the various 
Silpa-sastras; (iii) a stud;/ of the existing Ndtyagrhas, 
particularly those in Kerala figuring as an adjunct to our 
temples (iv) the reconstruction of the stage and the theatre 
from the stage directions available in the older dramas; and 
(v) the study of the acting, as it now obtains in Kerala. 
It is proposed to make an attempt in the following pages 
to set forth the information that we get from the Ndtya 
Sdstra, so far as our theatres are concerned. 

According to Bharata, the theatre may be rectangular 
or square or triangular in shape. We could easily 
conceive of the former two types of theatres, 
but not the third type. The triangular theatre 
must have been very rare and that is also the im- 
pression that we get from Bharata. Following the usual 
practice of Samskrit writers, these three types are again 
classified under three heads of Uttama, Madhyama and 
Adhama, as well as Jyestha, Kanistha and Avara. The size 
of the theatre may vary widely: there are two units of mea- 
surement laid down for Ndtyagrha, namely Hast a and Danda, 
and of these Hasta itself varies from 24 to 32 Angulas. This 
will give us some idea of the practical differences in the size 
of a theatre. It is laid down that a theatre may have one 
of the following measurements: 108 or 64 or 32 Hastas, the 
breadth being given only for the rectangular theatre which 



is half the length. For the square theatre there is no need 
to give the breadth and from the description of the triangu- 
lar theatre it appears to be an equilateral triangle. From 
the measurements given it would be seen that the rect- 
angular theatre may be of three dimensions: 108 by 54 or 
64 by 32 or 32 by 16 Haslas or Dandas; the square theatre, 
108 or 64 or 32 Dandas or Hastas per side. The big- 
gest theatre will thus be the rectangular theatre of 108 Dan- 
das, and the smallest one will be the triangular theatre of 
32 Hastas. Hence from the point of view of size we have 
six kinds of theatres and from the point of shape, three types 
or in all we may have eighteen types of theatres. Of these 
eighteen kinds, Bharata lays down for human beings the 
rectangular theatre of the medium size, that is the theatre 
having the measurements 64 by 32 Hastas, or the square or 
triangular theatre of 32 cubits, while the theatre of major 
measurements is reserved for Gods. And in fixing up the 
medium theatre for human beings, he is guided by practical 
considerations. For, when the theatre is very long, the 
effect of intonation will be lost upon the audience at the 
extremity, which, indeed, play a great part in representa- 
tions. Similarly, when the theatre is very small, words, 
when spoken loudly, would be reverberated and echoed. As 
regards facial expression also there is defect: when the 
theatre is very big, it is not properly caught by the audience, 
and, when too small, the effect is lost. Thus Bharata's pre- 
ference of the medium type of theatre is perfectly normal 
and natural. 

All the parts of the theatre with which we are now 
familiar are found mentioned by Bharata also: we have the 
green-room, the stage and the auditorium, the size and dis- 
position of which change according as the shape and size of 
the theatre differ. 


The green-room is locateu in ihe nindermost extremity 
oi the theatre, as ii is even now; ana it is separated irom toe 
auditorium by the stage, and has no direct entrance irom 
that. In the rectangular theatre of 64 Haslas, the green 
room will be 16 by 32 Haslas according to one school, or & 
by 32 according to anothei school (See Pi. I Fig. i) . That 
is to say the breadth of stage will be 1|8 or 1|4 of the whole 
length of the theatre. The latter seems the more authentic 
of the two opinions, for the Samskrit dramas have generally 
a large number of characters taking part therein and second- 
ly only a few characters are on the stage at the same time; 
and, therefore, unless the green room is pretty big, it must 
necessarily be very crowded. Again, the practical conven- 
tion, obtaining in these parts, indicates the same thing. For, 
the green room itself has to be partitioned into two, one for 
ladies and the other for men; otherwise they have to be 
promiscuous in the same place, which is not consistent with 
our sense of decency, irom the green room there are to 
be two entrances into stage, and between the two entrances 
there will be the wooden panel, composed of two horizontal 
wooden pieces and four vertical ones, as Abhinavagupta- 
padacarya would have it. This wooden panelling is called 
by the term Sad-daruka (See PL I Fig. ii) and in actual 
practice it corresponds to the pre-scenium of the Grecian 
theatre. The Sad-daruka forms the ornamental background 
against which the actors act. In the square theatre (see PL 
II Fig. i) the green-room has one-fourth the length of the 
theatre as its breadth: that is, its size will be 8 by 32 Hastas. 
and as before it occupies the hinder-most part of the struc- 
ture. As before here also, there is the Sad-daruka. The 
shape of the green room in the triangular theatre does not 
appear to be clear. Apparently it must be of the shape 
either of a triangle or a trapeze (See PL II Fig. iii) . If it 


be the former, its size will be 16 Hastas a side and will be 
an equilateral triangle. From the point of view of the refer- 
ence to doorways, it seems that the stage must be located 
right in the centre of the triangle as in the case of the square 
theatre, thereby creating an irregular rectangular green 
room behind at the base of the triangle 

The stage is the most important part of the theatre, 
and about this fuller details are available, thought it cannot 
be said to be complete or very clear. The stage is found 
divided into two sections, the front called the Rangapitha 
and the back, called Ranga-sirsa. 

The Rangasirsa in the rectangular theatre lies between 
the green room and the Rangapitha (See Plate I, Fig. i). 
Regarding its size, there are two opinions. According to 
one commentator, it will be as big as the Rangapitha itself 
and the two together will be as big as the green room. 
According to the other school, it will be half the size of the 
green room and these two together will be as big as the 
Rangapitha. Thus based upon this difference, the Rangasirsa 
of a rectangular theatre will be either 8 by 32 or 16 by 32 
Hastas. Whatever its size, the Rangasirsa stands between 
the green-room and the Rangapitha, and it serves as the 
ante-chamber for the green room and the back room for the 
stage. Though the actual function of the Rangasirsa is not 
very clear, it appears evidently to be the space where the 
actors in costume can await their time of appearance 
and from where the actors could be prompted. In 
other words, this part of the stage area gives 
the actors some space for taking rest, prevents 
them from being exposed to the audience on their 
arrival on the stage and serves to beautify the stage, for it is 
flanked in front by the elevated Rangapitha with its wings, 


called Mattavarini, (See Plate I, Fig. i). Hence one may 
assume that one has to descend from the Rangapltha to the 
Rangasirsa, which latter seems to be on a level with the 
green-room. From the point of view of the audience, the 
most prominent feature of the Rangasirsa will be the Sad- 
ddruka which stands right in the centre and from the point 
of view of the actors it serves as the tiring room. 

The Rangasirsa in the rectangular theatre (See Plate II, 
Fig. i) differs from the same in the square theatre, in that 
while it is co-extensive with the green room and the stage in 
the former both in front and back, it is co-extensive with the 
green room only in the latter but not with stage, if we 
may accept the interpretation of the commentator. This 
supports our interpretation to some extent regarding the 
purpose of the same. It may be pointed out that the 
Rangasirsa becomes a useless thing in the square theatre, 
unless its purpose is as we have made it out. Here also it 
is said there must be the Sad-daruka. It will be noticed 
that, while in the rectangular theatre the Rangasirsa is co-ex- 
tensive with the green room, it is not so in the square theatre 
(See Plate II Fig. i). Here arises an interesting question 
as to how to screen off the sides beyond the stage proper. If 
it is not screened off, this could be of no use to the actors con- 
cerned, as we have explained it, and if it is to be screened, 
how is it to be done and with what material? Are we to locate 
here the Mattavarini which in the rectangular theatre is co- 
extensive with the front line of the stage, but here with the 
back line? It may possibly be that the numerous pillars 
mentioned in the course of Bharata's text might serve as the 
Mattavarini: but presumably the subject is not clear. 
Coming to the triangular theatre, we have no information 
regarding the Rangasirsa. As a matter of fact, Bharata does 
not speak of any Rangasirsa for this kind of theatre. 


From what has been said it will be clear that the Ranga 
consists of two portions, the front portion, called the 
Rangapitha and the back portion called the Rangasirsa which, 
so far as we now could make out, serves the purpose of a 
tiring room for the actors in costume. 

The Rangapitha or the stage proper is the most import- 
ant part of the theatre. At the back of the stage the audi- 
ence sees the ornamented Sad-daruka and on either side the 
Mattavarinis the ceiling of the stage being held up by beauti- 
fully wrought pillars, adorned with all the skill cf the 
sculptor and the painter. We also learn from the descrip- 
tion that the stage is on a level different from that of the 
green room on the one side and the auditorium on the other. 
The Rangapitha in the rectangular theatre (See Plate I, 
Fig. i) stands between the Rangasirsa and the auditorium 
and extends throughout the whole breadth of the struc- 
ture, thirty-two Hastas long and eight Hastes broad. At 
either extremity of the same are the Mattavarinis, (See 
Plate I, Fig. i) which are adorned with four pillars, eight 
Hastas square and one and a half Hastas high. To the height 
of the Mattavarini must the stage be raised; and this raised 
space, or the front of the stage, is to be constructed of wood 
or burnt brick and adorned with dovecots, altars with rail 
patterns, floral designs etc: in other words, this forms an 
ornamented foot-board. It will thus be clear that the 
Rangapitha will be one and half cubits higher than the floor 
level. The question now is this: whether the Rangasirsa is 
to have the same level with the Rangapitha or with the 
green room. We have already explained that ii ought to be 
on a level with the green-room, so that it might be used also 
as a tiring room for the actors. There are of course differ- 
ences in views on this subject, noticed bv the comir^?tor, 
but unfortunately the text is hot clear. However the text 


makes one thing very clear: that the actors' part of the 
theatre must be of two levels and that the green-room must 
be of a lower level: it is described as Sailaguhdkdra. 

The disposition of thf> siage in the square theatre (See 
Plate II, Fig. i) is strikingly dui'erent. The stage is compos- 
ed of the four square bits in the centre when the whole floor 
area of the theatre is divided into sixty-four equal parts; and 
when this marked out we get a plot of ground, twelve by 
thirty-two Hastas. Behind this and in continuation thereof 
there is the Rangasirsa (See Plate 11, Fig. i) measuring four 
by Uiiiiy-iwo Hastas and still behind is the green-room 
adornea with the Sad-daruka and measuring eight by thirty 
two hasias. It will be seen thus that the Rangapltha stands 
right in the centre in the square theatre, (See Plate II, 
Fig. ii). As regards the triangular theatre, the directions 
are still meagre. The text lays down that the Ranga- 
pitha must be located in the centre and that it must also be 
a triangle (See Plate II, Fig. iii). This suggests that the 
green room of the shape of a trapeze will be located at the 
base of the triangle and from the inner side of the trapeze 
will jut oat the stage of the shape of a triangle. As before, 
here also there might be two entrances into the green room, 
the interspace being flanked by the usual Sad-ddruka, cor- 
responding to the praescenium of the Grecian theatre. 

The auditorium takes half of the rectangular theatre, 
(See Plate I; Fig. i.) the other half being utilised for the 
green room and the stage. Reference is also found made to 
the different levels in this half, the stage being one and half 
Hastas higher than the green room. Here, then, the green 
room and the auditorium will be on the same level, the stage 
being on a higher level. The elevated nature of the stage 
thus enables the audience to see clearly what happens on 



the stage. In the square theatre on the other hand, the 
area set apart for the audience is slightly over a third of the 
whole structure, the area of the same being twelve Hastas 
by thirty-two, (See Plate II, Fig. i). To make up for the 
lesser seating space in this kind of theatre, provision is 
made ior gallery arrangement, (See Plate 11, Fig. i) each 
tier rising by a cubit and a half, (See Plate II, Fig. iv) the 
gallery itself being built of bricks and wood. This is a 
particularly interesting feature, in as much as here have we 
the earliest reference to a galleried seating arrangement. In 
the triangular theatre, there is no speciiic mention of the 
auditorium. There is certainly no gallery arrangement for 
seating; but it is worth while to mention the fact that unless 
some such arrangement is available the seating capacity will 
be very little. iNow comparing the rectangular theatre and 
the square theatre as regards the disposition of the stage and 
the auditorium, it will be found that while the stage is higher 
than the auditorium in the former, the auditorium is higher 
than the stage in the latter. This, then, is a unique point of 

The stage, as has been described, has clearly four divi- 
sions: the green room, the back stage, the front stage, and 
the auditorium. We have also seen that there are two 
speciiic features on the stage namely the Sad-daruka and the 
Mattavarinis, the former figuring as the ornamental back- 
ground for the stage and the latter figuring as the ornate 
sides of the stage. We also learn from the text that the stage 
has its own roof and the stage area is adorned by a number 
of graceful pillars. There is, however, given no direction 
which would show that the auditorium had any roofing 
or that it had any enclosure. One is inclined to think that 
there was none: otherwise there would certainly have been 
some reference to side doors from the green room. In these 




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features our theatre bears some resemblances to the 
Grecian and Roman theatres, which we may now notice 

The arrangement of the Athenian stage is very simple: 
it consisted of a round orchestra, and a low rectangular 
skene with a projecting Paraskenia and a low platform stage. 
Between the skene and the auditorium lies what is termed 
the Prosckenium which is understood as the back wall of the 
stage in front of which the actors act or as pillars in front of 
the stage between the actors and the audience or as the 
stage. In these respects this agrees with our theatre, parti- 
cularly in our having the Mattavdrini and the Sad-daruka. 
In early days the skene alone formed the stage, the audi- 
torium not forming part of the theatre: the two were dis- 
tinct parts. But, when the Romans borrowed the same, 
the two were connected together, the paradoi the passage 
being closed by what is termed Vomitoria. In the Roman 
theatre we find a roof over the stage which became an orna- 
mental one when the whole structure including the audi- 
torium came to have roof. In this respect also this agrees 
with our theatre. Thus when we compare our theatres 
with the Grecian and Roman theatres, there is something 
which is common ; and the resemblances become striking 
when it is further pointed out that we do not know the exact 
function of the Mattavarmi and the practical basis of the 
differentiation between the Rangaslrsa and the Rdngapltha. 

Bharata's text also emphasises that the structure must 
be adorned with sculptures and paintings. Ample provision 
is found made for music, both instrumental and vocal, (see 
Plate I, Fig. i, for the seating of musicians) . The structure 
must again be accoustically perfect and must have excellent 
ventilation. It will thus be seen that when Bharata lays 


down the nature of the ancient Hindu stage, he does so with 
a practical eye into the details an aspect that is proved by 
the discovery of a pre-Christian cave at Ramgarh, (See 
Plate I, Fig. iii) carrying an inscription which has been 
rendered by Prof. Jules Block thus: 

Poets venerable by nature kindle the hearts, who. . . . 
At the spring festival of the vernal full moon, 
When frolics and music abound, people 
Thus(?) tie around their neck garlands 
Thick with jasmine flowers. 

(ARA. 1903-4). 



We often claim as original many ideas and practices 
which were known to our ancestors. Those who study the 
economic thought in the nations of antiquity are often struck 
by its 'modernism*. A sympathetic study of the ideas and 
practices of the ancients is necessary for intelligent and 
sound progress. The religious books of ancient India the 
Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Smritis, the Puranas and 
specific treatises like the Arthasastra of Kautilya are replete 
with information bearing on many a modern economic con- 
troversy. Economic thought of ancient India, in terms of 
modern economic science is badly needed as a service to 
human knowledge in general and as a step towards a pro- 
per understanding of the indigenous problems. It will be 
of course, unscientific to try to reconstruct a full fledged 
economic science out of material supplied by past experi- 
ence and ideas. But nobody can deny that for the study 
of specific economic problems like collectivism, currency 
regulation, Social Policy and Finance, we may refer with 
advantage to past experience. 

The Hindus have always taken a less materialistic view 
of life which has, therefore, retarded their industrial pro- 
gress to a large extent. Moral or religious codes have 
usually played a greater part in shaping their thought and 
outloook. Oriental economic ideas, it is interesting to note, 
were developed at a time when the civilizaion of the West 
was in its infancy. The economic concepts of the Hindus 


are the ideas of an ancient civilization based upon an agricul- 
tural economy and they were drawn from the writings of 
priestly law-givers. The lives of the people were largely 
determined by these writings, and these writings have come 
down to us exerting a powerful influence even on our time. 
A study of Hindu economic ideas and practices is therefore 

The central idea of Hindu Government and education 
was the fulfilment of the law. Such a situation meant a 
minute regulation of everyday life and it follows that the 
material for this study is mostly drawn from rules of conduct 
or laws. A study of those regulations of the Hindus which 
are significant as indicating the character of their economic 
thought shows that the following subjects were the most 
important. Agriculture, occupations, interest and usury, 
labour and wages, property taxation, inheritance, weights 
and measures, adulteration, monopoly and the poor. 

Among the most striking regulations of the Brahmanic 
law were those concerning interest and usury. Money lend- 
ing by the higher castes was closely restricted. Brahmins 
and Kshatriyas could not lend at interest. In case of loans 
made without security, the following terms were legal; for 
gold, double value, i.e., 100 per cent; for grain treble the 
original price; anything sold by weight might be sold at 
eight times the original value. Various kinds of interest 
payments were distinguished; there might be compound, 
periodical stipulated, corporal and use of pledge corporal 
interest bein<5 that paid in labour, use of pledge referring to 
cases in which the lender made use of some security like 
cows, for example. Thus the fact is apparent that among 
the ancient Hindus, interest was closely connected with some 
concept of a just price. At the death of the king or the jubilee 


year interest should cease, a tabula rasa when debtor and 
creditor should be equalised. 

Among the ancient Hindus, there were careful regula- 
tions against false weights and measures and against adult- 
ration. Provisions against speculation and monopoly were 
even more stringent. Competitive markets were practically 
impossible, and so we see even to this day that there is no 
one price in the Oriental shop, and so these minute regula- 
tions about weights and measures were necessary lest the 
consumers should be exploited. According to the Insti- 
tutes of Vishnu, the King was to keep the whole produce of 
mines. By Brahmanic law, a hired workman who abandon- 
ed his work before the term had expired, was to pay the 
whole amount of stipulated wages to his employer and a 
fine to the king. On the other hand, if an employer dismiss- 
ed a workman whom he had hired before the expiration of 
the term agreed upon, he must pay the full amount of the 
wages stipulated and a fine to the king, unless the workman 
was to blame. 

As regards the economic significance of the caste system, 
it was, as an Italian economist puts it, 'division of labour 
gone to seed/ It stood for rigidity of society and for perma- 
nent inquality among social classes an attitude which 
(means a point of view in economic thought. The four 
castes had specific functions in society. That some elasti- 
city was possible in the social system of the ancient Hindus 
appears from the fact that in the time of distress each caste 
might follow the occupation of one below it. In general, 
however, the most severe separateness was to be maintain- 
ed. In the earlier stages of national development, the 
principles underlying the structure of the Greeks and the 
Romans were the same as those of the Hindus. In India, 


however the distinctions became rigid and stereotyped; in 
Europe society was soon able to throw of? the shackles. 

The growth of the caste system, the organisation of 
rural India on the basis of village communities, and the 
fatalistic outlook on life of the Indian cultivator reflect the 
strong influence of Geographical environment, past and 

The insistence of the Holy Books of Hinduism upon 
the sacredness of the cow can be traced back to the time 
when the economic feature of the early Aryan pastoralists 
of India's savannahs was bound up with the preservation 
of their cattle. Although with the rise of cultivation, this 
early necessity has long since vanished, so tenacious is tra- 
dition that the whole creed of cow worship with its elabo- 
rate ritual and legend still persists. A religion which once 
aimed at promoting the survival and betterment of its 
devotees, now under changed conditions hinders the material 
progress of India's agriculturists. Owing to religious scruples 
concerning breeding, control and slaughtering, stock-raising 
on modern scientific lines for milk, beef or even for hides and 
tallow is almost unpractised. In India there are more than 
twice the number of cattle in the U.S.A. and yet except 
for erratic and meagre supplies of milk, they are of no use 
as a source of food. As draught animals, their value has 
been depreciated by centuries of uncontrolled breeding and 
lack of care and attention, and when dead either through age 
or disease, their hides are small and inferior in quality. 
Allowed to wander at will, they are a nuisance to the far- 
mer and his crops. 

Economics, Geography and Religion are much more 
closely connected than we usually suppose. In India where 



everything is done on a superlative scale, religion has for 
thousands of years dominated man's mind so completely and 
absolutely that it has become an integral part of everything 
the Hindu says and thinks and does and eats. In other coun- 
tries, too, religion has often interfered with the normal deve- 
lopment of life but not to the extent we find in India. The 
priestly caste of the Brahmans was the first to live upon the 
products of other people's labour, whether bestowed as 
voluntary gifts or sacrifices to the gods. His was a perilous 
life. For the reverence and sanctity accorded to him as 
representative of the god was easily upset. In a very real 
sense, his income was 'payment by results'. He must deliver 
the goods, produce rain or fair weather when needed, for 
the crops, stop pestilences and other troubles. Something 
could be done by skilled prophecy, e.g., he could 'produce' 
rain when rain was coming and perform effective rites of 
fertilisation in spring time. But any calamitous failure 
was taken to prove incapacity or malice. Even to-day the 
ordinary Hindu agriculturist recognises his dependence 
upon the natural resources and the fecundity of 
Nature for his successful livelihood. It is not too much 
to say that this fecundity of nature was the first consi- 
deration in the great religions of the world, whether of 
Ra, Zeus, Ammon, Mithra or some other sun-god or some 
female deity of fertility, such as cybele or ceres or Shakti. 
All the chief Hindu festivals relate to points in the sun's 
progress during the year and this sun-worship cannot be 
detached from the worshipful regard to the generative pro- 
cesses in the vegetable and animal world. Earth has been 
regarded by the Hindu as the mother-element, and the idea 
of the mother-goddess has prevailed in India from ancient 
times. The modern current slogan 'Bharat Matha Ki Jai' 
points to the persistence of this belief. 


The account given in the Golden Bough of the worship 
of Adonis indicates how far the older magic had survived 
in the early religions of the East. The "Gardens of Adonis" 
were "baskets or pots filled with earth, in which wheat, 
barley, lettuces, fennel and various kinds of flowers were 
sown and tended for eight days chiefly or exclusively by 
women. Fostered by the sun's heat, the plants shot up 
rapidly, but having no root, they withered as rapidly away 
and at the end of eight days were carried out with the images 
of the dead Adonis and flung with them into the sea or into 
springs. The rapid growth of the wheat and barley in the 
gardens of Adonis was intended to make the corn shoot up; 
and the throwing of the gardens and the images into the 
water was a charm to secure a due supply of fertilising rain. 
In India this custom still survives and is observed methodi- 
cally all over South India soon after the harvests. Thus 
we find a reciprocity of services between God and Mammon 
religion and industry. The gods gave protection against 
enemies in war, promoted vegetation and animal fertility and 
gave luck' in agriculture. In return the people got treasures 
for their temples, food and other necessaries and comforts 
for themselves. In India a large increasing part of such 
treasures as did not rust or decay came to be deposited 
in the temples. The wealth and leisure thus secured to the 
temples and the priestly castes stimulated among them the 
beginnings of culture in literature, science and the fine arts 
of music, sculpture, architecture, painting, dancing, etc. thus 
laying the foundations of many of the higher crafts and indus- 
tries that spread in secular life. 




Atreya Ramanuja, popularly known as Appullar, was 
the spiritual guru and the maternal uncle of Vedanta 
Desika, the renowned scholar and outstanding exponent of 
Vi6istadvaita Philosophy. In the line of Sir! Vaisnava 
Acaryas commencing from Bhagavan Ramanuja, the author 
of Sri Bhasya, Atreya Ramanuja was the fifth. His pre- 
decessors in that office were his own father, grand-father and 
great-grand-fcthcr. Thus Atreya Ramanuja and his lineal 
ancestors enjoyed the proud privilege of being the accredit- 
ed exponents of Visistadvaitic thought to the four succes- 
sive generations that followed Bhagavad Ramanuja. Some 
of the most eminent thinkers and men of letters of later days 
were also scions of this illustrious stock. The celebrated 
Gopala DeSika of Kumbakonam and the poet Venkatadh- 
varin may be cited as examples. 

The materials for writing the biography of Atreya 
Ramanuja are disappointingly scanty. It is, however, learnt 
on reliable authority that he was born at Conjivaram in the 
year 1220 A.D. (in the month of citra of the year Vikrama) . 
At the close of each chapter of Nydyakulisa he refers to him- 
self as the son of Padmanabharya. His father must also have 
been known as Rangaraja, as is evident from the traditional 
account. 1 

1. Caitrardrasambhavam kancyam Rangarajagurossutam | 
Suprati^thamsamatreyam Bamanujagurumbhaje 1 1 


His great-grand-father, Pranatartiharacarya (also called 
Kadambi Accan), a nephew of the celebrated Bhasyakara 
was his most trusted and loyal disciple. He was an able 
exponent of Visistadvaita Philosophy. So great were 
Pranatartiharacarya' s scholarship and his powers of argu- 
ment and exposition that he was named Veddntodayana (the 
Udayana of Vedantic thought). 

Along with Sudarsana Bhatta, whose Sruta-Prakasika 
(a commentary on the Srl-Bhdsya) , Tdtparya-Dlpikd (a 
gloss on the Veddrtha-Samgraha) , and Suka-Pakslya are 
remarkble for their learning and polemic ability, Atreya 
Ramanuja studied the Srl-Bhdsya and other vedantic works 
under the eminent Vatsya-Varadaguru. From his own 
father, Atreya Ramanuja learnt the inner significance oi the 
mantras held sacred by the Vaisnavites. He was a bold and 
original thinker. In recognition of his extraordinary skill in 
dialectics, the title * Vadi-Hamsambuvaha ' was conferred 
upon him. 

Tradition, as preserved by his descendants, speaks of 
him as che author of three books, of which Nydyakulisa 
alone is now available, the others having been irretrievably 
lost. It is a matter for great regret that even the names 
of these books have been forgotten. In his Tdtparya- 
Candrikd, the famous gloss on Ramanuja's Gltabhdsya, 
Vedanta Desika quotes in the course of his comments on 
verses 14 and 15 chapter XVIII, Acarya Vadihamsambu- 
vaha as saying : 

Vaisamye sati karmanamavisamah kim nama kuryat 
Kimvodarataya dadita Varado vaiichanti cet durgatim. 

Evidently this is a quotation from one of the missing 
books. Judging from this fragment, one is led to believe 


that the work from which this has been extracted was, in all 
probability, a religious lyric, (stotra) in praise of the Lord. 

Vadi-hamsambuvaha was fortunate in his pupil. His 
nephew and disciple, Vedanta Desika again and again speaks 
of his own extraordinary good luck in having had such a 
preceptor and expresses his deep sense of gratitude for what 
his guru had done for him. In one place, he says that his 
guru trained him as the trainer of birds would train a par- 
rot. 2 In another context in the same work, he owns that in 
his writings he is merely giving outward expression to 
what his Acarya had inscribed in his mind. 3 Even when 
due allowance is made for Vedanta Desika's self-effacing 
modesty, the fact still remains that he owes much to 
Atreya Ramanuja. Readers of Rahasyatraya-Sara will 
remember that its author refers to a great knack that 
his uncle and guru had of expressing highly abstract 
thoughts in an exceedingly simple manner with the aid of 
homely similes that enabled the listener to go straight to the 
heart of the matter. To explain the mystic significance of 
the pranava he would ask his pupils to remember the oft- 
quoted verse from the Ramayana: 

" Agratah pray ay au Ramassita madhye sumadhyama j 
Prsthatastu dhanuspanih Laksmanonujagama ha"|| 
First went forth Rama; Sita with her delicate waist, in 
the middle; Laksmana, bow in hand, brought up the rear. 


(Rahasyatrayasara) . 

3. QeveirVefru uifiQp&ir GpffajririL SffSfr^u^.Q\un 
w. (Rahasyatrayasara)^ 


The three letters of the Pranava, respectively stand for 
the Lord, His consort, and the individual soul. 4 

The author of the Gitd declares that he who shrinks 
away from God thinking that He, by His infinite perfections, 
is far above finite souls is the worst of men (naradhama). 
Atreya* Ramanuja was likewise convinced that we should 
approach the Lord in the spirit of the gopis of old who enter- 
tained no doubts about His accessibility. He used to express 
his agreement with the passage in the Gita which condemns 
faint heartedness on the part of the devotee. 5 

Nyayakulisa (the Thunder-Bolt of Reason) is a stan- 
dard work on Visistadvaita Vedanta. It is frequently refer- 
red to, and cited as an authority, by Vedanta Desika in his 
Niiaya-Siddhanjana, Nydya-Parisuddhi, Tattva-mukta- 
ka!a,pa and other works. It is written in stiff prose inter- 
snersed with karikas used whenever sententious summaries 
or pointed exposition are needed. In each of the thirteen 
sections into which the book is divided, the author tackles a 
definite philosophical problem and establishes the stand- 
point of ViSistadvaita after refuting the views of the rival 
philosophical systems. II is highly polemical and shows 
the author's mastery over the entire range of Indian 
thought. A perfect master of the art of controversy, his lo<nc 
is invincible, a veritable thunderbolt (kulisa) to his philo- 





sophical opponents. A brief indication of the topics dis- 
cussed may be given. 

From the point of view of Vedanta the most important 
problem is perhaps the question whether the Upanisadic 
texts which speak of what exists as a fact (siddhdrtha) , 
Brahman or Atman, are authoritative or not. If, as the 
Prabhakara school of Mimamsa maintains, something to be 
done (kdrya) is the ultimate significance of every proposi- 
tion, the Veda must have such a thing (/cdrya) or an action 
for its final import. The entire body of the Upanisadic 
texts dealing with Brahmam or Atmam would lose all valid- 
it^, and the ground would be cut from under the feet of the 
Verlantin. Hence, the first chapter addresses itself to the 
task of refuting the Prabhakara view. 

To prove that the Vedas are in their very nature 
(svatah) valid, the author, in the manner of the Bhdtta 
Mimamsakas, seeks to establish m the second chapter the 
doctrine known as svatah-prdmdnya-vdda (the self validity 
of knowledge). In demonstrating this position the main 
controversy is with the Naiyayikas who are advocates of 
paratah-prdmdnya-vdda (the theory of validity from out- 
side) . 

In the third chapter, Ramanuja repudiates the Prabha- 
kara and the Advaitic accounts of error, known respectively 
as akhydti and anirvacamya-khydti, and maintains yathdr- 
tha-khydti, a doctrine peculiar to the Visistadvaitin. Accord- 
ing to this view all judgments reveal only what exists (sat). 

Vadi-hamsambuvaha establishes, in the fourth chapter, 
the thesis that jndna is self -luminous (svayam- 
prakasa). The ground is prepared for this doc- 
trine by the refutation of the views of Kumarila 
Bhatta, Murari Misra and the Naiyayikas in regard 
to this matter. Jndna is like the lamp which dis- 


pels darkness and reveals objects and does not require for 
its own manifestation another lamp. By its conjunction with 
objects, jndna reveals objects; but, in regard to its own mani- 
festation, jndna does not depend upon another jndna. 

Unless the view that God is inferred (dnumdnika) is 
abandoned the scriptures would lose their validity. If god 
is known through inference, then, on the well-known princi- 
ple that the astras are valid only with regard to matters 
lying beyond the scope of the other pramanas (Aprdpte 
sdstram arthavat) , in respect of God, the scriptures would 
become futile. To establish their prime usefulness Atreya 
Ramanuja refutes the Nyaya theory that God is anumanika. 

Next he shows that the soul is an entity different from 
the body, senses, mind (manas) , vital breath (prdna) and 
intellect (buddhi), that it is distinct from every other soul, 
that it is an agent (/cartd), that it is a knower and the 
object of self -consciousness (aham-pratyaya) . As a 
preliminary to the establishment of this thesis, he sub- 
jects the Carvaka and the Advaitic conceptions of the soul 
to a rigorous examination. 

For a proper understanding of Vedantic passages, such 
as, "Satyam, Jnanam anantam Brahma," it is essential that 
the true nature of sdmdnddhikaranya (the grammatical co- 
ordination of words in a sentence) must be grasped at the 
very outset. Consequently the author takes up for consi- 
deration the definition of sdmdnddhikaranya furnished by 
the grammarians, examines the interpretations put on it by 
the Bhedabhedavadins and Advaitins, and in the end esta- 
blishes what he considers the correct interpretation. Sdmd- 
nddhikaranya is defined by the grammarians as follows: 
Words having different pravrtti-nimitta (reasons of applica- 
tion or significations), but referring to an identical object 



(i.e. words having connotational difference and denotational 
identity) may be said to stand in the relation of sdmdnddhi- 
karanya. Different words may stand in the relation of co- 
ordination, if there are different reasons for their application 
and if they refer to one and the same object. The first part 
of this definition aims at showing that there can be no co- 
ordination between synonyms like 'pot' and 'jar'; because the 
reason for applying the term 'pot' to an object is not differ- 
ent from that prompting the use of the word 'jar'. The 
second part serves to point out that there can be no co-ordi- 
nation between words referring to wholly different objects, 
e.g., pot and cloth. It rules out such meaningless co-ordina- 
tion as 'the pot is cloth/ 

The problem of causality which has evoked very keen 
controversy is next tackled. The Nyaya-vaisesika view of 
causality known as asat-karya-vada (the view that the effect 
has no existence before it is brought into being, but orgi- 
nates afresh) is subjected to a penetrating criticism and 
sat-karya-vada (the doctrine that the effect pre-exists in its 
cause in a latent form) established. The upanisadic text 
declares that by knowing one thing everything becomes 
known; and in illustration of this it cites the case of clay and 
says that by understanding it all objects made out of clay, 
such as jars and cups, are understood. Clearly, the idea 
conveyed here is that when the material cause is known its 
manifold effects are thereby known. And this would be 
impossible if the cause and the effect were totally different. 

The question of the precise nature of samdnya (uni- 
versal) has long been the battleground of philosophers. 
The Nyaya-Vaisesika elevates jdti to the rank of a distinct 
principle. On this view, jdti is the generic property per- 
ceptible equally in all the particulars (vyakti) of a class. 
It is eternal, unitary, ubiquitous (anekdnugatam) and 


directly apprehended. It is not a mere product of the 
imagination as the Buddhists contend, but a factor of 
reality existing out there in the objective world. 

The tenth chapter takes up the question whether sakti 
(potentiality) should be recognised as a distinct category 
or not, and answers it in the affirmative after refuting the 
Nyaya-vaisesika arguments in favour of the opposite view. 
In this regard, the Vsistadvaitin is at one with the Bhattas 
and the Prabhakaras. 

In this chapter the Nyaya conception of abhdva (non- 
existence, negation) is criticised and the view that abhdva 
is not distinct from, but is merely a variety of, bhdva (exis- 
tence, affirmation) is upheld. Prdghabhdva (anterior non- 
existence) is only another name for the unending series of 
previous states; dhvamsdbhdva (subsequent nonexistence) 
is the name for the unending series of subsequent states. 
If this theory is borne in mind, the scriptural passage "In 
the beginning this was non-existent (asat)" could be 
assigned its primary meaning. 

The most prominent among the doctrines that differ- 
entiate Visistadvaita Vedanta from all other schools of 
Vedantic thought is its view that the entire cosmos compris- 
ing souls and matter constitutes the body (sarlra) of Brah- 
man. Jb'or understanding the exact significance of this 
description of the cosmos it is necessary to know what pre- 
cisely is meant by the term sarlra. In the Sri Bhdsya the 
body is defined as follows: 

"That substance which, in respect of the activities in 
which it can engage, is capable of being completely con- 
trolled and supported by, and which exists for the sake of, 
a conscious entity is the body of that conscious entity/' 


The twelfth chapter discusses the question whether 
this is a single definition or a collection of three definitions 
and concludes that it is a single definition; for each of the 
three definitions into which it is resolved is found to be de- 
fective in some respect or other. Adheyatva, vidheyatva 
and sesatva are all essential elements in the definition of the 
body. That this is so would follow from a careful study of 
the celebrated Antarydmi Brdhmana where the doctrine 
that the universe is the body of God is clearly formulated. 

Is it at all possible for the soul whose intrinsic nature is 
to be self-luminous (svaprakdsa) to be entangled in samsara? 
What is the conception of ultimate value? These are the two 
questions Vadi-hamsambuvaha raises in the last chapter. 



4 Race' is a magical word which means anything or noth- 
ing and which Hitler alone, as the supreme head of the 
much-advertised supreme race in the world, pretends to 
understand. The so-called Nordic race has got long skulls 
but so have many Negroes and the Ainos and the apes. For 
a long time past we have had too much emphasis on the 
physical basis of the concept of race. Generally the 
character of the hair and the skin, and the shape of the nose 
and the head and stature are emphasised. The famous 
nasal index is the relation of the breadth of the nose to its 
length. Long heads are called dolichocephalic and round 
heads are called brachycephalic. We are also told about 
the blood test and are informed that there are four different 
kinds of blood when tested by serums. The properties of 
these four kinds of blood are entirely unknown. Further 
serologists say that these tests do not enable us to determine 
race. Nor do we gain much from the colour gradations 
viz., white, yellow, brown, and black. Further, there is 
no really white, or yellow, or brown or black human being. 
G. B. Shaw says with his usual cynical wit that a really 
white man would be a horrible sight. What we have is a 
gradation of tint. 

This does not mean that there are no broad divergences 
of physical features. But they form a slippery basis for 
classification. The mystical belief in race based on such a 


physical basis alone is sure to lead us into error and un- 
proved and unprofitable assertions. We have every reason 
to stand aghast at the pompous and current myth of the 
Nordic race. But what shall we say of the endeavour of 
English thinkers to find the roots ot British greatness in a 
Germanic past, though to-day Britain and Germany are 
the bitterest foes engaged in a deadly death-grapple? 
Saxonism became almost a religion and the phrase kt Anglo- 
Saxon" received unparalleled and enormous propaganda. 
Even the battle of Hastings was rechristened as the battle of 
Senlac. Bishop Stubbs said in his lectures on Early English 
Hisiory "It is to Ancient Germany that we must look for the 
earliest traces of our forefathers, for the best part of almost 
all of us is originally German, though we call ourselves 
Britons, the name has only a geographical significance. The 
blood that is in our veins comes from German ancestors." 
What is the good of identity of blood when there is non- 
identity of heart? 

The search for racial traits has gone on not only in the 
realm of politics but also in the realm of art. The Germanic 
races were supposed to have a genius for democracy. And 
yet Germany herself is under the heels of a Dictator! Taine 
went so far as to say; "vice and virtue are products like 
sugar and vitriol/ ' This is surely eccentricity which has 
gone beyond limits. Once we get into the labyrinth of 
innate and inborn racial traits, there is no getting out at all. 
Granting that there are same broad divergences of physical 
characteristics among the major human groups, what can 
any one infer therefrom about mental and aesthetic and 
moral and spiritual characteristics being derived from such 
physical traits? How can you affirm any relation of cause 
and effect between them even if you are able to show any 
degree of co-existence? 


The race-enthusiasts have their counter-part in climate- 
enthusiasts. These pin their faith to latitudes and longi- 
tudes and altitudes. They explain, everything in terms of 
heat and cold. We have, in addition to such race-mystics 
and climate-mystics, a third brand of mystics the food- 
mystics. These are satirised in Samuel Butler's Hudibras 
in the famous lines: 

" Was ever Tartar fierce and cruel 
Upon the strength of water gruel ? 
But who can stand his fire and force 
When first he rides, then eats his horse ? " 

In addition to these mystics we have gland-mysticism. 
The thyroid and other glands seem to have taken the place 
of the goods of old. We must thus steer clear of all these 
discordant and dangerous types of selfish and materialistic 
mysticism. Religious mysticism leads to gentleness and 
peace and love but these mysticisms, and especially race- 
mysticism, lead to brutality and war and hate. 

In fact, theoretically speaking a race may be composed 
of many nations, and a nation may be composed of many 
races. The race concept is a museum-concept. It is 
not a live concept at all. But the nation-concept is a 
living concept. Sir Arthur Keith says well that several 
hundred years of a common history and a common way 
of life have often welded divergent races into one nation. 
We must get out of the clutches of a merely materialistic 
anthropology. We must not try to gauge the contents of 
brains by measuring the length or the breadth or the cir- 
cumference of the skull or talking learnedly about 
diameters of skulls or cephalic indexes. Warring groups of 
men have often been welded into a culturally homogeneous 
group by the iron-hand of Time. In such homogeneity 


cultural fusion is of greater importance than physical 

The concept of race is thus a mere modern superstition, 
Yet in its name, thousand? of Jews have been massacred or 
exiled or suppressed in Germany and elsewhere. In its 
name, the Nordic race is out to "civilise" the world and 
build universal peace on the basis of universal war! Ger- 
many is to-day a dreadful whirlpool of racialism and nation- 
alism and militarism. If one admires the German, he calls 
him Nordic ; if one hates him, he calls him a Hun ! 

I plead for a recognition and realisation of the mental 
and moral and spiritual elements as being far more import- 
ant and vital than the purely physical elements in the con- 
cept of race. I plead for the subordination of Kidtur to 
Culture. I plead for a self-manumission from the tyranny of 
the absolutist and occult and mystical ideas of race. The 
cultural pattern is of much greater importance than the 
physical pattern. Spinoza says well: "In regard to intellect 
and true virtue, every nation is on a par with the rest and 
God has not in these respects chosen one people rather than 
another." Why should we disturb the supposed deceased 
anthropoid ancestor of Homo Sapiens? Let us get on with 
ourselves as we are: 

" Act, act in the living present 
Let the dead Past bury its dead ". 

I deprecate also the modern tendency to exalt in the 
name of science the biological fusion of races. Even science 
declaims against free and unrestrained and promiscuous 
cross-fertilisation of races. The data in respect of this matter 
are so uncertain that different scientists draw different and 
diverse and even contradictory and mutually destructive 
inferences from the same data. The data themselves are 


often so doubtful and unverifiable and unreliable. Even if 
some of them are clear there are other hidden and unknown 
factors whose efficacy is unknown. Much more tangible and 
effective than the fusion of blood is the fusion of cultures. 
The basic culture, if it is strong, assimilates congruous ele- 
ments in other cultures with which it comes into contact 
and is invigorated and strengthened by such contacts. 

Let us thus clearly realise that the race-concept must 
be lifted from a Zoological concept to a cultural concept. 
The Zoological concept will lead to clashes and conflicts. 
The cultural concept will lead to contacts and connections. 
The former leads to such phrases as "the white man's 
burden", "the yellow peri]' 5 etc. But the latter leads to 
mutual respect and mutual assimilation. It does not create 
superiority and inferiority complexes as the former has 
always done and is doing and is sure to do hereafter as well. 
When very unequal cultures meet there may be a possibility 
of the domination or supersession of one culture by another. 
But where fairly equal but diverse cultures meet, there will 
be no such trends but there is sure to be assimilation and 

Modern India has come into the clutches of the tentacles 
of the race-concept. It is supposed by some persons that 
all the Brahmans in South India are Aryans and that the 
rest are Dravidians! But taking the tests of hair and skin 
and stature and nasal index and cephalic index, as propound- 
ed by the anthropological experts, many Brahmins will 
have to be classified as noii-brahmins, and many non-brah- 
mins will have to be classified as Brahmins! Dr. Risley 
says that the original Dravidian inhabitants of India were 
persons whose "stature was short, complexion very dark, hair 
curly and nose broad". Most of the South Indian non- 
brahmins do not correspond to this description. We have got 



Dravidian (raits in North India and Aryan traits in South 
India, and we have got Dravidian similarities in Brahmins 
and Aryan similarities in non-brahmins, if we attach much 
importance to the anthropological emphasis on physical 
characteristics. The "Dravidastan" protagonists are not 
really supported by the experts in the science of anthro- 

I am therefore disposed to attach little importance to 
the physical patterns in the Indian race-concept and much 
importance to the mental and moral and spiritual pattern in 
the concept. Tested by such a test, all the Indian commu- 
nities belong to one cultural pattern, even though different 
sections pursue different religions. They pursued only one 
religion viz., Hinduism, till conversions to other world-reli- 
gions made headway. But the cultural unity has not really 
been broken by religious diversity in India. Ahimsa and 
Bhakti and introspective meditation and deep faith and 
spirituality are found in the Indians en masse despite the 
diversities of denominational religion. Mr. Jinnah's reference 
to two nations has no real basis. It is not religion that is the 
real basis of nationhood. The real basis is the cultural 
nexus. Thus the population of India belongs to one race 
and one nation and one culture, and Indian unity is indivi- 
sible and invincible. 



Professor of English, Maharajah's College, Ernakulam 

The subject of this paper has several facets, of which it 
is proposed to deal with only one at present. 

In Malayalam there exists a peculiar variety of literary 
dialect, called "manipravaiam", the like oi wiucii has not yet 
been met with in any other language in India or elsewhere 
Numerous works of superb poetical excellence are extant in 
that dialect, and the period of its heyday has been reckoned 
by many scholars as the Golden Age in the history of Mala- 
yalam poetry. It is, however, significant that the works so 
far discovered in that dialect are confined to certain parti- 
cular literary genres, their authors being mostly the Brah- 
mins (Namboodiris) of Kerala. Apart from the appreciation 
of classical poetry in Malayalam, a thoughtful study of the 
dialect under reference would be of help in understanding 
the true nature of the fusion of Aryan and Dravidian 
elements in the language and literature of Kerala. 

The name "manipravalam" is familiar to all as connot- 
ing an admixture of Sanskrit and Dravidian works in poetic 
diction. In Malayalam, however, it has a restricted and 
distinctive sense. Here, for one thing, only such words are 
counted as Sanskrit as are used in their original grammatical 
forms declined and conjugated exactly as in Sanskrit all 


Sanskrit words shorn of tneir Sanskritic terminations being 
treated just as Malayalam words merely. 

A combination of "native" and "loan" words in their 
original grammatical forms may sound somewhat odd or 
bizarre in other languages. Imagine, for instance, the open- 
ing lines of "Paradise Lost" written in a dialect which is a 
mixture of English and Classical words inflected exactly as in 
the respective languages from which they are derived some- 
thing like this: 

Of hominis disobedience et the fruit 

Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal gustus 

introducat mortem into the world 

HC # $ $ $ 

Canta, Heavenly Muse ! 

But in the high-class "manipravalam" of Kerala, there 
is absolutely no such discoid or clumsiness ol enect; and tnat 
is the beauty and wonder of it! Sanskrit words, with their 
original declensional and conjugational forms intact, are so 
artistically welded with words of pure Dravidian descent as 
to yield the effect of "linked sweetness long drawn-out." An 
authoritative treatise on the subject, entitled "Leela- 
tilakam", which is believed to have been written nearly six 
centuries ago, sets forth in detail the rules relating to the 
choice and arrangement of Sanskrit and Dravidian words in 
poetry. Its authorship is attributed to a Kerala Brahmin 
(Namboodiri) , who was evidently an illustrious scholar in 
Sanskrit and Dravidian language alike, and possessed an 
intelligent command of the grammatical and critical 
apparatus of Sanskrit. In the first section of the book, deal- 
ing with the characteristics of "manipravalam", he takes 
special care to emphasize that the selection and marshalling 
of Sanskrit and Malayalam words should be guided by con- 


siderations of smoothness and euphony. "Manipravalam", 
if it should justify its name, should present such a pleasing 
array of Sanskrit and Dravidian words as to be hardly dis- 
tinguishable from each other. It should indeed be a neck- 
lace strung with rubies and corals the ruby (mani-) being 
Malayalam, and the coral (pravalam) Sanskrit, according 
to "Leelatilakam". They merge almost imperceptibly into 
one another, thanks to their mutual likeness in tone and 
colour. Such a smooth and easy amalgamation of Aryan 
and Dravidian elements is the supreme test of standard 
"manipravalam". Rare or unfamiliar words should be 
sedulously avoided in both languages, and words of common 
occurrence in them should be preferred, the true criterion 
of success in diction being Rasa (sentiment) . It is interest- 
ing to note in passing that the best "manipravalam" is that 
which embodies more of Malayalam and less of Sanskrit 
words, and is marked by outstanding Rasa. Such, be it 
remembered, is the dictum laid down by the Brahmin 
author of "Leelathilakam", and such indeed "manipravalam" 
actually was in its palmy days. Examples of it are legion in 
the literature of the centuries immediately preceding and 
succeeding "Leelathilakam". Gradually, however, the 
sound precepts of "Leelathilakam" came to be discarded, and 
"manipravalam" deteriorated into an incongruous medley 
of harsh-sounding and out-of-the-way words indiscrimi- 
nately taken from Sanskrit and Dravidian languages, the 
Sanskrit element predominating over the Dravidian, in 
flagrant violation of all sense of proportion and harmony. 
It had been explicitly stated by the author of "Leelathila- 
karn" that the diction in which Malayalam words were com- 
paratively small in number, and rasa was deficient, was 
positively inferior. Likewise, if either the first half or the 
second half of a quatrain, or its last line, were to consist 
exclusively of Sanskrit words, then too, the diction was con- 


sidered to be definitely inferior. (By the way, the term "mani- 
pravalam" was generally applied to verses written in 
Sanskrit metres those written in Dravidian metres being 
known as 'paattu."). 

It is a particularly unique feature 01 the ancient "mani- 
pravalam" oi Kerala that it admitted pure ^iaiayaiam words 
declined and conjugated with, Sanskrit terminations, as if 
they were pure Sanskrit words. This could not have possi- 
bly happened in any language in the world! Hlven the pecu- 
liarities oi Sanskrit syntax were copied in pure Malayalam. 
Thus the words for "food" and 'sleep ' m iviaiayalarn (oonu, 
and urakkam) are seen declined as a compound, Sanskrit 
Dual Accusative. . . . u oonurakkau j '. The verbs, ''pokkam- 
chakre", "pinnitethas", seen m an old u Saridesa-kavya ?> are 
really Malayalam verbs conjugated like their counterparts 
in Sanskrit. "Kezhantee" is a SansKrit Present Participle 
formed from the Malayalam verb, "Kezhuka" (to weep). 
Sometimes, the qualifying and the quaimed words are dec- 
lined alike as in Sanskrit, instances of such singularity of 
behaviour of "native" words in "manipravalam" may be 
seen scattered about in the older poems, but not in the later 
ones, as the genius of the Malayalam language began to 
assert itself more and more in the course of its evolution. 
At first, no doubt, Sanskrit Grammar superimposed itself 
on Dravidian; but before long Sanskrit came to be stretched 
on the Dravidian '^Procrustes bed", from which, however, 
it came out well adapted to the disposition of the Dravidian 

In other words, the Aryan with his cultural superiority 
was domesticated by the Dravidian, in this land of Parasu- 
rama. The history of "manipravalam" is the history of the 
fusion of the two races, and it shows how the Aryan and the 
Dravidian took to each other more kindly in Kerala than, 


perhaps, in any other province in South India. Here in 
Kerala, it is abundantly clear from linguistic and literary 
evidence (let alone, for the present, evidence furnished by 
other departments of human activity) that the Aryans and 
the Dravidians endeavoured in right earnest to come together 
as closely as possible in a spirit of mutual trust and goodwill. 
It is their mutual adjustments and compromises in this pro- 
cess that are reflected in 1he development of our "manipra- 

Mention has already been made of the fact that the 
authors of most of the "manipravalam" works hitherto 
known are Brahmins (Namboodiris) who are generally held 
to be Aryan in descent. There is ample internal proof in 
their writings to establish that they were profoundly erudite 
Sanskrit scholars, and that nothing could have been easier 
for them, if they so desired, than to give expression to their 
poetic talents through the medium of pure Sanskrit. 
Equally easy would it have been for them to write exquisite 
poetical works in pure Malayalam (as, indeed, the author of 
that most beautiful of all Malayalam poems, "Krishna- 
Gaatha", did) the command of pure Malayalam displayed 
by them in their compositions being even to-day the envy 
and despair of our poets. Yet they chose to write their best 
poems neither in pure Sanskrit, nor in pure Malayalam, but 
in the particular dialect which is a sweet admixture of both. 
And they interlarded their diction profusely with words 
in their original Sanskrit grammatical forms, sometimes 
levelling even pure Dravidian words to such forms. If 
their intention was merely to write for the delectation of 
members of their own community, it is obvious, they 
would have more naturally written in Sanskrit, just as the 
Norman-French authors of England during the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries generally wrote in the Norman-French 


language, rather than in pure English, the language of the 
"natives" of the country. Evidently, it was not the object 
of the Brahmins to write poems meant exclusively or 
mainly to be read by members of their own community. 
On the other hand, they were presumably more interested 
in leading by the hand the other less learned classes on to the 
fair fields of classical literature. This is the reason, as one 
may rightly infer from the peculiar character of the com- 
position in "manipravalam," why we notice so many ele- 
ments of popular fascination in them. Sanskrit vocabulary 
and grammar, administered in short and sweet doses, would 
be taken in by the average reader without much effort. He 
would thus be initiated into the intricacies of Sanskrit 
Grammar in the course of his joyous poetical studies, almost 
without his own knowledge. Who can deny that it was pre- 
cisely what the authors would have rejoiced to see? There 
is a common notion prevalent among our people that the 
Brahmins of Kerala were persistently hostile to the Sanskrit 
education of other communities; and many traditional stories 
are also current in support of such a notion. But the fact 
about "manipravalam", sought to be explained in this paper, 
should not be lost sight of in any discussion of the above 
notion. We are not talking of Vedic studies, but only of 
secular Sanskrit education. And it would be worth while to 
consider in a purely academic spirit how far the Brahmin 
authors of our "manipravalam" works could be regarded as 
enemies of popular Sanskritic studies. 

There is one fact more to be borne in mind in a survey 
of "manipravalam". This literary kind has hitherto 
witnessed the output of no serious epic or dramatic com- 
position, but only of Champoos, Sandesas and other lovelyrics, 
and didactic and devotional verses and versesequences galore. 
Champoos are Kavyas written partly in prose and partly in 



verse. In the " manipravalam" champoos, however, the 
place of prose is taken by verses composed in various Dra- 
vidian metres! This curious feature cannot reasonably be 
attributed to the contempt which the Brahmin authors of 
Ckampoos felt towards the Dravidian verse-forms, as some 
critics nave alleged, but to their desire to propitiate Mala- 
yalee readers by offering them in plenty something which 
was familiar and dear to them through long usage. To 
them the so-called prose of ckampoos would thus be an addi- 
tional source of attraction. Above all, ckampoos deal with 
stories or episodes taken from the Ramayana and the Maha- 
biiarata, which were already well known to the people, or 
with events of topical interest, or with an imaginary story 
intended merely as a frame-work for academic delineation 
of the passion of love. lu the Sandesas (message-poems) 
which in technique are modelled exactly on Kalidasa's 
"Cloud Messenger", the first half is taken up by poetical des- 
criptions of places and scenes of the Kerala country, so fami- 
liar to the reader, and the second half by a reminiscential 
delineation of all aspects of love. The lyric poetry in "mani- 
pravalam" can, in respect o quantity, quality and variety, 
easily stand comparison with that of Elizabethan English 
literature. The heroines in most of the lyric poems in 
"manipravalam" (including the tiandesas) are non-Brah- 
mins. From all these facts, it would not be wrong to make 
an inference about the popular character of "manipravalam" 

There is a theory that "manipravalam" is traceable to 
the comic compositions of the poet Tolan, meant to be recited 
by the Clown (Vidooshaka) in Koothu and Kootiyattam, as 
old as the first century M.E. But in those compositions the 
obvious aim of the author was to produce comic mirth by; 
incongruous combinations of Sanskrit and Malayalam words, 



and by the parody of Sanskrit verses and Sanskrit diction. 
What a far cry from such buffonery of Tolan to the poetical 
heights of Champoos like the Ramayana, Bhasha-nyshadha, 
Bana-yuddha, Kama-dhana, Chellor-nadhodaya, Raja- 
ratnavaleeya, Koti-viraha, etc. to Sandesas like Unnu-neeli- 
sandesa, and to the lyric fragments scattered about in "Leela- 
tilakam" and others being published and yet to be published 
from old-palm-leaf manuscripts (some of which the author 
of the present paper has edited and is still engaged in edit- 
ing). Surely, one cannot help exclaiming when face to 
face with this fertile field of Malay alam poetry "Here is 
God's plenty". 

The sweetness and harmony of "manipravalam" persist- 
ed right down to the period of Thunchath Ezhuthachan 
(eighth century M.E.) who has been been called the father 
of modern Malayalam in the sense in which Chaucer has 
been called the father of Modern English. By his time the 
tendency had become marked to free Malayalam from its 
subordination to Sanskrit. "Manipravalam" had been defi- 
nitely vitiated by indiscriminate thrusting-in of discordant 
Sanskrit words, and by the callous neglect of the pure Dra- 
vidian element. Naturally there followed a reaction in 
favour of the latter. Thus in modern Malayalam, the Dra- 
vidian element has come to its own. Of Sanskrit vocabulary, 
there is much even to-day in the Malayalam language 
much more than in other Dravidian languages. But the 
genius of the Dravidian language has ultimately triumphed 
in Malayalam too ! 

Rev. Caldwell is right when he says: "One of the most 
marked characteristics of the Malayalam language, as we now 
find it, is the quantity of Sanskrit it contains. The proportion 
of Sanskrit words adopted by the Dravidian languages is least 


in Tamil, greatest in Malayalam." Likewise, the interming- 
ling of Brahmins and non-Brahmins has been more intimate 
in Kerala than in the other parts of the Dravidian country, 
whereof our "manipravalam" is but an index. At the same 
time, it has to be added, to avoid the possibility of a misunder- 
standing, that the Dravidian element is the bedrock on which 
our language and literature have been built up to-day. What 
Archbishop Trench has said about the respective contribu- 
tions of Anglo-Saxon and Latin to the making of English is 
applicable to Malayalam, if we substitute Dravidian for 
Anglo-Saxon, and Sanskrit for Latin, and read the passage 
as follows: "All its joints, its whole articulation, its sinews 
and its ligaments, the great body of articles, pronouns, con- 
junctions, prepositions, numerals, auxiliary verbs, all 
smaller words which serve to knit together and bind the 
larger into sentences, these, not to speak of the grammatical 
structure of the language, are exclusively Dravidian. Sans- 
krit may contribute its tale of bricks, yea, of goodly and 
polished hewn stones, to the spiritual building, but the 
mortar, with all that holds and binds these together, and 
constitutes them into a house, is Dravidian throughout." 
The same is true of the indigenous strength and importance 
of our society , however much and in whatever ways Aryan 
influences may have contributedHo its moulding in the course 
of the centuries of contact between the two great races on 
this side of the Western Ghats, 




The great Sabhanayaka Shrine of Chidambaram (par 
excellence, the Kail) round which the ancient town has 
clustered and to which our Annamalai University and settle- 
ment bear a strong spiritual filiation, goes back to the earliest 
days of Saiva and Vaishnava reaction against the dominance 
of Jainism and Buddhism in the land. According to tradi- 
tion, the temple was of divine origin, and its nucleus was 
divinely installed. Its most ancient votaries, Vyaghrapada 
(He of the tiger foot) and Patanjali (He of the serpent form) 
held to be an incarnation of the thousand-headed Adisesha, 
form the earliest links in the religious traditions of the 

The legendary account of Patanjali is closely connected 
with the mystic dance of the Lord Siva, which taught a les- 
son to the proud Rishis of the Taruka forest, puffed up with 
conceit of Vedic learning ( and held by a commentator to be 
followers of Mimamsa) , made them alive to the great glory 
of Siva converted them into His fervent devotees. Vya- 
ghrapada, the son of a Brahman hermit living on the banks 
of the Ganges, was advised by his father to go to Tillai, a 
vast wilderness covered with trees of that name (Excoecaria 
Agallocha) and find the Parabrahma (Supreme Spirit) in 


that sacred spot. He bathed in the Sivaganga tirtam and 
worshipped a Lingam established under the shade of a ban- 
yan tree by its bank, and thus arose the shrine of the Muias- 
thana, the earliest nucleus of the temple. Vyaghrapada soon 
found that he could not climb the lofty trees in the early 
dawn, to select fresh flowers for his daily worship of the 
God, prayed to the Lord and got from Him the boon that his 
feet and hands might become those of a tiger, armed with 
strong claws and he be furnished with tiger's eyes, so that 
he might easily climb and see the flowers in the dark of the 
dawn; he thus became known as Hhe tiger- footed and six- 
eyed'; and a part of the present town came to be known as 
Tiru-Puliyur (Sacred Tiger Town) ; and also Perumbarra- 

Some time later, the great Adisesha assumed the form 
of half -man and half -serpent, in order to see once again Siva 
performing the mystic dance in Tillai, and there met 
Vyaghrapada. He also made for himself a hermitage 
nearby and installed a Lingam by a tank, which continue to 
this day as the Anantiswara Shrine and the Nagacheri tank, 
at the west end of the town. Likewise, Vyaghrapada had 
installed a Lingam of his own at a little distance towards the 
south-east of the Mulasthana. 

The traditions of these two great devotees go back to 
times earlier than the epoch of the legend of the Pallava 
King who was cured of leprosy by bathing in the Sivaganga 
tank and changed his previous name of Simhavarman into 
Hiranyavarman (the golden-bodied) as a consequence. He 
repaired and added to the nucleus shrine. This early royal 
patron of the shrine has been equated with the Pallava ruler, 
Simhavarman II, (or III) who reigned probably between 550 
and 575 A.D. 1 One of the later traditions of the place has 


called this king a Chola (Stanza 12 of the Koyilpuranam) . 
The picturesque story of his being commissioned by Vya- 
ghrapada to guard Vyaghrapura and his being given the flag 
of the tiger-crest, is embodied in the Koyilpuranam of 
Umapathi Sivacharya, a Saivite scoliast of the later 
thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries. He is said to have 
belonged to the Dikshita community and his samadhi in 
Korravangudi (between the Chidambaram railway station 
and the University campus) can even now been seen. 
Umapathi is the author of a good portion of the basic 
literature of Saiva Siddhanta, viz., the eight works beginning 
with the Sivaprakasa; he has also given a graphic account 
of the life of the great Sekkilar, the author of the Periya- 
puranam, (Liber Sanctorum) and of the work of Nambi- 
Andar Nambi in his two compositions, entitled "Sekkilar 
Nayanar Puranam," and "the Tirumurai-kanda-puranam." 
The former of these two deals with an age when the memory 
of the great Chola rulers, Kulottunga I (ace. 1070), and 
Kulottunga II (ace. 1133), must have been relatively fresh 
in Umapathi's mind. Therefore, his account of Sekkilar, who 
was a contemporary of these kings, can be held to be much 
more historical in its perspective than the other work deal- 
ing with Nambi Andar Nambi, whose age can be fixed at the 
early eleventh century, if not at the close of the tenth. 

Umapathi became the supreme theologian of the Tamil 
Siddhanta and is held to have learnt his wisdom from his 
master, Maraignana Sambanda, who belonged to a lower 

1. Hiranyavarman was a surname of Mahendravarman I as 
mentioned in an inscription at Conjeevaram Subject Index to 
the Annual Reports on South Indian Epigraphy 1887-1936 (1941), 
p. 27, Col. 1. 


caste and was expelled from his own community for having 
partaken of food with his master. He forms the last of the 
quartette, known as the Samaya-Kuravar and the Sanihdna 
Achdryas of the Saiva Siddhanta Darsana. His Koilpurdnam 
embodies legends which are in point of time long antecedent 
to those of the Saiva Nayanmars, described by Sekkilar and 
Nambi-Andar Nambi and may be said to constitute a por- 
tion of the oldest epoch of South Indian Saiva legends. 
Arumuga Navalar of Jaffna, a great Tamil scholar and Saiva 
pietist of the last century, edited the Koilpurdnam and gave 
his own valuable commentary on the significance of the 
mystic dance of the Lord. According to one opinion, the 
comprehension of Patanjali among the earliest devotees of 
Siva indicates the absorption in the Saiva teaching of the 
system of Yoga thought of which he was the founder. 


Most striking among the numerous associations of the 
'Great Four' among the Saiva saints, is the legend connect- 
ing the temple with Manikkavagaga's victory over the 
Buddhists in the great disputation, described in the sixth 
canto of the Tiruvddavurai Purdnam, which is an amplifica- 
tion of some sections of the Madura Stalapurdnam. Therein 
we read how the great Saint of Vadavur was summoned 
from his retreat to confute the aggressive Buddhistic teachers 
who had come over to Chidambaram with the king of Ceylon 
at their head. The Chola King urged the saint to vanquish 
the Buddhistic disputants in an irrecoverable manner, 
saying that it should be the Saint's care to establish the 
truth of the Saiva wisdom; and afterwards it would be his 
royal duty to extirpate the Buddhists. Manikkavagaga 
vindicated the supreme power of Siva "seated as the Teacher 
i;i the shade of the beautiful banyan tree, teaching the laws 


of right/' and as the Dancer in Tillai's beauteous golden 
iiaii with the girdle of the tiger skin (i.e., human passion) 
wrapped round him and wearing the serpent necklace (i.e., 
the guile and malice of mankind) and crushing under his foot 
the Demon Muyalagan, which is the embodiment of human 
depravity. This disputation might refer to the last epoch 
of the struggle of the Saivites with the Buddhists who con- 
tinued to linger for a number of years in isolated centres in 
the Tamil country, like Negapatam, and received frequent 
reinforcements from Ceylon. The legend can be attributed 
to about the ninth century. 

\et another attractive and heartening legend which has 
grown round the shrine is that of Nanda, the Adi-Dravida 
saint, wiio obtained final beatification in front of the Danc- 
ing Lord, passing into eternity when in a state of ecstatic 
devotion. The story of Nanda's piety is a very popular 
theme; and snatches of songs from the Nandanar Charitra 
Klrtana of Gopalakrishna Bharati are on everybody's lips 
in the Tamil country. The klrtana story has deviated in 
several respects from the version given in the Periya- 
purdnam. The inclusion of Nanda among the traditional 
Sixty-three Saints should be regarded as being supple- 
mentary to his inclusion in a decade of Sundaramurthi 
.Nayanar's Tevaram, which can be ascribed to the first 
quarter of the ninth century A.D. The legend is certainly 
older than that date. Stressing on the great moral value 
of this legend, one can repeat the words of Sir William 
Wilson Hunter, when extolling the shrine of Jagannath, 
that as long as the towers of Chidambaram exist, so long will 
there be in the land "the perpetual and visible protest of the 
equality of man before God." 

In addition to the great prominence enjoyed by the 
shrine in the Tevdram hymns, and particularly in the writ- 


ings of Manikkavagaga whose Tiruvagagam (Holy Utter- 
ance) was said to have been first recited in the temple itself 
and whose Tiruchchitrambalakkovai was composed in its 
honour, one can note the pleasing and intensive association 
of the shrine with the redaction of the Tamil hymnal literature 
under the patronage of the Chola monarchs. The whole of 
the Tevdram hymns, being the first of the collection of works 
held to be canonical by the Tamil Saivas, was put together 
in one book by Nambi Andar Nambi (cir. ? A.D. 975-1035), 
an Adi Saiva Brahman of Tirunaraiyur. This collection is 
known as the Muvar Adangan Mural and was divided into 
seven books by Nambi. He comprehended the two works 
of Manikkavagagar into an additional eighth book, and a 
number of Tiruvisaippds by nine different authors and the 
Tirumandiram of Tirumular as the ninth and tenth books. 
The Chola king requested Nambi to put together one more 
book, consisting of miscellaneous poems and including some 
of his own works. The Pcriyapurdnam was added, later on, 
as the twelfth book. Nambi Andar Nambi invented the 
peculiar metre and music according to which the great songs 
of this collection have since been sung. With the help of 
the Chola Abhaya Kulasekhara Maharajah, he composed, in 
front of the Kanakasabha, the metre for all these a divine 
voice having proclaimed that the knowledge of the metre had 
been already communicated to a maiden born of the family 
of the blessed Tirunilakanta Nayanar, who was thereupon 
brought before the shrine and made to give out the songs 
with appropriate notes and music. The Chola monarch had 
all these Tirumurai songs with their appropriate pan, 
engraved on copper plates and then had them formally 
recited in the orthodox manner in the shrine of God 
Tyagaraja of Tiruvarur. 


The Periyapurdnam of Sekkilar is replete with fanciful 
and miraculous legends; but it is possible to trace in it the 
various epochs in the religious history of early Saivism. 
The poet was angry that the courtiers of the Chola monarch 
should admire a heretical Jaina work, the Jlvaka Cinta- 
mani and the king thereupon requested him to write down 
the lives of the Tamil saints. Sekkilar then went over to 
Chidambaram and composed in the beautiful thousand- 
pillard mantapa of the shrine, his famous Puranam, which 
reached a total of 4,253 stanzas. It was recited before the 
Chola and expounded by the author from day to day for a 
whole year, it was claimed to be a veritable Fifth Veda in 
Tamil and given its place as the twelfth book in the Saiva 
Canon. The author was honoured with title of Tondar- 
Slr-Paravuvar (the singer of the glories of the saints) and 
adorned with the crown of knowledge (Gnanamudi) and 
saluted by the Chola monarch. Umapathi's account of this 
must be "read in the original for one to realise the gusto 
with which that author celebrates this epoch-making event in 
the history of South Indian Saivism." The Chola monarch 
referred to was Anapaya w T ho covered the Perambalam with 
fine gold and who is equated with Kulottunga II. 

The Tiruvilayadal Puranam of Perumbarrapuliyur 
Nambi can also be associated with Chidambaram, as its 
author was the spiritual disciple of a certain Vinayaka who 
belonged to Maligaimadam in Chidambaram and who per- 
haps assumed the name of Puliyur Nambi to indicate his 
devotion to the shrine of Nataraja. This work is held to be 
far more authoritative arid truer to history than Paranjoti's 
much later version of the "Sacred Sports", as has become 
evident from its text as edited by Dr. Mm. V. Swaminatha 
Iyer, ' the Prince of Tamil Scholars.' 


Thus we find that, in the hymnal age of the history of 
Saivism, Chidambaram played a most important part. In 
the next age of the development of Saiva Siddhanta which 
has been termed the 'exegetical period' in the evolution of 
Tamil literature, we witness again the close association of 
the shrine with one of its four great teachers, Umapathi 
Sivacharya. The detailed complex of the Siddhanta philo- 
sophy is very difficult to understand; but a sort of incom- 
plete sectarian organisation early grew round its literature 
and its monasteries which have been efficiently functioning 
as schools of theology and learning in which the monks are 
trained and priests learn their art. A number of thesef 
monasteries are situated in the Tan j ore delta and several of 
them have filiations with Chidambaram. 


The Temple goes back in its nucleus to Pallava times 
though no records even of the early Cholas of Tanjore, not to 
speak of the Pallavas, are forthcoming from the place. 
Copies of inscriptions belonging to the twenty-fourth year 
of Rajendra Chola I (1012-1043) and the forty-seventh year 
of Kulottunga Chola I (ace. 1070) are found on the temple 
walls; two short records Jhat are claimed to belong to the 
tenth century Cholas have been discovered in the local 
Anantiswara shrine; but the earliest genuine inscription 
engraved in the great temple is dated in the third year of 
Vikrama Chola (1118-1133), 

But we have other evidence that the earlier monarchs 
of the Vijayalaya dynasty of the Tanjore Cholas were great 
patrons of the shrine. The Brahadisvara Temple at Tanjore 
seems to have been an offshoot from the Nataraja shrine. 
Parantaka I, Vira Narayana (A.D. 907-947), the great 
ancestor of Raja Raja Chola (985-1013 A.D.), was distin- 


guished for his devotion to the Chidambaram shrine; and he 
either built or repaired the golden hall at that place. Raja- 
raja was equally attached to God Kanakasabhapalhi; and 
very probably he owed his titles, Sri Rajaraja and Sivapada- 
sekhara, to the authorities of the Chidambaram shrine, which 
is designated the Temple (Koyil) in the Tevdram hymns, 
the Tiruvisaippa and the Periyapurdnam. The name Ada- 
valldn (one who is able to dance) was given to one of the 
principal deities in the Tan j ore Temple, from that of the 
Chidambaram deity. Several variants of this particular 
designation are found in the inscriptions; and from two of 
them (Nos. 65 and 66 of the Tanjore inscriptions) it is clear 
that "the names of the god as well as of the temple at 
Chidambaram, and their various synonyms, were very com- 
monly borne by men and women during the time of Raja- 
raja." The chief deity of the Tanjore Temple was known 
as Adavalldn, as well as Dakshina Meru Vidangan. These 
two names are applied in the Tiruvisaippa to the Chidam- 
baram deity and subsequently to the Tanjore god. 

The wall round the innermost shrine, comprehending 
the Rahasya, the Chit Sabha and the Kanaka Sabha and the 
other prdkdra wall enclosing the Mulasthdna shrine, are 
both known by the name of Vikrama Solan Tirumdligai. 
The inner of the two walls is also known as Kulottunga 
Solan Tirumdligai in four records; perhaps it was built by 
the father KulSttunga, and either repaired or rebuilt by the 
son, Vikrama who might have called it after his father. 
Certainly, Vikrama should be credited with the construction 
of the outer prdkdra wall. Perhaps also, the Mulasthdna 
shrine was renovated about this period and its inscriptions 
were transferred to the prakara wall of the innermost en- 

Most of the inscriptions refer to the Chola kings of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries and later dynasties. Mostly 


they register grants of lands for temple service and offer- 
ings and for the maintenance of feeding houses and agra- 
haras in the locality. All land gifts made to the temple 
were required to be engraved on its walls. Up to the time 
of Vikrama Chola these were made out in the name of 
Chandeswara, evidently pointing to the earlier importance 
enjoyed by the Mulasthdnc shrine, with the image of 
Chandeswara by the side of its Linga. It may be remarked 
at the same time that the Tcvaram hymns have been always 
sung only in the shrine of the Mulasthana. The prominence 
given to the Nataraja shrine in later inscriptions accounts 
for the substitution of the caste committee of Dikshita priests 
in the place of Chandeswara, and this change suggests one 
of the reasons why the Dikshitas have come to be regard- 
ed as the practical owners of the temple. 

Besides Parantaka who covered the Dabhra Sabha 
with gold, we find a Chola Princess, Kundavai, who belonged 
to a later age, claiming credit for a similar act. Kulottunga I 
is mentioned by his title of Jayadhara in an inscription in 
the shrine, which is of some historical value. Kulottunga II 
is held by his court poet to have covered the Nataraja shrine 
with gold ; and this credit, as in the case of the inner pra- 
kdra wall, may well be shared between his father Vikrama 
and himself. The prasastis of Kulottunga II tell us that he 
"wore the crown in such wise as to add lustre to Tillai- 
nagar." An inscription of his seventh year from Tirup- 
purambiyam (350 of 1927) explicitly mentions, for the first 
time, his renovation of the temple and town of Chidam- 
baram, though in a record of his third year, he gets a title 
based on this achievement. Kulottunga is said, in this ins- 
cription, to have worshipped the Dancing Siva of Chidam- 
baram, in company with his queen, and to have removed 
the little God Vishnu from the court-yard of the sacred hall 


of Tillai; he claims to have built numerous structures, in- 
cluding gopurams with seven tiers and also the shrine of the 
Goddess ivakami Amman, which "delighted her heart so 
much by its size and its splendour that she did not think any 
more of the sacred mountain (Himalaya) that gave birth to 
her." These are recorded in briefer form in the Rdjardja 
Solan Via and in the Takkaydgapparani and much more 
detailedly in the Kulottunga Solan Via, of the famous poet, 
Kavichakravarti Ottakkuttar, whose memory is kept green 
even to this day, not only in literary tradition, but also in 
the name of the village Kuttanur on the banks of the Arisil 
river in the Tanjore district. 

The hundred-pillared hall to the west of the holy tank 
is claimed to have been built by one Naralokavira, alias Pon- 
nambala Kuttan, a feudatory of Kulottunga I and of his son 
Vikrama, whose epigraphs share some of the best literary 
qualities of the Chola imperial prasastis. The powerful 
Kulottunga III (1178-1216) has several inscriptions of his, 
engraved on the temple walls which credit him with the con- 
struction of the mukhamantapa of the Nataraja shrine and 
the gopura and the enclosing verandah of the Sivakami 
Amman shrine. Even in the declining days of the Chola 
power in the thirteenth century, we find that Chidambaram 
enjoyed patronage at the hands of both the Chola over- 
lords and their vassals. The most prominent figure in this 
connection is naturally Kopperunjinga, a contemporary of 
Raja Raja III (1216-1246) and an over-grown feudal vassal 

of his. This chief who belonged to the family of Kadava- 
rayas and ruled from Sendamangalam in the middle of the 
present South Arcot District, became an independent ruler 
in 1243 and counted his regnal years from that date. His 
titles included the name of Alagiyasiyan and Kanakasabha- 
pathi Sabhd Sarvakdrya Sarvakdla Nirvdhaka, a title that 


was justified by his close association with the shrine. Several 
of his epigraphs are found on the temple walls. He is credit- 
ed with the construction of the east gopura of the temple 
according to a trilingual inscription from Tripurantaka in 
the Kurnool district, wherein we read that he decorated the 
four sides of the tower with "booty acquired by subduing 
the four quarters." It is on both sides of the gateway of 
this gopura, in the panels of the projecting pillars, that we 
find rich sculptures of dancing figures depicting the 108 pos- 
tures, described in the Bharatiya Natya Sastra. 93 of these 
have descriptive labels in grantha characters engraved on 
them. These have been illustrated with the corresponding 
verses occurring in the Sastra, in the Annual Report for 
South Indian Epigraphy for 1914. The book on ' Tandava 
Laksanam or The Fundamentals of Ancient Hindu Dancing 
(by B. V. N. Naidu, P. S. Naidu and O. V. R. Pantulu, 
1936) , gives a very instructive account of the sculptures of 
the dancing figures represented in the gateway of the east 
gopuram as well as those found in the gateway of the west- 
ern gopuram. The 108 classic postures seem to have been 
sculptured on all the four gopurams, but the explanatory 
labels are found only in the eastern and western towers. 

In this connection may be mentioned similar figures of 
dancers and musicians, sculptured in continuous relief all 
round the basement of the thousand-pillared hall and in a 
well-preserved ring running along the basement of the 
pillared and storeyed corridors enclosing the courtyard of 
the Sivakami Amman shrine. Kopperunjinga's inscriptions 
are also found on the walls of the Tillaiamman temple 2 (Sri 

2. This ancient temple was renovated about three decades 
ago by the family of our Raja Sahib. 


K5yil of Piclari Tiruchchitrambala Makali). The tradition is 
that the Goddess who represented an earlier indigenous cult, 
was danced out of the Tillai shrine by God Nataraja in his 
famous Urdhva-Tdndava dance in the Nritta Sabha of the 
temple which has been deemed by Fergusson to be a most 
precious piece of workmanship in sculpture and as contain- 
ing dancing figures, "more graceful and more elegantly exe- 
cuted than any other of their class, so far as I know in South- 
ern India." In the Bhimesvara temple at Singarat5pe, a 
suburb of Chidambaram, we find another inscription of 
Kopperunjinga. One of his chiefs Sola Kon, alias Perumal 
Filial, set up three pillars in the great shrine for the merit 
of his master. 

The powerful Pandyas of the thirteenth century who 
overshadowed the Cholas, continued the role of their prede- 
cessors. Jatavaraman Sundara Pandya I (ace. 1251) was 
anointed victor-hero and celebrated the Tulabhdra cere- 
mony at the great shrine; and epigraphs of his found engrav- 
ed on the eastern and western gopuras, describe some of his 
achievements. A few of the succeeding Pandyas performed 
likewise in Chidambaram their abhisheka and commemo- 
rated their victorious campaigns. It is noteworthy that the 
Pandya fish-crest is engraved in the ceiling of the gateway 
of the great southern gopura. 

Among the benefactions to the temple made in those 
days may be mentioned the foundation of feeding-houses 
and the initiation of systematic ceremonial offerings of food 
to the God known as pdvddai, observed even to this day, 
according to which boiled rice of a determinate quantity is 
spread evenly over a plank measuring about 6' x 4'. in front 
of the God and distributee! among the priests. One of the 
earliest feeding-houses of which mention is made, was the 


Arapperunjelvi Solai, in the western street called Mudi- 
kondaperumdl Tiruvldi, perhaps named after Kulottunga III, 
who took the crowned head of the Pandyas. The settlement 
of the Sola Saliyars (or weavers) who are even now a nu- 
merous community of the locality, is mentioned in a 
Pandya record of Maravarman Vlra Pandya (ace. 1262). 
Another grant of Jatavarman Sundara makes mention of an 
agrahdra donated to 108 learned bhattas settled in a village 
known as Vikrama Pandya Chaturvedimangalam situated 
on the western side of Perumbarrappuliyur, who were to 
be maintained from the income of the village of Puliyan- 
gudi. A similar record mentions the grant of 116 veils of 
land m Adur, alias Jananathanallur, to 108 Brahmans who 
were to pay four kalams per veli every year to the temple 
of Tiilainayaka. Yet another record speaks of a shrine built 
in honour of Alagiya Tiruchchitrambala Udaiyar at the 
hamlet of Korravangudi (alias Pavithramanikkanallur) 
near the University campus. 


The association of the Vijayanagara monarchs with the 
temple is sufficiently striking, though not as intense as in 
the case of the Cholas and the Pandyas. King Devaraya II 
(1422-1446) has an inscription, dated Saka 1349 (i.e., 
1428 A.D.) on the north wall of the Karpaka Vinayakar 
shrine near the west gopuram, which should interest the 
student of history as it embodies an account of the method 
by which temples were then supported and controlled by 
rulers. It should be a matter of common knowledge that 
the great Krishnadeva Raya built the north gopura about 
Saka 1438, i.e., 1516 A.D., in commemoration of his vic- 
torious northern campaign and advance in triumph to Sim- 

hadri-Pottunuru where he planted a pillar of victory, after 


which he made a pilgrimage to the shrine of Ponnambalam 
and ordered the building of this tower. A striking and well- 
formed stone image of his is still preserved in a niche on 
the western side of the gateway of this gopura. Achyuta- 
raya was noted for his many benefactions to the shrine of 
Govindaraja. The Pasupatiswara Temple at Tiruvetkalam 3 
(renovated about a quarter of a century ago by Diwan 
Bahadur Rarnaswamy Chettiar, an elder brother of the Rajah 
Saheb of Chettinad) contains an epigraph dated Saka 1488, 
recording the grant of that village (the village adjoining the 
University on the east), by Achyutappa Nayak of Tanjore 
for the merit of his overlord, King Tirumala I. Later Vijaya- 
nagara rulers like Sriranga II (1578-1586) and Verikata I 
(1586-1614) are mentioned in some epigraphs in the temple; 
one of them on the south c/dpura, dated Saka 1510 (A.D. 

3. This village is credited by local tradition as being the 
place of Arjuna's penance and the present by God Siva 
of the Pasupatastram to the Pandava hero. The temple it- 
self dedicated to Siva has been sung by Saint Appar and Saint 
Sambandar. The latter refers to the village as being situated 
near the sea, where the chanting of the Vedas and the perform- 
ance of the Vedic sacrifices went on ; and the former describes the 
shrine as the abode of the Veianar, i.e., the Hunter, Siva as Kirata. 
It is held by learned opinion that the image of Kiratarjunamurti 
in this temple shows unmistakable affinity with Pallava stone 
sculptures of the seventh century A.D. ; and there is reason to 
believe that it is the same image that Appar saw and the presence 
of which led him to celebrate the temple in his hymns as the 
abode of Vetandr. There are two other images of remarkable 
value and antiquity in the temple, namely, those of Arjuna and 
Parvathi. The image of Arjuna is later, but may not be far 
removed in point of time from that of the Kiratarjunamurti 
(Vide '.Three South Indian Metal Images A Study' by T. B. 
Nayar, 1934, Annamalai University Journal, Vol. Ill, No. 1). 


1588), makes mention of Namassivaya Udaiyar, the superin- 
tendent of all the small services in the shrine. The student 
of Tamil literary history may remember, in this connection, 
Guru Namassivaya, who devoted himself, at the instance of 
his teacher, Guhai Namassivaya to holy work at Chidam- 
baram and composed the Paramarahasya Malai, the Cfnda???- 
bara Venba and other works. The head of the mutt found- 
ed by Guru Namassivaya continues to enjoy temple honours 
even at the present day. 

A ruler of Cochin, Maharaja Rama Varma of the family 
of Seraman Perumal Nayanar, has left a record in the tem- 
ple, dated Saka 1498, providing for food offerings to the God. 
An epigraph of Saka 1515, (i.e., 1593) informs us that the 
districts of Devamandala Sirmai and Viranarayana Sirmai, 
Terkunadu, Vadakkunadu, the five villages grouped round 
Asuvur, and all others that had been enjoyed by the temple 
of Chidambaram from early times, had been made tax-free 
and fresh provision was made for a huge quantity of food 
offerings daily under the name of Kondamandyakan Katta- 

Achyutappa Nayaka of Tan j ore, as mentioned above, 
made a gift in 1566 of the village of Tiruvetkalam to the 
Tirumulasthana temple at Chidambaram for the merit of 
the Vijayanagara King, Tirumala Ray a and also several 
further endowments to it. Two other epigraphs of Saka 
1493, refer to a gift of land made by one Alagapperumal 
Pillai to Chidambareswara for the merit of Achyutappa. It 
can be safely asserted that the temple received further en- 
dowments during the lifetime of that Nayak. Virappa 
Nayak of Madura is credited with having built the outer- 
most stone-faced wall of the Chidambaram temple, 
which is even now called Virappa Ndyakan madil. 



So the temple flourished, if any good flourishing could 
have been possible in the dark days that followed the disrup- 
tion of Nayak rule in Tanjore and Gingee, the weakening 
of the Maratha Raj in Tanjore and the assertion of Muslim 
and European dominance in the Carnatic. During his south- 
ern campaign (1677-78), Sivaji is said to have contemplated 
the restoration of many Hindu shrines that had fallen on 
evil days; and we have evidence that he reconsecrated and 
enlarged the shrine of Tiruvannamalai and restored the ce- 
lebration of the great Kdrtliigai festival. Sivaji occupied the 
Chidambaram district in the course of this campaign. He 
stayed for some time in the neighbourhood of Chidambaram 
and Bhuvanagiri (literally, Bhuvanekaviran Pattanam) for 
effecting a reconciliation with his brother, Vyankoji of Tan- 
jore, with whom he spent some time on the banks of the 
Coleroon; but we do not know of any gift to or association 
with the shrine effected by him. In the darker days of the 
eighteenth century we have got only to note that the temple 
suffered serious reverses in the course of the Anglo-French 
wars in the Carnatic and later during the invasions of 
Haidar Ali of Mysore. 

In 1749 the ill-fated expedition of Captain Cope against 
Devikottah had to take shelter in the Chidambaram pagoda 
on its retreat. In 1753, the French took possession of it as 
well as the neighbouring Bhuvanagiri which was then a large 
weaving centre and partly fortified. They were in occupa- 
tion of the shrine for several years till 1760 and buttressed the 
outer walls with bastions and embrasures and otherwise 
greatly strengthened the western gopura gateway. The im- 
portance of the French occupation of the temple lies in its 
conversion into a military base. A sketch of the fortifica- 
tions planned, begun and carried out to some extent by 
the French, is given by the eighteenth-century historian, 


Robert Orme, (Vide Vol. Ill of his History of 'Indostan, be- 
ing a Collection of maps and plans to accompany that work . . 
Plan entitled 'Chillambarum and showing the fortifications 
intended and begun by the French) and is well worth a 
close study, as it discloses the alignment of the bastions and 
batteries projected for strengthening the outermost wall, as 
well as for the utilisation of the storeyed corridors that lined 
the inside of the second wall and that have now gone to ruin 
in many portions. In January 1754, there was an abortive 
attempt made by the English to force the French garrison 
which held the pagoda to surrender it; but the attacking 
party was completely routed. It was only in 1760 (20th 
April) that the English and their Nawab Muhammad All 
Walajah Bahadur, were able to secure the surrender of the 
town and the fortified pagoda. A party of English troops 
combined with a body of men under Krishna Rao, the kille- 
dar of Tyagadrug, pressed on the place from the south and 
north respectively, while two eighteen-pounder cannon were 
taken up the Coleroon on catamarans from the English 
squadron lying at anchor off Devicottah. 4 

4. The chiefs of Devicottah, known by the hereditary title 
of Sola Kon, corrupted into Sdl_agandr flourished since the time 
of the powerful and dreaded Solagan, chief of that Island fortress 
under Krishnappa Nayaka of Gingee (Cir. 1600) . He was attack- 
ed by Raghunatha Nayak of Tan j ore as being a rebel and taken 
captive along with his family and thrown into prison. He was 
very cruel in his punishment of victims ; and his cruelty has been 
described by Father Pimenta, who perhaps visited his fortress. 
Yagna Narayana Dikshita has referred to the sons and relatives 
of this Solaga in his work. Solaga and his descendants had an 
intimate association with the temple and claimed the right to be 
crowned in the Rajasabha in the thousand-pillared mantapa. The 
present representative of the family, who is a poligar, lives in 
an adjoining village in the jungle at the mouth of the Coleroon, 


We may suppose that there was an intermission of the 
worship, services and festivals in the shrine during the 
period of its military occupation by the French. Nor was it 
destined to enjoy unbroken peace even after its recovery by 
the English for the Nawab in 1760. In the course of 
the Second Mysore War (1780-1784) when Sir Eyre 
Coote marched to the southward from Cuddalore in 
June 1781, preparatory to engaging Haidar All, he 
attacked Chidambaram whose fortified pagoda had been for 
some time under the occupation of the enemy. The latter 
had taken care to surround the pettah on the west side of 
the temple with a mud wall; and the place was garrisoned 
by about 3,000 poligar peons. The pettah was quickly occu- 
pied by the English who burst open the outer gate on the 
west by a vigorous fire but found further advance into the 
pagoda impossible (18th June 1781). Thus the first attempt 
of the English to capture the fort failed and Coote retired 
to the neighbourhood of Porto Novo, where he gained the 
glorious victory that turned the tide of this critical war. 5 

Devicottah was abandoned after some time and has completely 
disappeared under water, except for some small relics. It is per- 
haps identifiable with the Jalkotta of the Muhammadan historians, 
who described the Muhammadan invasions of South India in the 
fourteenth century. 

5. The fortified pagoda of Chidambaram was the main 
objective of Coote in the campaign that culminated in the great 
victory of Portonovo. The failure of the English to carry the 
pagoda by assault to which reference has been already made is 
well described by Colonel H. C. Wylly, C. B., in his Life 
of Sir Eyre Coote, K.B., (1922 page 220) . The small number of 
Europeans in his force and his natural desire to save them for 
more important enterprises had made Coote endeavour to take 
the Pagoda with sopoys and small artillery. The failure of Coote 
and the repulse of his forces greatly elated Jahan Khan, the cap- 


It was in this period of trouble that the sacred Idol of 
Nataraja was removed from the Ponnambalam shrine and 
taken over to Tiruvarur for protection under the Raja of 
Tanjore. An inscription in grantha characters in the form 
of a 'sloka' in the thousand-pillared mantapam refers to this 
fact and says that it was in the year Saka 1695, Kali 4874 
(in the month of Mdsi Krishnapaksha, mula nakshatra, 
thriyothasi thithi) that Nataraja came to Chitsabha from 


It may be, perhaps, instructive at this place to trace the 
fortunes of the twin shrine of Govindaraja associated froir. 
the early times with Sri Sabhanayaka. We know that the 
Vaishnava deity was praised in song by two of the Alwars, 
Tirumangai and Kulasekhara and that the worship of the 
God was in those days conducted by the Tillai Muvayiravar. 
The Vishnu shrine was held in veneration by the Pallava 

tarn of the enemy troops; and the latter so magnified his success 
that Haidar All at once made up his mind to destroy the English 
power. He made a forced march of 100 miles in 2% days and 
placed himself between Coote and Cuddalore and began to fortify 
a position, hemming in the British army into an equilateral 
triangle formed by his camp, by the sea and the Porto Novo river 
In the battle the British fleet which was in the roads could not 
take any part except a small schooner; towards evening when 
his troops had begun to retreat, Haidar took shelter in Chidam- 
baram but Coote's cavalry was numerically too weak to pursue 
the enemy. 

It was in Chidambaram also that Haidar confined some English 
prisoners that he later on sent to his capital. 

6. A connected account of the Vaishnava shrine was given 
for the first time by Dr. S. K. Aiyangar, the veteran historian, 
more than two decades ago in connection with an important suit. 


monarch who was a contemporary of Tirumangai and pro- 
bably Nandivarman II, and was known by the name of Tillai 
Tiruchchitrakutam. The Tirukkovaiydr of Manikkavacaga 
informs us that the God was in a recumbent posture and 
rested on Adisesha and that his shrine was adjacent to 
Tiruchchitrambalam in front of the Siva deity. Further, we 
learn from Vaishnava literature that the Vishnu deity was 
thrown into the sea and the shrine itself was vacated in 
order to enlarge the courtyard of Sirrambalam by a Chola 
monarch, who is called SennikulSttunga in the Life of Rama- 
nwjo. by Pillailokam Jiyar. This monarch has been identi- 
fied with Kulottunga II, known also as Anabhaya and Tiru- 
nirru Sola (1135-1146) and this act of the Chola has been 
described by the poet, Ottakkuttar in two of his works. The 
date of this act of desecration has been proved by 
an elaborate process of reasoning by Rao Saheb 
Pandit M. Raghava lyengar, to be 1127 A.D. (Saka 1049). 
The great Vaishnava Apostle, Sri Ramanuja, certainly heard 
of this desecration of the Vishnu shrine and of the subse- 
quent transportation of the image by some bhaktas to Lower 
Tirupati. Some time after this, he went over to the latter 
place where he had the image consecrated and enshrined. 

We hear of the next great reconsecration of the Vishnu 
shrine in the temple in 1539, in the reign of Achyutaraya, 
under the inspiration of a famous Vaishnava teacher, Dod- 
dacharya alias Mahdcharya of Sholinghur. This was effect- 
ed, according to the Prapannamritam by one Ramaraya of 
Chandragiri, incorrectly supposed to be a brother of Krishna- 
deva Raya, but in reality a lieutenant of Achyuta who actu- 
ally consecrated the shrine. This is further supported by the 
Vdsudeva Charitai (composed in 1543 A.D.) of Varadaraja, 
in which the author says that Govindaraja worshipped by 
the devas, with Uma's Lord dancing by his side, was res- 


tored to his former shrine and praised by Achyuta in some 
verses. We know further that Achyutaraya built several 
parts of the Vishnu shrine; and the words used by Varada- 
raja in his book seem to imply that it was rebuilt after the 
old model, having perhaps been abandoned all the time. 
This writer might have actually witnessed the reconsecration 
ceremony itself. The alleged restoration of the shrine by 
the Brahman general, Gopanarya, associated with Kumara 
Kampana, in the task of the restoration of Srirangam and 
Madura in the fourteenth century is incorrect. 

In Saka 1565, i.e., A.D. 1643, Sriranga Raya of the 
Aravidu dynasty, then ruling from Vellore, renovated the 
mukhamantapa and the gopura of the shrine and the 
vimanas of the goddesses Pundarikavalli and Sudikkodutta 
Nachchiar and also of the mantapa in front of Tiruvazhi 
Alwan (Inscription No. 271 of 1913) and gave away five 
villages in rent-free grant for the benefit of the Sri 
Vaishnavas of the place. 

Krishnappa Nayak of Gingce (Cir. 1600) was a zealous 
patron of Vaishnavism, like his master Venkatapathi Raya 
of Vellore. He settled definitely the bitter controversy that 
had been raging over the question whether the shrine of 
Vishnu should have the Vaishnava symbols placed in front 
of it, to which the Saiva priests strongly objected. Accord- 
ing to the Jesuit writer, Father Pimenta, who has given 
a succinct account of what he saw in the temple when 
he visited the place in 1597, the protest ended in the violent 
death of some of the objectors and the work of construction 
was carried on to its conclusion. The Sanskrit work, Pra- 
pannamirtam, claims that the Vaishnava scholar Maha- 
charya defeated in scholastic disputes the Saiva scholars of 

Chidambaram, among whom was included even the famous 


Appayya Dikshita, so well known for his devotion to God 

In the last decade of the eighteenth century, tHere arose 
a renewed dispute between the two shrines, leading to the 
stoppage of the worship in the Vishnu shrine for some years 
and even the walling up of its entrance. It was settled by 
the arbitration of the Nawab's faujdar of the district and 
confirmed by a parwana of Nawab Omdut-ul-Umarah 
Bahadur of the Carnatic, dated 1797, which defined the 
respective rights and claims of both the parties. 

After the establishment of British rule over the district 
when swords were turned into plough-shares and battle-axes 
into pruning hooks, the disputes between the two shrines 
were fought out in the law courts, off and on, with varying 
fortunes. Now the main points of contention have been 
settled fairly amicably and the managers of the two shrines 
have agreed to work harmoniously, largely through the 
mediating efforts of the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad, who reno- 
vated the ruined mantapa in front of the Vishnu shnne, 
repaired the shrine itself which was in a dilapidated condi- 
tion, reconstructed the qopura and the vimdna over the 
Garbagraha and reconsecrated the sannidhi itself in the 
summer of 1934. 

Thus we may summarise the vicissitudes in tKe fortunes 
of the Govindaraja Shrine in these words : " In the eighth 
century, the Vishnu shrine was consecrated by a Pallava 
ruler, most likely Nandivarman II praised by Tiru- 
mangai Alwar. In the first half of the 12th century, it was 
desecrated by a Chola, most likely Kulottunga II ; in the 
first half of the sixteenth century, it was renovated by 
Achyuta Raya of Vijayanagara; and towards the close of that 
century it received the patronage of Krishnappa Nayak of 


Gingee; and later it was further enlarged by Sriranga IV, 
In 1934 the shrine itself which was in a ruined condition was 
renovated at a considerable cost through the munificent 
generosity cf the Rajah Saheb of Chettinad, as noted above. 

Thus it appears from the history of the shrine that it has 
been fated to undergo a critical change in its fortunes every 
four centuries. 


Lord Valentia, an English nobleman of high rank, who 
visited the shrine in 1803, gives a very good picture of the 
temple as he saw it then: He thus wrote: "The gateway 
by which we entered had lately been repaired by a devout 
widow, at the enormous expense of forty thousand pagodas. 
The whole of ilia architecture hud a more ancient appear- 
ance than Tan j ore or Ramiseram. Facing the entrance they 
were erecting a portico of one hundred fluted pillars, in some 
parts three, in others five deep; the roof was not yet laid on. 
We then proceeded in a winding direction to the entrance of 
the most holy temple. This building is more ancient, and 
the style much purer than the others around it; even the 
carved figures shewed in the artist a more just attempt at 
proper action than is to be found in the rest. A small temple 
facing us on our return, was of the same architecture and the 
carved figures had equal merit." This last was evidently 
the Nritta Sabha. 

The widow referred to above, was the wife of the great 
philanthropist, Pachaiyappa Mudaliar of Conjeevaram 
(1754-1794), who was Dubash for some years for the East 
India Company at the T^njore court and who devoted his 
extensive wealth for religious and educational charities, 
including among them large benefactions and kattalais for 
the Sri Sabhanayaka Shrine. He started in 1791-92 the 


second Brahmotsava of the shrine, by name Ani Tiruman- 
janam, which he arranged to be celebrated on an equally 
grand scale with the Arudhra Darsanam. He built the car- 
stand, renovated the temple cars and revived the car 
festival which had fallen into desuetude for some time. 
He arranged for the starting of a Sanskrit seminary at 
Chidambaram and persuaded his rich friend, Manali 
Chinniah Mudaliar, grandson of the famous Dubash of 
Lord Pigot, Manali Muthukrishna Mudaliar, (who construc- 
ted in Madras the shrine of Chennakesava Perumal and 
Chennai Malleswaraswami about 1763) to endow large 
benefactions to the Sabhanayaka Shrine, which included 
the maintenance of flower gardens and the plating with 
silver of the Panchdksara steps leading into the innermost 

Pachaiyappa had also planned the reconstruction of the 
east gopura which had become dilapidated; but as he died 
before he could undertake the work, his widow and his sister 
who carried out his will, took care to complete that injunc- 
tion, as noted by Lord Valentia. A stone image of Pachai- 
yappa and another of his sister and mother-in-law, by name 
Subbammal, are to be found in niches on the southern side 
of the gateway of the east gopura. The many-sided chari- 
ties of Pachaiyappa were first detailed in a number of songs 
about 1840 by great Tamil scholars like Malavai Mahalinga 
Iyer, Head Tamil Pandit of what was then known as the 
Madras University, subsequently the Presidency College, 
and Mahavidwan Sabhapathi Mudaliar of Conjeevaram. 

Likewise, the rich Nattukottai Nagarathar community 
comprehended a thorough renovation of the great shrine in 
their schemes of reconstruction of South Indian temples; and 
a considerable sum of money was devoted to this purpose by 
the family of the Rajah Saheb which began the work of re- 


construction in the seventies of last century on a lavish and 
magnificent scale, and the lesult has been the renovation of 
all the gopuras, the restoration of almost every shrine to 
greater grandeur of appearance and ornamentatiorif, includ- 
ing the gilding of the roof of the Kanakasabha, the repair 
of the enclosing walls, the broadening of the stone steps 
and corridors of the sacred tank and above all the con- 
struction of the magnificent corridors round the second 
prakara, recalling to mind the spacious splendour of the 
Rameswaram corridors. Besides these the charities of the 
family have provided for a number of ubhayams and 
kattalais in the temple and for the reconstruction of the cars 
and for the provision of a great quantity of lamps, vessels, 
vahanas and other appurtenances, many of them of silver, 
for use in the service of the deities. There was a great con- 
secration ceremony conducted under the auspices of this 
noble charity in 1891. The work of renovation in several 
other parts of the temple was continued for over a quarter 
of century after this date. Three generations of the family 
of the Rajah Saheb have devoted themselves to this great 
task of the restoration of this ancient shrine to more than its 
pristine glory. Metal images of the parents of the Rajah 
Saheb, holding ever-burning lamps in their hands have been 
installed in the Kanakasabha, in token alike of their religious 
devotion and magnificent generosity. 

The Rajah and his elder brother, Diwan Bahadur Rama- 
swamy Chettiar, have likewise developed the town and 
increased its amenities for cultured life. Schools for the 
propagation of Vedic and Agamaic learning and for the 
revival of Tevdram singing and studies, and magnificent 
choultries, which have practically thrown into shade and 
idleness, by their huge feeding, earlier foundations, 


and Gorakshaialas and flower-gardens may also be 
mentioned among their many-sided benefactions. 
Modern amenities like the well-equipped high school, 
started a quarter of a century ago by Mr. Ramaswami 
Chettiar, the protected water-supply which has scared 
away foul diseases like cholera and elephantiasis from 
the town, also due to his generosity, and the building of a 
town-hall for the expression of the common life of the citizens 
and named after the Rajah Saheb, as Annamalai Town Hall 
these show to what extent the Rajah's family have devoted 
themselves for the exaltation of the shrine and the improve- 
ment of the town, to which has been added practically 
another town and temple of learning in the shape of the 
University settlement, which may be called the most expres- 
sive of the Rajah's innumerable and wide-spread charities 
and may be claimed to be the most potential for good as well 
as the most fruitful among them all. It will not there- 
fore be inappropriate that the Rajah of Chettinad should be 
honoured, like his royal and semi-royal predecessors in the 
patronage of the temple, with the titles of Sivapada Sekhara 
and of Kanakasabhapathi Sabha Sarvakdrya Nirvdhaka. 
Let us hope that, under the Rajah's fostering care, the twin 
towns of Chidambaram and Annamalainagar, the one con- 
serving the culture of the past and the other endeavouring 
to realise the aspirations of the Tamils and their cultural 
development, may grow in strength and usefulness and ex- 
pand, as of old, so as to take in all the neighbouring hamlets 
like Sivapuri (reminiscent of the settlement of Jaffnese 
Saivites 7 taking refuge from persecution in their own 
home) Vikrama Sslanallur and other surrounding villages 
as it did in the golden days of Chola rule. 

7. A part of Chidambaram, round the tank of Gnanaprakasar, 
a scholar of the 17th century, has been associated with a Jafinese 
settlement ; and God Kanakasabapathi has ever been their chosen 



Professor, Maharaja's College, Trivandram, 

Government Astronomer 



The major problem in modern astronomy is that of the 
stellar distribution, representing the form and extent of our 
Universe the great assemblage of stars, clusters and 
nebulae segregating towards the Milky Way as their funda- 
mental plane. 

The problem has been approached in various ways: 
The individual distances of special types of stars, for inst- 
ance, the cepheid variables, whereof the regular period 
of variation is directly related to their intrinsic luminosity, 
which combined with their apparent brightness gives an 
accurate measure of the distances of these usually very 
remote objects. Though lying near to the galactic plane and 
at great distances, their number is too small to fix the form 
of our Universe. With cepheid distribution is associated 
that of the globular clusters, wherein the periods of the faint 
cepheids have determined the distance of these remarkable 
objects. The globular clusters, however, do not exceed 
more than some ninety in number and are found to lie in all 
directions within a sphere enveloping our galaxy, and so are 


no guide to the actual form or density prevailing within the 
Galaxy. Another line of study lies in deriving the distances 
from the known mean luminosity of stars of various spectral 
types. Then, again, the stream motions found to prevail in 
certain directions have revealed other characteristic 
features of our Universe. Another promising method, and 
that considered in this paper, is the star density, or num- 
bers of stars down to various magnitudes per square 
degree, in different parts of the sky. The studies made at 
Mt. Wilson Observatory have (contribution No. 301, 1925) 
been incorporated with the exhaustive star counts by Van 
Rhijn and published in 1929 (Pub. Kapt. Ast. Lab. 
Groningen, No. 43,) detailing the number of stars per 
square degree according to galatitude (the galactic latitude 
measured from the galactic equator) towards the north and 
south galactic poles, and for galongitude (galactic longitude) 
reckoned eastward along the galactic equator from its inter- 
section with the celestial equator in Aquila. 

The abridged Tables la e give, for the photographic 
magnitudes 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18, the star density in numbers 
per square degree at each 30 interval of galatitude (P) and 
at every 30 in galongitude (*), the latter being the aver- 
age values for the three 10 intervals of galongitude centred 
at the given directions. This smooths out the effect of 
local inequalities, whether of condensations (bright 
patches) or of obscuring clouds (dark patches). The aver- 
age for each whole circle of galongitude round each galati- 
tude parallel is given in the final column. It may be 
remarked that galactic latitude 2 is actually the richest 
belt; but, as this is the evident effect of the actual galactic 
clouds, the values for P^O should give the truer represen- 


In order to derive the forms of these stellar spheroids, 
it will suffice owing to the uncertainties in our premises to 
assume a generally uniform distribution of the stars, and we 
therefore take the cube roots of the density numbers to con- 
note the relative boundaries of the respective spheroids in the 
several directions. These values appear in Table II a~~e for 
the same magnitudes as in Tables I a~~e ) with the quantities 
for the whole circles in the final column, as before; the inter- 
mediate directions, however, in galongitude are confined to 
the significant directions M5Q 330 and AGO -240, viz., 
the lines approximately towards and away from the galactic 
centre, and those at right angles thereto. On the assump- 
tion of average uniform distribution of these stars in space, 
the numbers in Tables II a~e represent the outlines of their 
containing spheroids. The ratios between the values for 
the corresponding points for the several magnitudes in 
such case define the relative proportions of the spheroids 
between each three magnitude stage. 

Combining the like galatitudes N. and S. of the 
galactic equator, we derive Table Illy giving the correspond- 
ing ratios for each magnitude considered. The last two 
columns give the overall ratios for the range of 12 magnitudes 
from 6th to 18th pmg both for triple and for single 
magnitude ranges. 

The Table shows that the distance ratio has a slight but 
steady increase between each magnitude as the galactic 
equator is approached; while, at the same time, there is a 
falling off in this ratio with increasing distance down the 
magnitude scale. 

The planes of condensations found by Van Rhijn from 
the star counts vary with their brightness, and hence with 



their numbers. For the lucid stars, i.e., to 6th (phot) 
magnitude, the north pole of their plane lies at (1900) 
al88'2(12 h --33 m ), H-26'5. This difference indicates the 
trend of the stars from the local Cluster into those of the 
main galactic stream, as their distance increases. These 
spheroids are plotted in Figures 1 a b and 2 a b, showing 
their forms respectively on the galactic plane and that 
vertical to it; the outlines for the 12th ping are repeated in 
the "b" diagrams, these latter being on a smaller than the 
"a" scale, in order to embrace the much greater expanse 
in the 15th and 18th pmg In both sets of diagrams the 
actual X/N values have been plotted for each 10 intervals 
of galongitude and galatitude (for the latter, even closer 
within the P : 20 zone and derived from the Van Rhijn 
tables for these closer intervals) rather than for just the 30 
intervals appearing in the abridged Tables I and II. The 
vertical sections in Figs. 2 a b are chosen along the per- 
pendicular planes U50 330, [approximately towards and 
away from the galactic centre (A326 )] and 60 240, 
crosswise, viz., along the path of galactic rotation. The 
noticeable "dents" here and there in the vertical sections 
are evidently due to the presence of obscuring clouds: in the 
12th pmg outline, at ^330, P10 (Ophiuchus) and ^150, 
P 15 (Taurus); in the 18th ping, a like effect appears at 
A240, P+20 (Antlia). Conversely, the apparent "bulges" 
predicate bright galactic patches as that at A60, P~~10 
(Lacerta) for the 18th pmg, and that extending at A330 
southward in galatitude from P-10 (Sagittarius to Grus) 
for the 12th pmg. The vertical outlines for the 18th magni- 
tude (Fig. 2 b) at X240 and 330 are farther out than their 
opposites (compare the right and left hand sides in the 
figures). This shows a distinct "trailing", due, may be, to 
galactic rotation and also the presumed arm towards the 


galactic centre. The same effect appears though to a lesser 
extent, in the 15th magnitude. 

Having derived the comparative forms, the next step is 
to interpret their scale in distance units. In this connec- 
tion, we may adopt the results obtained at Mt. Wilson 
(Contr. No. 281, Seares, 1924) deriving Table IV (a) and 
quoted by Russel Dugan and Stewart, "AsLronomy" p. 665, 
where the distances near the galactic poles are stated to be 
about tnree-quarters of those tabulated, and at the galactic 
equator an eighth greater than tabled. This table may be 
expressed empirically by the formula R 9 (l'46) m , 
where ra is the tabulated (visual) magnitude and R the 
distance in radials ; a radial is the distance represented 
by a parallax of 1" arc, or 206,265 astronomical units 
(19*lbX10 12 miles), and commonly known under the 
uneuphonious and somewhat inaccurate term "parsec". The 
mean luminosities follow in the last column from the 
consequent relation L=81/l'2 m . 

The galactic planar values appear in Table IV b, where 
the formula has been extrapolated down to the 18th (visual) 
magnitude, while the intermediate values are entered for 
the photographic magnitudes 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18, for 
which Tables I and II are entered. The first two 
columns in Table IV b give respectively the visual and 
photographic magnitudes related by the formula, visual 
magn. 0-3+0*9 (phot magn.). The fourth column gives 
the corresponding parallaxes (ft). The final column gives 
the mean luminosities (L) of the stars of each magnitude 
following from the consequent empirical rule L 100/r 2 W ; 
whence it appears that there is a decline of 2% -fold or I'D 
magnitude in real brightness with every 5 magnitudes 
decline in apparent brightness. 


Though it is well known that the apparent brightness 
(magnitude) of a given star is no index whatever of its 
distance, yet, taking the stars in their thousands down their 
successive magnitudes, their average distances may be accept- 
ed, as tabled. In order to correlate the distances in Tables IV 
with those implied in Table II a e and illustrated in Figs. 1 
and 2, we may compare Ihe star density prevailing in our 
part of the Galaxy. By "star density" is meant the number 
of stars in a given volume of space, as distinct from "stellar 
density" which concerns the density conditions prevailing 
within any given star itself. Recent studies, summarized by 
Bok (Ap. Jiil. Monograph, "Distribution of the Stars". Univ. 
Chi. Press, 1937) indicate an overall mean density from 0*05 
down to 0'04 solar mass per cubic radial. Within our Local 
Cluster (see later) the star density ranges from about 0*06 
solar mass per cubic radial in our neighbourhood; 
i.e., 17 cubic radials per solar mass (cp. "Concise 
General Astronomy", Walkey and Aiyar 1940, p. 238) 
down to 60% of this in its outer regions (cp. 
Oort's finding, 0*038 solar mass per cubic radial, Bok, 
loc. cit.). Adopting 0*04 star density, or 25 cubic radials 
per star as an overall value, we have, for a 5:1 oblate 
spheroid, the simple relation between its volume 
and its apparent superficial area as seen by us from 
within, viz., between 4 /i5^R 3 XO'04= : 4^(57-3) 2 . Where R is 
the equatorial radius of the spheroid (5 times the polar 
radius). This yields a round value of 110 radials repre- 
sented by a star density of one star per sq. deg. The conse- 
quent polar scale being 64 radials for the same star density in 

the Tables I and II, 

_ -" 

The outline for 12th magnitude approaches the bound- 
ary of our Local Cluster, some 1500 radials across, and 
having its north pole at (1900)^^178 (ll h -52 m ), 


S=+31-2 (Scares, Mt. Wilson Cont. No. 347, 1927). This 
assemblage of stars evidently embodies an inner core 
represented by what is known as Gould's Belt, outlined 
mainly by the two great helium (B type) star groups of 
Orion and Centaurus-Scorpio, and which seem to indicate 
a circulation icund a centre over 200 radials away in 
Carina, and just possibly marked by the supergiant star 
Canopus (see "Concise General Astronomy", as above, 
pp. 269-272). The reality of the group motion in Cen- 
taurus-Seorpio has recently been questioned (Smart, M.N., 
R.A.S., Vol. 100 p. 60, 1939). The evident existence, how- 
ever, of the Local Cluster should predicate the probability 
of some circulatory motion within itself the B type stars 
in particular show such a tendency (cp. G. Stromberg, 
Mt. Wilson Cont. No. 492, 1934) . This core, tilted some 18 
with the main galactic plane, flattens this slope to within 13 
(C. Me Cuskey. Ap. Jnl. Vol. 89 p. 575, 1939). 

Though doubted by some, the existence of such a cluster 
is evident, a general galactic rotation has been established 
mainly from the apparent radial velocities of the globular 
clusters at a speed of some 170 jniles sec. round the galactic 
centre, 10,000 radials away in the direction (1900)al7' ! -40 m , 
S-30 (^326, P0), so Plaskett and Pearce conclude (M.N., 
R.A.S., Vol. 94, p. 679, 1934). More recently, the gtobular 
clusters are themselves found (Camm, Ap. Jnl. Vol. 89, p. 45, 
1939) to rotate round this centre; allowing for this rota- 
tion, that of the Local Cluster is accelerated to some 250 
miles per second. The shearing effect of this latter rotation 
is apparent in the elongation and lopsidedness in the length- 
wise and crosswise sections in Figs. 2 a-b., along the path of 
rotation, which is towards Cygnus. This is borne out by 
the independent studies summarized by Bok (Ap. Jnl, 


Monograph, as above), finding our cluster to be elongated 
in the approximately same direction, viz., the line, 

These studies also show that the star density, which is 
constant up to about 600 radials out from the Sun in other 
directions, drops rather suddenly from 200 radials until 
800 radials in the perpendicular direction line, i.e., towards 
and away from the galactic centre. The resumption in this 
direction of the normal star density at 800 radials out marks 
the main galactic densities beyond our Local Cluster. 

Table IV(b) however, lakes no account of the since dis- 
covered absorption of light within our gaiaxy; tor wnich the 
most acceptable overall value may be taken to be that deriv- 
ed by Stebbins (Com. Nat. Acad. Sc. No. Ill, 1933) as 
O rl *o6 (^28%) loss for every " Kiloparsec " viz., 1000 
radials, traversed. Incorporating this effect, the revised rule 
for distance (in the galactic plane) becomes R10 
X(l-45) m - 0036 This relation is plotted in Fig. 3 to 
derive the revised values of Table V in place of those in 
Table IV b, The luminosities (Table IV a) remain unaffect- 
ed since the absorption affects the apparent brightness only. 

Did the absorption and distribution functions hold so 
far the stars at the galactic centre, 10,000 radials away, 
would 'appear of 22nd (visual) magnitude. Such, however, 
is not the case. The polar and equatorial distance scales 
have been adjusted in the diagrams Figs. I a b and 2 a b 
to the relation pointed out under Tables IV incorporat- 
ing the absorption distances given in Table V. The resulting 
trend towards a 1: 5 flattening bears out, for our part of the 
Universe, and generally, the discoid form adumbrated by 
Sir William Herschel for what was then deemed to be our 
whole Universe. 


Again, we may derive from Tables II a e and V, the 
(direction (k) and distance (Re) of the centroids of the dis- 
tribution spheroids on the galactic plane, in Fig. I a b, by 
simply (within present limits of accuracy) treating each 10 
galongitudinal sector as a triangle of area N % with its 10 
apex at the Sun and its centroid f (N 1/3 ) out, whence, sum- 
ming the moments N % XI (N 1/3 )=ifN round the circle, we get 
tan A C in the usual way. The distance Re of the centroid 
follows by dividing the resultant by SN$ (viz., the total area) . 
The results appear in Table VI, giving both the direction and 
distance of the centroid in each case, together with the 
increase-ratio for the last three-magnitudes intervals. 

With the exception of the 9th phot. mag. (where local 
effects evidently prevail to deflect the direction,), there is 
a progressive trend eastward in the galongitude of the 
centroid with increasing distance. This is doubtless due to 
the increasing effect of the main galactic distribution as we 
leave the Local Cluster. To this is evidently due the 
sudden outward shift of the centroid between the 12th and 
15th magnitudes, where the change is about double that 
between the other intervals. This is because the Local 
Cluster seems to disappear beyond the average distances 
of the 12th magnitude stars. 

Next, we compare the mean "xXN values at the 
galactic equator in Tables II a e for the five pmg's 6, 9, 12, 
15 and 18, the increase-ratios in Table III, with the Table V 
values for R corresponding to the equivalent visual 
magnitudes, read from the curve in Fig. 3, together with the 
increase-ratios for these latter over the same 3 magn inter- 
vals. The comparison appears in Table VII. 

The first two columns in the Table give the photogra- 
phic and visual magnitudes, the next two columns give the 


cube-rooted densities and their equivalent distances 
by the equatorial conversion factor 110 (see under 
Table IV b value of 110 for star density of one). 
The fifth column gives the three magn increase-ratio 
(Table III), while the last two columns are read from Fig. 3, 
as stated, representing Table V. The agreement between 
the distance (cols. 4 and 6) for these independent lines of 
approach is a measure of the correctness of the adopted den- 
sity of 0'04 Solar mass per cubic radial, and the absorption 
factor ('00036 mag/1000 radials), while the agreement 
between the ratios (cols 5 and 7) shows how far correct is 
the assumption of approximately even star density, taking 
the stars on the whole within their magnitude spheroids. 

It should be noted that, in view of the dispersion in 
actual parallaxes about their mean for a given magnitude, 
the mean distance in radials for such magnitude is actually 
greater than entered (Tables IV, V) as correspondent to the 
mean parallax. To give a simple example; the mean of the 
five parallaxes 0"' 08, -09-10, '11, '12 (a dispersion 20% on 
either side of their means) is O'lO, corresponding to 10 
radials distance; whereas the mean of their corresponding 
distances 12%, 11%, 10, 9Ki, 8% radials is 10*235 radials 
or 2*35% more than would appear in the Tables. This dis- 
crepancy lessens as the number of intermediate measures 

In conclusion, it should be remembered that the 
evident, but at present unknown, inequalities of light- 
absorption prevailing along the galactic belt, necessarily 
vitiate any detailed findings which, therefore, must not be 
pressed beyond their general aspect. 






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Fig. 3 
(Magnitude Distance) 

m 0-00036 

R~10 (1-45) ; m= Visual Mag. 
Photographic mag.~10/9 (Vis. Mag.)~y 3 
Visual Mag.=:0-3 + 0-9 (Photo. Mag.) 



The left hand curve and margin 
show tenfold enlargement 




Professor of Science, Maharaja's College, Trivandrum 

Government Astronomer 



From the first appearance of accurate star catalogues, 
star positions have been recorded in the order of their passage 
across the meridian or successive culmination at the highest 
points of their celestial path once every 23 hours 56 minutes 
nearly. This so called "right ascension" is measured as 
time eastward from the point where the Sun's ecliptic path 
ascends across the celestial (i.e. sky trace of the terrestrial) 
equator. The height of each star's culmination marks its 
declination, measured in degrees etc., north or south of the 

equatorial line. 

What spoils this useful method, however, are the move- 
ments of this equatorial reference and the secular drift of the 
ecliptic (terrestrial orbital) plane's intersection with the 
celestial equator, due to the various motions of our Earth and 
their perturbations. The?e entail some 300 terms in com- 
puting the "ephemerides" or reduction of a star's actual 
position at a given date. This is the case even after the 


simplification by Bessel's Tables, published early in the 19th 
century, wherein the reduction numbers provide for the 
aberration of light, nutation in latitude and longitude along 
the ecliptic, and the precession of the equinoxes. These 
tables welded the shackles of this recurrent toil of Sissyphus, 
whereof the hill gets a little steeper at every epoch. So, the 
observations of Lacaille, Bradley, Mayer and Lalande 
(1750-1800) were imprisoned within the wabbling cage of 
terrestrial co-ordinates at mean epochs. 

In seeking an alternative, one might imagine a confer- 
ence of deputies from the members of the Solar System, 
presided over by those from the Sun, to decide the question of 
star positions. In such a conference, the claims for our 
terrestrial coordinates would soon be outvoted by the greater 
claim submitted for the orbital plane of either Jupiter or 
Saturn, or, better still, the invariable plane of the Solar 
System (lying in between these two) : or again, the equato- 
rial plane of the Sun as the ruler of our Solar system and 
reckoning along from its intersection with the invariable 


We have, however, in common with the other worlds, 
an even more fundamental plane of reference, namely the 
fundamental plane for all the solar systems in our Universe, 
and marked out by the Milky Way or Galaxy. 

Reference to such a plane would fix the star positions 
once for all, with only their annual variations to be worked 
out, namely, aberration, parallax and proper motion; the 
first two, in virtue of our orbital revolution, and the third 
due to the stars' own motion. The Sun's motion in space 
would set up a cumulative change, easily allowed for. As 
things are now, hours, if not days, of work are needed to 


disentangle the motion of a star, against the work of minutes, 
when referred to the galactic plane which is the more 
natural reference for stellar motions. To take an example, 
the laborious calculations for the century and a half from 
1800-1950 have impressed on the star Orionis a total motion 
of 7 minutes 36*85 seconds in R.A. and & 31 ()" in declina- 
tion a total motion of 114'* 4 or 6864", whereas the actual 
annual proper motion of this star (according to the General 
catalogue 1936) is 0"' 000 exactly zero Whence the 
labours of reduction through the 150 years are spent to 
produce an entirely fictitious result. 

Right ascension and declination coordinates are 
unavoidable for determining the position of the Sun, the 
Moon and the planets and the "clock" stars. A good star 
map suffices for the coordinates needed to find stars in an 
equatorial telescope. Though precise galactic positions are 
needed for any such star catalogue when replacing the 
shifting equatorial coordinates, approximate star positions 
can be derived from an accurate network of galactic 
coordinates at conveniently close intervals. We here adopt 
the contractions "galatitude" and "galongitude" for the 
galactic latitude and longitude respectively. 

Sir John Herchel (Outlines of Astronomy, 1849) writes 
thus of the galactic circle: "The circle is to sidereal 
astronomy what the invariable ecliptic plane is to planetary 
astronomy". Unfortunately this circle is not precisely 
defined in the sky, and various poles have been found for it, 
according to the particular object referred to, though these 
are in close agreement. 


The first reference to the galactic plane was by 
Sir William Hershel (Phil. Trans., collected Science Papers, 


Vol. 1, 1875) in his well-known section of the sidereal system 
in a plane at right angles to the galactic circle having its 
north pole at the then R.A., (a) 186 (12 h 24 m ), declina- 
tion (8) +32. 

Later on, F. G. W. Struve (Etudes d' Astronomic 
Stellaire, 1847), mainly using Bessel's catalogue within the 
zone15 decimation adopted the G.N.P. (1875) at R.A. 
12* 1 38 m declination+Sr-S. Sturve, as well as Sir John 
Hershel (outlines of astronomy, 1867), analysing the star 
counts of Sir William arranged the star gauges according to 
the distance from the north galactic pole, then taken to lie 
at R.A. 12*-47 m (191%), declination+27 (Outlines of 
Astronomy 1851). 

In 1862, Argelander (Bonn Durchm. Ill) adopted a 
galactic pole at (1800) R.A. 12 h -36 m declination +28 -5 
based on the counts of that notable catalogue of 324,000 
stars. This however, limited to stars north of declina- 
tion 2, covered only just over half the galactic circle, omit- 
ting the southern and most relevant part of the galaxy. 
Heis, using the Bonn Durchm, adopted (1855) 12 ?l -40 m 
5+27 for his Atlas celestis, and catalogue (1872) . 

The first extensive use of galactic coordinates was that 
by A. Marth (Mon. Not. R.A.S. 33, 1872-73) who, setting the 
G.N.P. at (1880) a!2^40 m , 8+30, reduced the galactic 
coordinates for the leading stars in or near the Milky Way. 
Twenty years later (Mon. Not. R.A.S. 53, 1892-3), he 
applied these same coordinates to all stars down to 6*0 
magnitude on the Harvard Photometry and 6 '2 magnitude 
in the Uranometria Argentina, within 20 degrees of the 
Galactic equator; Among others, K. Lundmark and 0. Jaske 
adopted Marth's data for their drawings of the Milky Way. 


Houzeau (Uranometria-Generale, 1878) placed the 
pole at (1880) ai2 h -49 m , 8+27 -5; This pole was adapted 
by Seeliger (Sitz. d. Math. Phys Akad. Wissen, 14, 1884). 

Next year, Gould (Uranometria argentina 1879) made 
his classic study, based on the galactic clouds, placing the 
pole at (1875) al2 h -41 m , 8+27 -3. 

Two years later Schoenfeld (Viert. d. Ast. Gesell, 16, 
1881), revising Houzeau's data placed the pole at (1880) 
al2 h -41 m , 8+28 -7. 

Wolf (Pub. Ast. Obs. Konigstuhl. Heidelberg I 1902) 
used the galactic nebulae to place the pole at (1875) 
<xl2 h -53 m , 8+28 -7. 

Next in order, we have Newcomb's exhaustive study 
(Carnegie Inst. Pub. No. 10, 1904), based on 47 Galactic 
clouds, together with Heis' star Atlas (1872) and Gould's 
Uranometria, whence he placed the pole at (evidently 
1875), a!91-l, 8+26 -8 including the well-known Cygnus- 
Aquilae Branch, excluding which the 42 remaining galactic 
clouds gave al92 '8, 8+27 "2 as the pole. 

Two years later, Kobold (Der Baudes Fixsterne 
systems, 1906) derived the pole at (1880) al91 '2, 8+28 "0 
for 33 bright galactic patches, based on Houzeau's work, 
already mentioned. Stroobant (Annales del' Obs. R.De. 
Belgigue, 11, 1908) placed the pole at (1900) a!2 h -46 m , 

Professor J. C. Kapteyn published (Gron. Pub. 18, 
1908) an extensive table of galactic coordinates, using 
Gould's pole, above stated, reduced to epoch 1900, and read- 
ing to the nearest whole degree at 10 W interval in R.A., and 
1 in declination. 


Prof. E. C. Pickering (Harvard Annals 56, 1912) pub- 
lished galactic tables for each 40 m (10) in R.A. and 10 in 
declination, the coordinates reading in degrees and minutes 
of arc. A converse table reading equatorial coordinates 
from the galactic was also giveft for the like 10 square 
degrees network. The pole adopted was at (1900) R.A. 
12^-40 m (190), 3+28; which apparently is the adoption of 
Argelander's pole reduced to epoch 1900. 

In the same year E. Hertzsprung (Ast. Nach 4600, 
1912) published findings of the galactic pole for various 
celestial objects segregating towards the galactic plane, such 
as eclipsing binaries types O and N stars, giant (c, ac type) 
stars, cephied variables and the Gaseous nebulae. The 
various poles appear in Table I. 

Herschel's pole (12 /l -47 m , S+27) was adopted in a 
compact galactic table by Walkey (Mon. Not. R.A.S. 74, 
1914) giving the coordinates to the nearest 0*1 at intervals 
of 1 hour around the 24 hours in R.A. and at each 10 
from+90 down to 90 in declination. 

Un . 

In the following year, R. T. Innes, a consistent advocate 
of galactic coordinates, and one who published numerous 
examples in their application, published (Union Obs* 
Johannesberg, Circular 29, 1915) a table of galactic coordi- 
nates in degrees and minutes at 20 minutes (5) intervals 
in R.A. and 5 in declination. Innes adopted Newcomb's 
branch-included pole viz., a!91*l, S+26*8, assuming this 
for the 1900 epoch. He gave also the parallactic angle-viz., 
the angle of intersection between the parallels of galatitude 
and declination at each interval, or between the vertical of 
galongitude and the R.A. meridian (measured anticlockwise 
from the galactic to the terrestrial circle) . While giving the 
declination from+90 down to 90, the right ascensions 



were condensed into the first 12 hours, the coordinates 
for the remaining R.A. hours being derived by reversal. 

C. V. L. Charlier of Lund Observatory (1916) derived 
the pole of the B (helium) type stars at (1900) al84'3, 
8+28 '7; but these stars belong rather to our Local 
Cluster inclined at some 13 from the galactic plane. Then- 
pole does not enter into our present consideration. 

W. Gyllenberg. (Medd. Lund, Ser I, IV, 1916) found 
the pole of the type stars at (1900) "12" 45, 8+27 "1. 

A Pannekock published (Annals Leiden, XI, 3, 1920) a 
table set to Marth's (1880) pole at 12' 1 40 m , 8+30 giving 
the galactic coordinates for each 20 m (5) in R.A. and 5 in 

Graff (Ast. Nach 5090, 1921), basing his studies on 
photometric measures of the galaxy, placed its north pole at 
(1925) <*12 h 50 TO , 8+26 -7. 

In a study of star counts, F. H. Scares (Mt. Wilson 
Contr. 347, 1927) found the pole from counts of stars (indi- 
cating 143 million stars) down to the 18th magnitude, to lie 
at (1900) 193-6, s+26'7. 

These star counts were reviewed by P. J. Van Rhijn 
(Gron. Pub. 43, 1929) in the light of fuller data (estimating 
216 million stars to 18th phot, magn.), and he set their pole 
at (1900) al2" 55-4'", S+25'29'. Accompanying tables 
give separately the galatitude and galongitude to the nearest 
whole degree for each hour from Q h to 24 h R.A. and every 
degree in declination from pole to pole. Van Rhijn's pole for 
stars (say 6000) down to the 6th phot. magn. was placed at 
(1900) al2 h 33 m , S-H26-5, these bright stars are however 
too local to carry galactic significance. 


In the same year, P. Emanualli (Publ Specola 
Vaticana, 14, App. I, 1929) published extensive tables set 
(as Inne's above-mentioned) to Newcomb's branch-included 
pole al91'l, S+26-8, taken to be for epoch 1900, and giving 
to the nearest 0'l the coordinates for each 10 m (2V 2 ) in 
R.A., (together with a subscribed table of interpolation for 
each minute) from O h to 24* 1 and for each degree in declina- 
tion from to +90 and then from to -90. A supple- 
mentary table gives the co-ordinates (to nearest degree) at 
1 minute R.A. and 1 degree declination intervals round the 
N and S galactic poles viz., R.A. 12 to 13 % hours, declina- 
tion+20 to +34, and R.A. Q h to 1%*, declination 
-20 to -34. 

A research by R. Trumpler (Lick. Obs. Bulletin 420, 
1930) on 334 open star-clusters, which objects segregate 
towards the Milky Way, found their pole to lie at (1900) 
a!92-6, 8+27 -7. 

The most extensive table published of galactic coordi- 
nates is one by J. Ohlsson (Lund Annals 33, 1932) giving, 
as closely as 0*01, the coordinates at each 4 m (l) of R.A. 
from O h to 24 h and for each 1 in declination from the equator 
to the pole, southern declinations to be obtained by reversal 
of the tabular entries. The parallactic angle also appears, 
together with a subsidiary table for conversion to another 
galactic pole. At the back of the work is reproduced a 
chart by W. Gyllenberg showing stars down to the 4th 
magnitude, set to galactic coordinates, the equatorial reticule 
being superposed for conversion. The mention of such 
chart leads us, in concluding the historical aspect, to the note 
on other graphs or charts for deriving galactic coordinates. 

A graph published by Nort (Recherches Utecht, VII, 
1917) was based on the pole at (1900) R.A. 12M3 m , decli- 





+ 5* 


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Another graph is that published by J. A. Pearce and 
S. N. Hill (PubL Domin. Astro-Ph. obsey, Victoria B.C., 
Vol. IV, No. 4) based on the Harvard pole at (1900) <490, 

Maps of the constellation boundaries in galactic coordi- 
nates were published by O. Seydl (Publ. Obs. Prague, 5, 
1928) using the Harvard pole, 190, H-28 . 

An interesting set of graphs were published by 
Dr. J. M. Baldin of Melbourne (Mon. Not. R.A.S. 89, 1929), 
enabling one to read off galactic coordinates, or equatorial, 
the one from the other, also the distance and position angle 
of the Solar apex (<xl71, 8+28). The galactic pole adopt- 
ed is again the Harvard one at 190, 8+28. 


A table of galactic coordinates entails the choice of a 
departure or zero point for galongitude. Various fixed points 
have been adopted or proposed. Marth, Kapteyn, Pickering 
Walkey and Van Rhijn adopted the ascending node of the 
galactic circle on the celestial equator in Aquila with the 
galongitudes measured eastward thence towards Cygnus 
Cassiopeia etc. along the galactic equator. This departure 
point is chosen for a fixed epoch (1900) so as to avoid pre- 
cessional changes. Innes and Emanuelli, overlooking this 
epochal fixture, criticised this choice needlessly on the false 
charge of precessional change. They chose their zero from the 
galongitude of Prof. W. W. Campbells' solar apex at (1900) 
<*270, s+30, as symmetrically dividing as much of the 
stellar motions as reflect our Sun's motion in space. This 
point lies some 23 degrees farther, along the galactic equator 
from the other zero point. 

S. Wicksell, investigating proper motions (Medd. Lund 
Ser II 12, 1915) and W. Gyllenberg, on the distribution of 


O type stars (Mell. Lund. Ser. II 13, 1915 and I, 75, 1917), 
measured their galongitudes from a point on the Milky Way 
approximating to the principal vertex of peculiar motion 
-(1900)al8 /l , 8+18 (so Charlier, Cal. Lect. 1926) which 
choice has the advantage of symmetrical division of the stars' 
peculiar motions. 

The International Astronomical Union, which in 1922 
(Trans I A.U. Vol. I, 1922) adopted the ascending node of 
the galactic on the celestial equator, changed their zero 
galongitude to the star a Cygni (1900), 20> l 38 m , S+44'9, 
lying just north of the galactic circle. 

C. V. L, Charlier (Medd Lund II, 14, 1916 and 19, 1918) 
on the other hand directed his zero galongitude approxi- 
mately towards the anticentre of the Local Cluster represent- 
ed by the brighter B type stars, at (1900) <*245 33' 
H-55 37'. 

Lastly P. Collinder (Lund Annals, 2, 1931) measured 
the galongitude of the open star-clusters from Shapley's 
centre of the globular clusters (Mt. Wilson Contr. Nos. 152, 
157, 1918) approximately at 17 /l 30 771 , -30. 

Fortunately, whatever galongitudinal starting point be 
chosen, the conversion from one departure to another with 
the same pole involves merely changing all the galongi- 
tudes by the difference in galongitude between the two 
origins, the galatitudes remaining unchanged. 


The fore-going account of various poles found for the 
galactic plane, and the consequent uncertainty within 
narrow limits, entail the choice of the most representative 
position where on to base any table of galactic coordinates. 


The most relevant findings appear in Table I (given at 
p. 445) all reduced to the 1900 epoch. 

These points are likewise plotted in Fig. I following 
covering an area of 8 degrees (32 min.) in R.A. and 
4 degrees in declination. The figure includes (as falling 
within its area) some poles excluded from Table I, being 
ineligible for deriving the mean. 

Considering the independence of the researches and the 
diversity of the objects concerned, the concordance in their 
poles is remarkable, and indicates the cosmical significance, 
of the galactic concentration and fundamental plane thereby 
defined. The findings for the Galactic Belt or Clouds (Milky- 
Way) are grouped together and yield a simple mean of 
(1900) al91'7, 3+27 -3, Newcomb's pole tabulated is the 
weighted mean of his two findings, both with and without the 
branch, the former being given double weight. 

Next follow the Star-count poles, whereof those based in 
the B.D. (covering about half the galactic circle) as also 
Scares' should each carry half the weight, of Van Rhijn's 
revision (which includes that by Scares). These weights 
yield a mean at (1900) al92'4 S+26*5. 

The third group, comprising specific galactic objects 
yields a mean pole at (1900) 0492 -3, 3+27 '3. It should 
be remarked that the trend of the eclipsing binaries, and 
consequently their pole may be the mere illusion due to a pos- 
sible parallelism of their orbital planes with the galactic in 
which the association of these systems with the galactic belt 
would be the mere selection by eclipses due to our line of 
sight within the galaxy. Their pole therefore, lying far 
away from the rest, has been assigned only half weight in 
the given mean. Combining these means, we get a final 
value for (1900) "192 -1, S+27'0. In view of their 


general agreement, the weighting of certain results makes 
no appreciable difference from the simple unweighted mean 
of the twenty entries, yielding 191 * 9, +27 '2. We may 
therefore accept the north pole of the galactic as lying for 
epoch 1900, at <xl92 (12 h -48 w ) , 5+27 -0. It is noteworthy 
that the mean of each group agrees with this value in whole 
degrees. This point appears (as it happens) at the exact 
centre of Fig. I, the area covering the various poles men- 
tioned. It is unfortunate that general usage of the Harvard 
pole at a!90, 8+28 and consolidated by Ohlsson's exten- 
sive tables based thereon, led the International Astrono- 
mical Union (1935) to adopt this pole which, as shown by 
the open circle in Fig. I, lies outside the run of the plotted 
poles and fully two degrees away from what must be 
accepted as the true pole. 


We may now consider the process of transition from 
equatorial to galactic coordinates. 

Fig. II, illustrates the outside of the celestial sphere 
with its north pole at P and crossed by the galactic equator 
with its north pole at G. The point C with equatorial coordi- 
nates , 8, needs to be transformed to its galactic coordinates, 
P, A, where A i s the galongitude measured along the galactic 
equator from Q its zero point of intersection with the celes- 
tial equator. The intersection of the latter with the ecliptic 
is at Y the zero of right ascension the positions of P, Q and Y 
being for the 1900 epoch. We need to solve the spherical tri- 
angle PCG whereof PC 90 -8, also PG, or the inclination 
(0 of the galactic to the celestial equator being 90 less the 
declination 27 of G i.e., (90 27) =63. The R.A. of G, 
we know, is 192, that of Q is 282, while that of Y is or 
360. The R.A. (a) o f C in the figure is measured as usual 
eastward from Y (hence round behind the sphere) to C. 



Hence angle CPG 192 J ; in our figure as drawn, the 
R.A. and declination of C are roughly 20 h ; 45. 

By the usual formulae: 
Cos CG-cos CPG-sin PG'sin PC+cos PG'cos PC 

Q r^-' sin CPG^sin PC 
Sin PGC -- : ===? - 
sm CCr 

which in our nomenclature becomes. 

Cos(90-P)=sin 63-ccs(a-192) sin (90 -8)+; 
cos 63 -cos (90-8). 

Whence sin P=sin 63 -ccs(a-192)cos 8+cos 63 sin 3 
=0-89101 cos (a -192) cos 8+0 -45399 sin 8. 

sin(-192 )-sin(90 -8). 
Also, Sin(90--*)= \ n(90 / p) - L 

Cos i = 


Introducing an auxiliary angle vCP&~(a 282) 
or (<*+78), we may transpose these formulae into the per- 
haps more convenient forms: 

tan x=r 0*45399 tan y+0' 89101 tan 8 sec Y and sin 
P=0- 45399 sin 8 0' 89101 cos 8 s i n Y which is fully given by its 
sign. The quadrant of * ir> fixed by the sign of tan \ while * 
and Y both fall either in the first or fourth quadrants, or in 
the second and third quadrants. 


In modern studies, the proper motions (!*) mainly 
according to spectral type, need frequently to be referred to 
the galactic plane. This entails the transposition of the 


direction (ty) of the proper motions from the celestial north 
polar zero to the galactic (north) pole. This is simplest done 
in correcting ty by the parallactic angle-called <p by Ohlsson. 
The value of <P the angle PCG in Fig. 2- or the angle which 
the R.A. meridian makes with the galactic polar vertical, is 
found directly by the formulae. 

sin cos^ 0-89101 cosA 
smCp ^ c~os8 ' =- cos* 

Hence we derive the angle ( M ) of the direction of \ l 
measured anti-clock-wise form the north galactic polar 
vertical, viz., co=T|)+cp. 

Otherwise, the direction > may bo found direct (as 
ty from resolving n and n$) by getting the components of M- 
parallel to and vertical to the galactic equator. 

Thus \&~(v>a cos <P+u8* s in <P) Sec. P. 

and n(3~(^S cos <p-f*a sin <p). 

all symbols (expressed in seconds of arc n a 

cos 8 as usual. 

Fig. 3 illustrates the application. 

Partly because the parallactic angle <p is actually needed 
for proper motions and so applies to individual stars, and 
partly because if applied to the R.A. and declination reticule, 
these would need to be taken at closer intervals than here to 
be really useful, this parallactic angle has not been computed 
for the present table. It can be readily computed from the 
formulae here given or from the table given in Ohlsson's 
tables, already mentioned. 


Owing to limitation of time and space, also pending the 
verdict of Astronomers, the coordinates have been calculat- 


ed to the nearest *1 only and at intervals of 20 m (5) in 
R.A. and 5 in declination, as suliicient for the present pur- 
pose. A general acceptance would then justify computa- 
tion to (say) 5 m intervals in R.A. and 1 in declination it 
should be noted that 4 m (1 ) intervals, though closer would 
involve only five-eights of the work, since the whole degrees 
are symmetrical about the chosen pole. The galongitudes 
are measured from their adopted zero at the intersection of 
the celestial and galactic equators in Aquila (4282 ^0). 
Adoption of the Solar apex ("270 ^30) reduces all galongi- 
tudes by 23 * 2, while <* Cygnus as zero involves reduction 

In order to save space and repetition the practice of 
some previous tables has been adopted so that the upper and 
left hand margins enter respectively the R.A. arguments up 
to 12 hours and from the north to the south pole in declina- 
tion, while the lower and right-hand margins combine the 
arguments from 12 hours to 24 hours R.A. and from pole 
to pole in declination, though with the decimation signs 
reversed. Hence, to use the table beyond 12 hours R.A. 
(i.e. using the lower margin) , the ^ values need to be chang- 
ed by 180 and the P values reversed in their sign. For 
convenient use the final R.A. hours column in each page has 
been repeated to open the following page; whence too the 
table begins with the 12 hours/ 24 hours column duly invert- 
ed and the changed ^180 and P as just described, so fol- 
lowing on into the earlier hours in R.A. 

Since the popular adoption was confessedly tentative, 
awaiting a more certain derivation, it is now submitted that 
the mean position here derived from the numerous inde- 
pendent researches may be taken as good as ever likely to be 
found. Hencc-forth, popular usage need no longer condone 
the use of a manifestly wrong position however great the 


wrench from custom and laboriously compiled tables. For- 
tunately, the commendable fore-sight in adding auxiliary 
tables in Ohlsson's extensive tables, abovementioned, has 
(with the implied provision of needful change) provided 
for the easy transition to any other pole from that 
(190, +28) there given. 

Should, what is at present deemed a vain wish, ever be 
realised in the adoption of galactic coordinates for the stars 
in general, the order of their cataloguing should best follow 
Sir J . Herschei's method of distance from the galactic north 
pole though in each star's order of increasing distance 
there-from, rather than by zones. While, with the present 
terrestrial coordinates, the order of R.A. is, by its very 
nature, the proper catalogue order, galongitudes carry no 
such significance in any galactic list. Whereas galatitude, 
do carry a real significance in the steady increase of star 
density towards the galactic plane, while a like decrease sets 
in onward to the south galactic pole. 



a 8 

Galactic belt (7) 

1. Herschel (1851) .. i92-3 +26'5 

2. Houzeau (1878) .. 192*5 27*4 

3. Gould (1879) .. 190 -6 27 '2 

4. Schoeiifeld (1881) .. i9 -6 28'6 

5. Newcomb (1904) .. 192 -0 27 '0 

6. Houzeau-Kobold (1906) .. 191-5 27'9 

7. Graff (1921) ., 192. 2 26 '8 


Star Counts ( 4) a s 

8. Argelander B.D.* (1862) .. 190 '2 +28 '0 

9. Heis B.D.* (1872) . . 190'3 26'9 

10. Scares (1927) .. 193'6 26'7 

11. Van Rhijn (1929) .. 193'9 25'5 

Galactic objects (9j 

12. Wolf (1902) nebulae .. 193'6 +28*6 

13. Hertzsprung eclipsing Binariesf. 188 * 2 25 * 8 

14. Hertzsprung (1912) a-ac-stars. . 18U'l 26 '3 

15. Hertzsprung type 0" .. 190'7 26'9 

16. Hertzsprung gaseous nebulae .. 192 * 7 28 *1 

17. Hertzsprung type N stars . . 194 '2 27 *4 

18. Hertzsprung Cepheid variables . . 195 * 9 26 * 8 

19. Gyllenberg (1916) type O stars. 191 "3 27 '1 

20. Trumpler (1930) Open clusters. 192 '6 27*7 

The entries of table I above appear in order 
of their date of investigation, under each of the 
three groups, Galactic belt, Star counts and Galac- 
tic objects. All positions are reduced to the 1900 
equinox. Newcomb's pole, presumably referring to 1875 
epoch, has been reduced accordingly to 1900, for which the 
branch included result is given double weight (thus giving 
the main stream 3: 2 weight) Argelander's and Heis' results 
(*) based on the B.D., (so omitting nearly half the galactic 
belt and that the southern and most significant section) are 
assigned half the normal weight. So too Spare's result 
incorporated with Van Rhijin's is assigned half the weight of 
the latter. The eclipsing binaries (f) pole too, for the reason 
stated already should carry alike reduced weight. Hertz- 
sprung's poles for his six set of galactic objects are entered 
in their order of increasing Right Ascension. The simple 
unweighted means for each group are respectively 191 f 7 



+27 -3, 192 -0+26 '8, 192 -0+27 -2, combining to a mean 
value al91'9 $+27 '0. The simple mean of all twenty 
entries together yields the virtually like value of 
191 '9+27* 2 the close agreement of which with the 
weighted mean (192-1+27'0) quoted in the text, shows 
the striking concordance in the negligible effect due to 

Figure 1 

(Interior of Celestial Sphere) 





189 ia 







D * 













XIII 56n 

52 rr 


40 rr 


The above diagram (on polyconic projection) shows the 
twenty (1900) polar positions entered in Table 1, and 
covers an area of eight degrees in (1900) R.A., from 
12 h 32 m to 13 h 4 m (lower margin) or 188 to 196 (upper 
margin), by four degrees (+25 to +29) in declination. 
The seven Galactic belt poles are denoted by squares, the 
four star-count poles by stars, while the poles of the nine 
galactic objects appear as circles; all are shown solid and are 
numbered in their order of descriptive entry in Table I. 
Besides these, are shown Van Rhijn's pole (12 H 33 m +26'5) 
for the 6th magn. star counts, also Stroobant's pole, 
(12 h 46 m +28) adopted for the galactic belt and evidently as 
the mean of Houzeau's (2) and Schoenfeld's; (4) The addi- 
tions appear in open figures and are not numbered since they 



are excluded from Table I, not being original findings. The 
I.A.U. i.e., Harvard, Pole (12 H 40 m +28) evidently the whole 
degree derivation from Argelander's reduced to 1900 epoch 
(8) appears as an open circle standing outside the run of the 
other poles. The position finally adopted (I2 h 48 m +27) 
which as it happens, coincides with the weighted mean of 
New-comb's poles (5) is shown by the large circle at the 
exact centre of the diagram. 

Figure 2 
(Exterior of Celestial Sphere) 

P = North celestial pole. 

G = North galactic pole. 

C ~ Point for transposed coordinates. 

Q = Ascending node of the galactic on the celestial 

equator (1900); *=0. 
*?= Ascending node of the Ecliptic on the celestial 

equator (1900); a=0. 
a = Right ascension of C. 
P = Galatitude of C, 


f a I Y3 
Y = Auxiliary angle= } a -282 

8 = Declination of C 

i= 63 ~ inclination of the galactic to the celestial 


A = Galongitudo of C. 
<P = Galactic parallactic angle. 

Figure 3 
(Interior of Celestial Sphere) 

H> = = Star's proper motion. 
ia = in right ascension. 

M-8 = in declination. 

^ = in galongitude. 

f^P = in galatitude. 

<V = galactic parallactic angle. 

^ = direction of ^ in terrestrial coordinates. 

CD = qp+ip~directiv;n of v> in galactic coordinates. 



The ddtted lines illustrate the algebraic equation 
between terrestrial and galactic coordinates, thus: 

cos <P-XM+ML. 

\i$~H& cos <p-na sin q>- (Mn-nR.) 
Whence nA 2 -f|ip 2 - (ji8 sin <p) 2 +(n<* cos q^) 2 

+2^8 sin qpjia cos qp+ (u3 cos qp) 2 +(Ma sin 
-2^8 cos <P ^sin q>. 

~^ 2 (sin 2 qp+cos 2 



Lecturer in English, Annamalai University. 

The Emperor Aurangzeb is said to have complained to 
his tutor Mulla Shah, that the teacher had wasted precious 
hours of the emperor's youth 'in the dry, unprofitable, and 
never-ending task of learning mere words/ The study of 
the structure and mechanics of language is not a barren and 
profitless memorizing of dull declensions and confusing 
conjugations. It is not a mere matter of musty documents 
and mouldy dialects. The devoted study of language brings 
the students into contact with the living stream of human 
consciousness whose beginning no man knows and whose 
end no human intelligence can predict. For, modern research 
has conclusively proved that language is a magic speculum 
in which are mirrored the fortunes of communities and of 
nations, their greatness and their littleness, the width and 
variety of their life or the narrowness of their outlook, their 
tastes and their preferences, their beliefs and their doubts, 
their culture and their degradation. 

Properly understood language is not merely a means of 
communication between living beings including within its 
scope signs and gestures. It is neither the mere expression 
of thoughts by means of words, nor the instrument to hide 
one's thoughts as the diplomatist, Talleyrand, would have 
us believe; nor the subterfuge of the emptyheaded to hide 
the absence of thought as the Russian, Soren Kierkegaard 


maintains. To the logician, Jevons, language is a mechanical 
aid to thought and an instrument of record and reference. 
Language is no doubt a staff for the average mind; but it is 
a constraint on genius. To Madam de Stael, the queen of 
the Paris salons, language is a treasured toy which animates 
the spirit like music or strong liquors. Often we speak in 
order to satisfy the craving for sociability. Primitive peo- 
ple often regarded words as potent weapons which could 
compel the powers to do good or evil. They believed in the 
efficacy of charms and incantations to bring about evil to 
their enemies or prosperity to themselves and their belong- 
ings. The psychologist regards language as a form of human 
behaviour. In short, language is the sum of the speech 
habits of a nation, changing and varying in the course of 
centuries, enriched by the experience of individuals and 
nations, continuously flowing and growing, ever advancing 
to fresh woods and new pastures, a department of human 
activity as varied as life and as comprehensive as human 

The very existence, or the reverse, of a refined and culti- 
vated language spoken over a vast area throws light on the 
government and society of a country. France in the Eigh- 
teenth Century was the home of a polished and brilliant 
language while England in the Thirteenth Century was split 
up into a large number of dialect areas. This is due to the 
social and political conditions that prevailed in the two coun- 
tries. In the Eighteenth Century, France had already 
enjoyed a long period of settled and centralised government; 
it had an absolute monarch at the head whose court was 
the centre of art and refinement. The English court of the 
Thirteenth Century looked for culture towards France and 
did not care much for the native tongue. The people lived 
in isolation, their narrow interests being confined to their 


parochial homes. Small wonder then that the English peo- 
ple did not have a common standard language at that time. 

The absence of a common language indicates yet another 
feature viz., the human geography of an area. The linguis- 
tic configuration of South India with Malayalam west of the 
Ghats, Canarese in the Mysore plateau, Telugu in the North 
East and Tamil in the Eastern plains bears witness to this 

Climate, social habits, religion > science and even indi- 
vidual genius have left their unmistakable traces 
on language. Close and glottal sounds are more in 
evidence in the language of a cold country while open sounds 
are more numerous in the speech of warmer lands. 
The vocabulary of a people is necessarily limited by the facts 
of their experience and it is significant that many Indian 
languages have no word for ice while they have many for 
the sun. An analysis of the phonological structure ot any 
language can prove without a doubt the influence of cli- 
mate on human speech. The history of language shows 
that dialects have been broken up and levelled into some 
sort of standard speech, by war, by large national festivals, 
by an exogamous system of marriage and by improved 
means of communication. Standard language reflects in no 
little measure the work of Dante in Italy, of Chaucer in 
England and of Luther in Germany. Modern writers in 
Tamil and other Indian languages have contributed a good 
deal to the form and expressiveness of their langu- 
ages. Standard English is a resultant of the songs of the 
mediaeval minstrels of the fall of feudalism, of the rise of 
towns and of the strong and centralised Tudor government. 
Standard speech in Germany bears witness to the influence 
of the common life of the soldiers coming together from 
different parts of the country, to the influence of the officials 


transferred from place tc place and even to that of the 
touring companies of actors who wandered through town 
and village. Universities, public schools, royal courts and 
fashionable society have all helped to chasten and enrich the 
language of a nation. 

Social outlook and social usages find a very clear reflec- 
tion in the form and development of the Sanskrit langua^. 
Though Sanskrit has to its credit the first grammar in the 
world and the most scientific phonetic system, over no other 
tongue docs the dead hand of ancient authority lie so heavy 
as over Sanskrit. Instead of setting forth the nature of the 
language, grammar assumed powers of direction and control 
and enforced such rigid laws that a large number of its 
speakers were driven outside its pale. Authoritarian 
thought in matters of language contributed to the rise of 
languages derived from Sanskrit. Testimony to this is borne 
by the Sanskrit drama wherein king, courtiers and learned 
men speak in one tongue, while women, children, servants 
and common people use vastly modified forms. The 
stratification of class dialects and the later rise of derived 
languages prove the rigidity of the social codes among the 
speakers of early Sanskrit. 

The study of a language reveals equally well the religion 
and philosophy of a people. Words like church, temple, 
mosque, synagogue, koil and kshetra throw a flood of light 
on the religious ideas of the people. Church comes from 
Greek KuriaJcon, Lord's house, and the word was probably 
taken into Germanic by the mercenaries who served in the 
East, Temple comes from Greek through Latin. In Greek 
Temeros meant a sacred enclosure, a piece of ground cut off. 
Synagogue again comes from another Greek word meaning 
congregation. The word mosque comes into English from 
Arabic through French and Spanish ; the original Arabic 


word Masjida means a place of prayer. The Tamil koil means 
a prince's house, while the Malayalam kshetra denotes a field. 
A place or an abode, a place set apart, a place of prayer, a 
meeting place, a congregation are therefore found implied 
in these terms. In English, the influence of Latin Christia- 
nity is most clearly marked. It is evident in a large number 
of loan words, in the changes in the meaning of indigenous 
words, in new coinages and in the very structure and syntax 
of Old English prose. It is not surprising to find that Eng- 
lish as it is to-day has been profoundly affected, by the great 
religion which its speakers profess. But when we think of 
the debt of modern English to the philosophy of Greece and 
especially to the genius of Plato we are filled with wonder. 
The English word 'quality' goes back to the Latin qualitas 
which is the translation of a Greek word qoiotes coined by 
Plato to mean "whatness or of-what-kind-ness" i.e. the con- 
cept represented by the Sanskrit word guna. By this Plato 
separated in thought the characteristic feature from an ob- 
ject of which it formed the distinctive sign. Again Plato 
was the first to use the Greek equivalent for analogy, anti- 
podes, dialectic, enthusiasm (the state of being filled with a 
god), mathematical, synthesis and system. Method, music, 
philosopher, sophist, theory, type and irony (simulation of 
ignorance) will not mean what they do but for the genius of 
Plato. But the new meanings he gave to the words 'idea' 
and 'ideal' are the most remarkable of all. Before Plato the 
word 'idea' meant the form and semblance of a thing, being 
cognate with idein, to see. Cicero translated this into 
'species' a word connected with specere, to sec and speculum, 
a mirror. By an extraordinary effort of thought Plato 
made it possible for us to separate our ideas, notions, 
thoughts and semblances of them from the things themsel- 
ves. According to Plato matter is but an imperfect copy of 


the ideas or archtypes or perfect spiritual types. These 
alone persist for ever and these alone are real 

Just as language sets forth the good points of a people 
it also lays bare their ignorance, worldliness, contempt and 
hatred. The degeneration of meaning which words like 
knave (lad), villain (peasant), boor (farmer), varlet (serv- 
ing man) and menial (one of the household) show, is elo- 
quent of the treatment that peasants and labourers received 
at an earlier time. The present meaning of 'prejudice' re- 
minds us of man's proneness for wrong impres- 
sions while ' resent ' and ' retaliate ' show that he is more 
keen to take offence at injury than to be alive to benefits done. 
The disrepute into which the words 'simple' and 'innocent' 
have fallen show how ready the average man is to 
deceive rather than be deceived. The word 'miscreant' 
(misbeliever) shows the Westerner's animus against the 
Moslem and 'assassin' is only another form of 'hashashin' 
a Moslem fanatic intoxicated with hashish. The word 'dunce' 
is derived from the name of the wittiest of school divines, 
Duns Scotus, and records merely the popular prejudice 
against schoolmen. It is no credit to Hindu humanity that 
it should have given to English, the word 'pariah* and a new 
meaning to the word 'untouchable.' 

If, therefore, language furnishes us with a dependable 
key for unlocking the treasures of past thoughts, manners, 
habits and ideas; if it preserves for us the inner, living his- 
tory of man's soul and the evolution of his consciousness; 
if, in short, language is a mirror not only of the outer circum- 
stances but also of the inner working of individual and na- 
tional life; then, the study of language can never be barren 
or poor in interest; nor can it be lacking in great humanising 
and cultural valuo to those who devote themselves to its 
study with patience and enthusiasm. 





The indigenoub bankers play a very important part in 
the economic life of India. The indigenous banking busi- 
ness is a purely family concern and has become a hereditary 
calling in particular classes and communities. The Nattuk- 
kottai Chettiars are one of the most remarkable banking 
communities in this presidency ana most of them live in 
the Ramnad District and the Pudukkottah State. The most 
important centre is Cheilinad. ^Geographically this tract 
is an undefined area; but in the regulations that bind the 
caste of the Chetti community, it is mentioned as the area 
lying soui/ij of the Vellar river, east Piranamalai a moun- 
tain peak that has given its name to the neighbouring vil- 
lage in the north-west corner of the Ramnad district and 
west of the sea. A look at the map shows that this tract 
which, the Ciiettis say, they selected for their home from 
the time of their migration from the Chola kindom, lies 
partly in ike Pudukkottah State and partly in the Ramnad 
district. They have settled down in 78 villages, 20 of which 
are in Pudukkottah and 58 in Ramnad." 1 The Chettiars 
are called Nagarathars from the fact that they are grouped 
for social purposes into nine Nagarams or townships. At 

1. Madras Banking Enquiry Committee Evidence Volume 
III page 1170. 


the head of each of these townships there is one temple. 
The nine temples are: 

Ilayaihakudi, Mattur, Vairavankoil, Iraniur, Pillayar- 
patti, Neiuam, Iluppakudi, Suraikudi and Velangudi. Their 
population according to 1921 census was 40,500 and the 
caste is divided into twenty five 'golhrams' for purposes of 
marriage and adoption. 

They have extensive banking business in various places 
in the Madras Presidency and in the City of Madras, Ceylon 
Indo-China, the whole of Burma, the whole of the Malay 
Peninsula and in parts of Sumatra. Nattukkottai 
Chettiars have been conducting their business for centuries 
on certain well-recognised principles and methods. They 
have high reputation for honesty and the fact that their 
methods f iave stood the test of time clearly proves that 
they have been conducting their business on right princi- 
ples. They are born bankers and in the words of Mr. E. 
Thurston "the Nattukkottai Chcttis, in organization, co- 
operation and business methods are as remarkable as the 

European merchants the simple but strict training 

which they give their boys, the long and tedious apprentice- 
ship which even the sons of the richest among them have to 
undergo, rmke them very efficient in their profession and 
methodical in whatever they undertake to do." 

The young Chc-tti bo>s from the age of eight get train- 
ing in tiie double entrv system of book-keeping. The 
banks are known in Tamil as 'Thavanaikadai' or 'Vaddi 
kadai.' Agents am appointed to branches every three years 
and they arc paid salaries in addition to bonuses on profits. 
A few months prior to the expiry of the period of an agent, 
his successor is sent to him to take charge and learn the 
work. The agent who is relieved returns to Chettinad, 


settles account and after a period of rest seeks re-employ- 
ment. The agents and staff live in the place of business in 
close proximity to the borrowers and are in constant 
touch with the private lives of the borrowers. Hence they 
are able to lend to persons without security. In a paper 
read at the Royal Society of Arts, London, Mr, M. M. 
Gubbay, C.S.I., late Controller of Currency and Financial 
Secretary to the Government of India spoke of Nattuk- 
kottai Chettiars as follows: 

A special type (of indigenous bankers) is that of the 
Chetti community in Madras. It is known that in many 
cases accounts can be maintained with these Indian banks 
on which operations by cheques are permissible and that 
funds lie with these bankers on time deposits at rates much 
above those which are available from the banks. I see 
no reason to doubt the commonly accepted view that both 
because these private bankers can afford to pay attractive 
rates of interest as well as because their requirements as 
to security aro less- rigid, their participation in the finan- 
cial life of the community, as a whole, must be on a very 
extensive scale. Further, they are in intimate daily touch 
with those with whom they transact business and follow 
the doings of their clients with a closeness which is deni- 
ed to the banjcs. There must be accumulated with these 
private bankers a store of knowledge and experience of 
the standing, the moral as well as financial capacity of 
individual Indian traders and Indian trading firms, their 
business connections and relations on which if fully organis- 
ed and systematised might possibly quite suitably rest an 
expansion of credit facilities from the banks. Thus they 
fulfil one of the three postulates of credit, namely, proxi- 
mity of the lender and borrower. They lend money to agri- 
culturists for payment of their kists, domestic expenses and 


they also finance merchants and traders. They are able to 
do extensive business because "they grant easy conditions, 
lend at any time of the day without reference to hours of 

business They also collect money according to their 

convenience but do not insist on the prompt and punc- 
tual payment on the due dates as the banks." 

Chettiar firms in Burma and Malay States are large 
concerns carrying on banking in several places. There are 
about 95 firms working in Burma, and, as a class, Chettiars 
in Burma have no appreciable business apart from bank- 
ing and money-lendinc;. They have given money for vari- 
ous charities. They have founded a. residential school at 
Kaube (1929") near Rangoon and they have endowed a 
lectureship in Banking and Commerce in the Rangoon Uni- 
versitv. Chettiars in Burma set apart a definite percent- 
age of thoir commercial profits for private charity and for 
making gifts to temples. 

In December, 1927, when Sir Heroourt Butler was the 
Governor of Burma ho said in a public speech that Burma 
owed a groat deal to the Chettiars. Addressing them he said, 
"You represent a verv important factor indeed in the life of 
this province. Without the as?*istaneo of the Chettiar 
bankiiv svstem Burma would never have .achieved the 
wonderful advance of the last 25 to 30 years. The Burman 
to-day i? a much wealthier man than he was 25 years ago; 
and for tins state of affairs tho Chettiar deserves his share 
of thanks." 2 

In December, 1929, the public of Rangoon in their 
address presented to the Hon'ble Rajah Sir Annamalai 
Chettiar of Chettinad referred to the part played by the 

2. Report of the Burma Provincial Banking Enquiry Commit- 
tee, 1929-30 Volume I page 189. 


Chettiar in the growth and development of agriculture and 
trade in Burma in the following terms: 

"None can realize better than the people of this pro- 
vince the part which Chcbtiyars have silently played in the 
development of agriculture and business and it is a tri- 
bute to the upright system of Chettiyar banking and money- 
lending that no other system of finance has yet been evolv- 
ed which is capable of giving to agriculture and business 
in this province the impetus and stability which Chetti- 
yars have achieved." 

The Committee appointed by the Government of the 
Federated Malay States in Kuala Lumpur observed about 
Nattukkottai Chettiyars' banking in their report in con- 
nection with the failure of the scheme of Government 
loans for purely agricultural business as follows: 

"These people have an apparently inexhaustible capi- 
tal; their sole reason for existing is to borrow and lend 
money; they are mild and gentle in disposition; among 
Europeans and Asiatics they bear a good name for honesty 
and even for kindliness to borrowers. It is a well known 
fact that where those money lenders know a Malay of good 
standing, they often lend him money merely on a note 
with no security at all. As they have been bankers for 
centuries they know their business. No government fund 
can hope to compete with them except to a very restrict- 
ed extent. They live or their agents live amongst their 
borrowers and can lay a finger on the pulse of any man's 
business should they care to lay it. They are men of 
business, not a Government Department, and they know 
their business as professionals and not as amateurs." 3 

3. Written Evidence of the Nattukkottai Nagarathars Associ- 
ation, Madras. 


The Assistant Commissioner of Income-Tax, Madura, 
supplied to the Banking Enquiry Committee, information 
about the wealth of the Nattukkottai Chcttiars and he 
estimated the total at about Rs. 80 crores. 4 

(a) Money-lending (own capital) employed in business: 


Karaikudi First Circle . . 9% crores 

Ka^aikudi second circle 
Karaikudi third circle 
Sivaganga Circle 


(b) Investments in houses and jev/els: 

"The Nattukkottai Chetti invests largely in 
houses and jewels, although this is practically dead capi- 
tal, the reason being that his credit is built on a peculiar 
tasis. It is the value of his house, the jewellery he 
possesses and the lands that he owns that determine his 
credit in the eyes of his own caste-men as well as of 
others who wish to invest their savings with him. The 
first instinct of a Chetti who hns amassod money is to con- 
struct as 1-i s a house as he can. Wo mav see numerous 
massive, spacious and fine buildings in Chcttinad, in an 
architectural style uniqu^ in its own way. In Devakottai 
alone thc^o ?rc said to bo 300 houses costing not less than 
a lakh each and the Officer has seen personally not less ~, 

than 100 o r them. The total amount so spent in houses is >f 

estimated al 6 crores and in jewels another amount of 4 
crores . . 10 cro ar ,, 

(c) Money-lending capital of the Chettis in 
Pudukkottnh State, many of whom do business in British 
India, i.e., :n Burnui and aho in this Presidency. 

There are 20 villages with a population of 
12,000. They are exceedingly rich and finance businesses 
in South India, Burma and other places. Capital esti- 
mated at 14 crores , . 14 crores 

Houses 2% crores and jev/els 2 crores . . 4% crores 

4. Written Evidence o{ Mr. A. Savarinatha Pillai, Assistant 
Commissioner of Income-Tax Southern Range. M.B.E.C. Vol. III. 


Rs. Croro.s 

(d) Investments in agricultural lands, house pro- 
perties, rubber gardens, tea estates, coconut plantations, 
etc., in Federated Malay States, Ceylon, Burma and other 

The ownings in distant places can not even be 
approximately fixed as there is no information available, 
but it is understood that the Chettis have very valuable 
possessions abroad in the shape of rubber plantations, tea 
gardens, coconut gardens in Federated Malay States, Sai- 
gon, Ceylo : and in Burma where agricultural lands are 
also extensively owned. In this Presidency the landed 
properties owned by Chettis and acquired by them mostly 
in the course of money-lending business arc scattered about 
in numerous districts. Some of them have large carda- 
mom plantations in Iravancore hills. Once upon a time 
there was a craze among Chettiyars to invest in lands 
and the sentiment of being landed magnates appealed 
to them and they acquired portions of zamindari 
estates, etc. Now, however, they have stopped this kind 
of investment as they do not iind it profitable. Many 
Devakottai assessees have a large portion of their assets 
locked up in this form and ere at a disadvantage. The 
total asset,* in the shape of immovable landed properties 
can be taken at Rs. 15 crores." . . 15 crores 

Total . . 79Vfe or 80 

roundly 5 

The aggregate amount of owned capital rolling in 
business among Nattukkottai chettis is Rs. 50 crores. The 
borrowed capital is estimated roughly at 50% of owned 
capital or at Rs. 25 crorcs of which Rs. 8 crores belong to 
Chettiar men and women. Hence owned capital is Rs. 58 
crores and borrowings is Rs. 17 crores. The working capital 
of indigenous banks, on the whole, both in the Presidency 
and outside is estimated at Rs. 75 crores. 

The Assistant Commissioner of Income-Tax gives the 
number of assessees in the four circles of Karai- 
kudi I, II, III and Sivaganga, who with their owned and 
borrowed capital do business locally and outside. The 

5. M. B. E. Report: Evidence Volume III; page 1173. 



owned and borrowed capital for 2882 assessees are 
Rs. 2483-19 lakhs and Rs. 1481-62 lakhs. The difference of 
nearly 13 crorcs between the figures arrived at through 
investigation and by regular assessment to income tax may 
be due to the inclusion in investigation of those who are not 
assessed to income-tax. 

The amount invested in business in the Presidency can 
be seen from the following statement submitted to the 
Committee by the Assistant Commissioner of Income- 

Name of 

Number of 


Amount of 
invested in 

in lakhs. 

Volume of 
in lakhs. 

in lakhs. 


locally . 





Karaikudi I 















53 43 















Trichinopoly I 21 



66-30 2-59 

do. U 12 



14-65 0-79 

Dindigul 19 



37 20 1-99 

Madura, North 4 



2 95 0-22 

South 8 



36-46 4-52 

Virudhunagar 10 



11-68 0-78 

Tuticorin 22 



28 58 1-52 

Tinnevelly H 



40-64 2-69 

Total 107 



283-46 15-10 

Grand Total 243 



1,096-78 48-14 



Local money lending 

217-54 lakhs 



Federated Malay States, 






Thus the amount invested in this Presidency by 243 
Nattukkottai Chettiar Bankers is Rs. 456 lakhs. The 
major portion of the capital of those who do local business 
in Karaikudi and Sivaganga is invested in Burma, F.M.S. 
and Ceylon. 

An indigenous banker who was questioned in the 
Coimbatore District said that generally, if about a lakh of 
rupees is to be the out-turn of business at least Rs. 75,000 
should be the investor! capital. In his case, that has been 
the proportion. His bank is now fifteen years old but the 
origin cannot be traced exactly to ihe correct date. The 
maximum expenditure incurred by this banker per year is 
Rs. 3,500. He employs many clerks on decent salaries. In 
the year 1929-30, Ins invested capital was Rs. 120,000 and 
the out-turn of business was Rs. 2 J , lakhs. Gradually this 
amount began to dwindle; and the capital and business 
out-turn for the years 1935 and 1938-39 respectively were 
Rs. 80,000 and Rs. 125,000, and Rs. 60,000 and Rs. 100,000. 
The banker who was examined was able to estimate 
roughly the business done in the Coimbatore District. 

Year. Business done. 


1929-30 .. l% crores. 

1935 .. 50 lakhs. 

1938-39 . . 20 to 30 lakhs. 

The Agriculturists Relief Act of 1938 affected the 
Chettiar banking business adversely. Roughly estimated 
the loss incurred owing to the operation of the Act is Rs. 3% 
lakhs. The loss was great in the Coimbatore District where 
almost all the borrowers were agriculturists. Now busi- 
ness with the agriculturists has been reduced considerably. 
Loans are given only to 'A' class persons whose credit can be 
relied upon. 




Besides his own capital, the Nattukkottai Chettiars' 
capital consists mainly of deposits received from their own 
relations and friends and to a small extent from the out- 
side public. In times of stringency they are helped with 
loans by the Imperial Bank and other big joint stock banks. 

A feature of deposits made by persons of the Nattuk- 
kottai Chctty community is the depositing of their funds 
in different shops to avoid any risk. Deposits received by 
various Nattukkottai Chettiars are mostly from their own 
community. The Commissioner of Income-Tax Madura, 
calculated from the figures given by officers in Chettinad 
that the number of persons who derived income from inte- 
rests on deposits alone were 823 and the amount so depo- 
sited by them was Rs. 4*/2 crores. If the deposits of those 
doing business were included, total deposits amounted to 
nearly 8 crores. It is difficult to estimate the amount of 
total deposits of the Nattukkottai Chettis. It is only 
recently that the deposits from the public have dwindled. 
The deposits are made in urban areas but not in rural 
parts. In Madras and other places legal practitioners and 
others who have dealings with Chettiars deposit their 
moneys with the Chetti firms as a higher rate of interest 
can be obtained. As in other banks, the normal rules of 
keeping a proportion of deposits in cash or in forms readily 
convertible into cash are not observed by Chettiars. So 
long as the debtors were keeping up their credit, the 
Chettiars found no difficulty in meeting the obligations of 
their depositors. But when the borrowers began to 
delay inordinately, the Chettiars found it difficult to meet 
their obligations and slowly gave up the system of taking 
deposits. Enquiry in Devacottah has shown that the Chet- 


tiars take deposits only occasionally; even then, deposits are 
taken only from persons known to them and from their rela- 
tions, who hold positions in the social sphere. The rate of 
interest herein differs from the rate of interest on loans. 
The one reason for their inability to take deposits is due to 
the fact that they always entertain a genuine fear, unlike 
joint stock banks, with regard to conditions of payment and 
the impossibility of keeping the necessary fluid resources. 

The deposits of Chettiars are of two kinds (1) the 
current deposit in which the 'Nadappu' rate of interest is 
allowed (2) the 'thavanai' deposit, that is loans repayable 
after a definite 'thavanai' or period of rest. The period is 
two months in Madras and Burma and three months, six 
months or one year in the Federated Malaya States and 
Ceylon. If the 'thavanai' deposit is not demanded after 
the expiry of rest, interest is added after completion of each 
period of 'thavanai. 1 

The Chettiars adopt a current rate of interest ana- 
logous to the Imperial Bank Rate and fix it every Tamil 
month at each of the important centres Madras, Rangoon, 
Singapore, Penang and Colombo at a meeting of the lead- 
ing Chettiar bankers. The dealings between Chettiars 
themselves are governed by the current rate of interest. 
These rates are much higher than those of the Joint Stock 
banks. The rates charged on 'thavanai' or fixed deposits are 
called 'thavanai' rates of interest. "The relation 
between parties in a thavanai transaction is that of a 
lender and borrower, the loan is made for a fixed and cer- 
tain period of two months at a rate of interest which is fixed 
weekly by members of the chetti community for transactions 
which may be entered into during the ensuing week; the 
lender cannot demand repayment before the end of two 


months for which he has lent the money; if he does not de- 
mand it at such time and the borrower does not elect to repay 
it, the loan is deemed to be extended for another full two 
months at the rate of interest fixed by the weekly meeting 
of the community for the then period and so on until the 
money is repaid." Thus the thavonai deposits have con- 
tinued in Nattukkottai Chetti accounts for a number of 
years. As regards 'thavanai' rates, Rangoon 'thavanai' rates 
are fixed for each week, while the F.M.S. 'thavanai' rate is a 
matter for settlement by the parties concerned in each indi- 
vidual case. Thus there is no fixed rate for deposits as in 
Joint Stock banks. 


It is generally said that the indigenous bankers 
lend only indirectly to agriculturists i.e., through 
the village moneylenders but finance trade and industry 
directly. This is truo of the Multanis, Marwaris and the 
Kalladaikurichi Brahmins. They finance a considerable 
portion of the inland trade on tho personal credit of the 
merchants, who in turn give loans to ryots. They also ad- 
vance on produce and discount liundis. But the Nattuk- 
kottai Chettis lend to agriculturists direct and also finance 
trade and industry. The Assistant Commissioner of Income- 
Tax, Mad::ra, in his evidence to the Madras Banking En- 
quiry Committee swl "It cannot be said that in South India 
the Nattukkottai Chetti class of money lenders assist in any 
specific manner the agricultural or trade enterprise. The 
needy and the poor go to them for loans and if the borrower 
happens to be an agriculturist, in that sense the Chetti 
finances agriculture; or if he be a trader or shop keeper in 
that sense alone the Chetti finances trade. There is no sys- 
tem followed by Chettis to help agriculture or trade as a 


profession in the Presidency, although in Burma Agricul- 
tural enterprise is backed up by Chetti finance." But en- 
quiry at Devacottah and Coimbatore has revealed that in 
nine cases out of ten, the Chettiars lend to agriculturists. 
About 10% of the borrowers are traders. That industry 
also is financed by these bankers is true from the fact that 
many cotton spinning and weaving mills in the Coimbatore 
District have as their managing agents Chetti bankers. 

The Chettiars have no set of rules or regulations in 
common for being followed in the matter of loans. They 
study the condition of borrowers carefully and this they 
are able to do because they are in close proximity to the 
borrowers From the enquiry it is found that their methods 
of lending are as various as those of money-lenders. 

In the case of the agriculturists as in the case of all 
others, the bankers lend most commonly large sums of 
money by means of pronotes which form the primary credit 
instruments. There are printed forms of promissory notes 
in Tamil and the borrower fills up the form and signs across 
the revenue stamp affixed to the pronote at the right end. 
No specific period of return is found in the pronote but 
'thavanai' (the period of rest) is noted down. Generally 
'thavanais' are for one year or half-year for purposes of 
calculating compound interest. Sometimes two or three 
persons jointly execute the bond. If after repeated persua- 
sion by the banker the debtor does not return the loan, the 
former filo^ a suit in a court of law. Usually the agricultu- 
rist borrows in these parts Coimbatore and Devacottah 
as in other parts of the Presidency in the months of Adi 
(16th July to 15th August) to Masi (16th February to 15th 
March) . The returning of loans is from Panguni to Ani or 
16th March to 15th July. Agricultural operations plough- 
ing, sowing and harvesting take place between July and 


February and afterwards the marketing of crops is financed 
by the bankers. The Tinnevelly bazaar rate of interest 
which prevails in respect of transactions between one 
banker and another will be interesting if studied in con- 
nection with the period of loans given to agriculturists, 
The bankers in that district deal mainly with traders and 
the fluctuations in the rate of interest will show the 
stringency of the money market for traders. 

The particulars of Tinnevelly bazaar rates are as 

Tamil Month. Corresponding English Month. Rate of Interest. 

11 Annas or 8V4% 

9 or 6V4% 

8 or 6% 

8 or 6% 

11 or 8V 4 % 
14 or 10%% 

1 Rupee or 12% 

1 or 12% 

1 or 12% 

14 Annas or 10%% 

13 or 9%% 

12 or 9% 

*Madras Banking Enquiry Committee Evidence Vol. Ill, p. 1164. 

During 16th December to 15th January, the rate of 
interest to traders begins to rise and the highest rate to 
traders is during the period of Masi, Panguni and Chitrai 
when the agriculturists do not require any credit for their 
agricultural operations. 

The pronote on personal security is the most-common 
method of lending to agriculturists. Some Nattukkottai 
Chettiars lend money on what is known as the kandu kist, 


. . 16th August 

to 15th 



.. Sep. 




.. Oct. 




.. Nov. 












. . Feby. 




















. - July 




or thandal system. Only small money lenders resort to 
this system. When money is lent out, interest is taken in 
advance and the borrower pays in equated instalments 
daily or monthly. Default entails the payment of penal 
rate of interest. The Devacottah and Coimbatore bankers 
say that agriculturists borrow on this system. But as the 
agriculturist gets his income in a lump at a certain period 
of the year, it will not be possible for him to pay the instal- 
ments daily or monthly easily. This system of kandu 
loans will be very helpful to small traders. 

Next 10 the pronote, the most common method of lend- 
ing is the raising of loans on produce like rice or paddy, 
tobacco leaves and cotton. If on the stipulated date the 
money is not returned the banker persuades the agricul- 
turist to sell the produce in his custody on that day at the 
market price and pay back the loan. Sometimes the banker 
himself sells the produce and claims from the agriculturist 
the margin, if any, left over. 

A still another method of lending which is not so com- 
mon is what is known as 'pokkiarn' or 'othi' by which money 
is lent out on the security of lands or any other immovable 
property in lieu of which the banker enjoys the benefits of 
possession of property till the money is returned or till a 
maximum period of sixty years. If after sixty years money 
is not returned, the property automatically becomes the 
banker's when sued in a court of law. These are the differ- 
ent types of loans prevalent among Nattukkottai Chettiars 
in the Coimbatore District and in and around Devacottah. 

True to the traditions of the great Nattukkottai Naga- 
rathar families, the Rajah Sahib of Chettinad started, very 
early in life, his individual banking business under the 


name and style of "S.Rm. M.A." It grew in importance 
and in a short time expanded into a number of branches. 

As in the case of his charities, here also he turned 
from the beaten track and to secure efficient control and 
management, he converted his firms into Limited Com- 
panies. In the course of the past ten years, a number of 
trading concerns have been built up through his instru- 
mentality which are all in a very flourishing condition. 
These are the Bank of Chcttinad Ltd., The Chettinad Bank 
Ltd., the Chettinad Corporation Ltd., South India Corpo- 
ration, Ltd., South India Corporation (Madras), Ltd., 
Madura South India Corporation, Ltd., Burma Commer- 
cial Corporation, Ltd. and Trichy and Tanjore Stores, Ltd. 
These have 60 and more branches and are scattered all over 
Indo-China, Malaya, Straits, Ceylon, Burma, British India 
and the Native States. These are all handling a large 
volume of business and are successfully run. 

The Bank of Chettinad and the Chettinad Bank, besides 
their banking business, own about 100,000 acres of paddy 
lands in Burma and extensive rubber and coconut estates in 
Ceylon and Malaya. 

The Rajah Saheb owns several villages in South India, 
the chief of which are an estate consisting of 116 villages 
called the Chettinad Estate in the Chittoor District and 
several villages in the Tamil Districts. 



Medical Officer. 

The problem of medical aid in Annamalainagar began 
when the Minakshi College, the nucleus of the Annamalai 
University, shifted to its own building, the Arts Block, from 
the premises of the Ramaswami Chettiar's Town High 
School, Chidambaram, in 1923. About a hundred students 
and four members of the staff came into residence in tempo- 
rarily improvised structures. Communication with 
Chidambaram was not easy, and the place itself was a 
sandy wilderness with palm trees and prickly pear 
and two small groups of huts. The Rajah Saheb, 
with his usual solicitude for the welfare of the 
students tackled the problem of medical aid to the resi- 
dents of Annamalainagar by establishing a small dispen- 
sary in one of the rooms with a part-time medical 
officer and a compounder. The Sub-Assistant Surgeon and 
Compounder of the Town Hospital visited the dispensary 
thrice a week. They were also available for urgent calls. 

The strength of the College grew by leaps and 

bounds; and the number of residents grew consequently; 
the more so as proper accommodation in the Hostel be- 
came available. The part-time arrangements were found 
to be inadequate and the dispensary was placed on a 
permanent basis in 1926 with a full-time Medical Officer, 
Compounder, attender and menials. The accommodation 


was also increased by annexing another room for the 
increasing store of medicines. 

Successive medical inspections of the College and the 
University revealed that in a very large proportion of cases 
the students had defects in the eye, the organ of which they 
should take the greatest care. To be of real help to the 
students, the University deputed the Medical Officer for 
training in the Minto Opthalmic Hospital at Bangalore in 
1931. It then became necessary to increase the accommo- 
dation and equipment by providing a dark-room and dark- 
room equipment. Successive annual reports show that 
these have been put to good use. 

With the rapid increase in the strength of the Univer- 
sity and as the University became more and more residen- 
tial, the need for a good Hospital with provision for 
accommodating in-patients began to be felt. The authori- 
ties readily made arrangements for erecting a building for 
the purpose and the present Hospital building with 
accommodation for four in-patients and an isolation ward 
was completed and occupied in September, 1936. The 
equipment was increased by a grant of Rs. 2,000. To cope 
with the additional work arising out of increased facilities 
the staff was increased by taking in another compounder, 
one more ward-boy and more menials. 

With the admission of women students into the Uni- 
versity and the starting of a women Students' Hostel, the 
need for a Lady Assistant to help the Medical Officer 
was felt. With the increasing number of the women stu- 
dents the need became* greater and in 1940 a midwife was 
appointed so that she might be useful to the ladies of the 
locality and took charge in June 1941. 


The daily dispensing is mostly for minor ailments 
such as disorders of the digestive organs, influenza, middle- 
car-diseases, tonsil itis, eye-troubles, wounds and bruises. 
Cases of pneumonia, fractures and dislocations come in 
occasionally for treatment. The table below gives the 
annual attendance at the dispensary during the several 
years and may give some idea of the benefit rendered. 


Year. In-patients. Out-patients. 

1940. 59 14,422. 

1939. 52 12,985. 

1938. 12,811 

1937. 14,486 

1936. 12,151 

It may also be mentioned that ever since its inception 
the dispensary has been useful not only to the residents of 
Annamalainagar, but also to the inhabitants of the large 
number of villages all round. And all this medical aid is 
given free of cost to everyone. 



Commissioner. H. R. E. Board, Madras. 

The culture attained by a nation is gauged by the civili- 
sation which it has attained from the past. It is not the 
production of a single day's work but is one which has been 
built up step by step by a slow and steady development 
of thought by its prominent sons. It has been preserved 
in the literature and arts of the country in the customs 
and manners of it? folk and has been nurtured by its educa- 
tional institutions founded by its people. Educational insti- 
tutions of pre-eminence are known as Universities in 
Modern parlance. Universities in the West are the out- 
come of a few centuries. But thoir development and expan- 
sion have been quick and all-embracing especially during 
the past one century. In the East, University education 
has been a matter of ancient times, a heritage of centuries. 
The Universities of Nalanda and Taxila are world renown- 
ed, but political eruptions have over-flowed and submerged 
them under their irresistible lava of repression. But cul- 
ture did rot die having been nurtured in the minds of the 
humble country folk and of the un-ostentatious learned 
South India was more fortunately situated and the anci- 
ent Tamil culture was preserved by the nature poets of 
the Sangam age and by the patronage of the enlightened 
imperial Cholas and Pandyas. After their fall, the holy 
seats of Saivaism, viz., the hoary maths, protected it from 
decline and at present the two eminent Universities, the 


out-come of modern civilisation, have taken the burden of 
preserving our ancient heritage. In fact it is not only 
the ordinary duty, but its main function for a University 
to preserve the culture of a nation. 

When the idea of a University was started about 85 
years ago by the present Government their main object was 
the trainii-g of students to befit them as clerks and officers 
to run the affairs of the state. As ideas advanced further 
modifications had to be introduced. The original object 
merely required a system of examination of pupils to grade 
them according to their attainments for various posts in 
public service. Nobody thought that culture had some- 
thing to do with University education. Knowledge became 
wider and people felt a change in the angle of vision. The 
heritage of the nation ought not to have been cornered and 
screened in preference to foreign cultural ideas. Hence 
research scholarships nnd professorial chairs were slowly 
introduced. At the beginning, chairs for foreign arts and 
sciences were preferred. With considerable difficulty and 
delay, vernacular culture was recognised and introduced. 
Readerships and studentships were established and a certain 
amount of work is supposed to be done in this line in the 
provincial University. 

Tamil culture is great and its literature is vast. It 
had been hidden in the minds of a few scholars and preserved 
in the moth-eaten palm leaves hoarded in the nooks and 
corners of the thatched houses of the village teacher and 
in the dark niches of ancient maths. It had not reached 
really the study room of the modern educated scholar with 
its full import. There was an agitation in the country to 
place it on a pedestal worthy of it. When the premier mer- 
chant prince of Chettinad came forward to light the lamp of 


culture near the Sacred Hall of Cosmic Dance, the Tami- 
lians were overjoyed that the time had come when their 
dreams would be fulfilled. Massive buildings for dispens- 
ing learning amongst scholars arose and various subjects 
of real merit were taught. Students thronged and a full 
blown University sprang amidst green fields in the midst of 
sacred soil trodden by the holy feet of the four great Masters 
of Saivite culture. The people were immensely pleased. 

Tamil was given a seat and Lecturers were appointed 
and a course of study was instituted. Art, Music and 
Teaching formed the various courses of study. But are 
they enonsrh? One important branch of Tamil culture was 
entirely forgotten. Tamil had developed two aspects of life, 
secular and religious or philosophical. The secular aspect 
is represented by the Pandits and Annamalai as well as 
Madras have recognised and made sufficient provision for 
it with enough patronage. But what about the religious 
or philosophical aspect? Is it not hieh time for this aspect 
to be studied, preserved and developed? 

Tamil has evolved a comprehensive system of philo- 
sophy known as Saiva Siddanta. The works of the four 
great Acharyas and of Tirumular give a very well deve- 
loped system of philosophy equal to none in the land. 
They are far older than twelve centuries. In the 13th and 
14th centuries of the Christian era various ideas enunciated 
by the ancient saints were codified by the Saint Meikanda 
Deva and his disciples. They have been consolidated into 
a series of 14 sacred works. Nobody till now has render- 
ed their full import in English and other world wide langu- 
ages except by way of a few essays by Dr. Pope and by late 
Nalluswami Pillai. Recently one or two treatises have 


appeared in the shape of theses for University 
degrees by a few scholars. 

It may be said that there is a chair for philosophy at 
the University of Madras and Saiva Siddanta being one 
aspect of philosophy, could be very well studied there. 
Those who know the real greatness of the system of Saiva 
Siddanta can understand what sort of treatment could 
be given to it at the hands of a chair which has specialised 
in Vedantisin and allied subjects. True there is a sylla- 
bus prescribed by the University for Saiva Siddanta. 
But it must be noted that till now, no college in the 
Presidency of Madras has undertaken to prepare students 
for the examination in that subject. There are not enough 
teachers to teach the subjects since no encouragement has 
been shown to it till now. If such be the case, is it not 
necessary to put forward a strong case for the study of this 
important subject and to press for establishment of a 
separate chair for it with the object of introducing study 
and research work therein? 

The Translation of various treatises on philosophy into 
English, the writing of thoughtful articles, and the devo- 
tion of a portion of the University journal for this study are 
some of the necessary acts to be undertaken at once. A 
chair, a readership and a few studentships should be 
created without loss of delay. The only University which 
can undertake this work is the Annamalai University since 
it is wedded to nurture the culture of the Tamilians. We 
hope that the Rajah Saheb the Founder of the University 
will bestow his serious thought on the subject and will give 
a practical turn to it thereby earning the praise and the 
gratitude of his loving compatriots. 



M. S. RAMANUJAM, B.A., (HoNs.) 

The 19th century died away with its trail ablaze. The 
political complacency of Britain received its first rude 
shock and in the twilight was seen the hum of a new life. 
1'he long lull of supine inaction in Tamil literature began 
its downward inarch, and in the short spell it saw the birth 
of new veterans, the growth of people into their full sta- 
ture. The political subordination of India to the British, 
regarding its cultural aspect, was a blessing in disguise. 
Earnest savants of English birth and origin scintillated on 
the Tamil sky and Tamil literature shall always bear the 
long furrows made by their powerful plough. I mean 
Dr. Pope and Bishop Caldwell. The birth and growth of a 
new science, the Dravidian philology, proclaims in mute 
eloquence, to the Tamils and the rest, the incalculable 
worth of their indefatigable endeavours for Tamil learn- 
ing and culture: needless to embark on a cataloguing of 

their activities, magnificent and beautiful. 

The long streaks of the rosy dawn broke on us with a 

golden promise and the literature of our language stood on 
the throes of a new birth. The frigid cold of an extended 
monotony was sought to be substituted with the fragrant 
blossoms of a new spring and thus proceed our language 
for 'fresh honours and pastures new.' 

Modem Tamil literature, with its many offshoots, 
though not without signs of hope and promise yet betrays 


long lines on her face, signs of senility and stagnation. 
Theories, really are they opinions, of varied hue, more 
novel than useful have been propounded. They contain, 
no doubt some grains of truth amidst sandy waste, but 
yet they are not un-alloyed. A clear picture of the currents 
and cross-currents in Tamil literature is as opportune as it 
is necessary. 

The history of Tamil Renaissance, must really be begun 
with Processor Sundaram Filial, the author of "Manon- 
maniam," a Tamil "literature" drama. The morning star 
of the Revival, with his unerring instinct and deep intuition 
to sense the charge of the atmosphere, had mingled in his 
product both the old order and the new, silently leading us 
to the threshold of the New Dawn. We feel not the change 
he is working; the deliberate employment of the old meter 
deludes us of his new spirit, "the spirit of revolution." It 
is deep enough; he had poured the new wine into the old 
bottle. "Manomnaniam" is but the properly punctuated 
warning of the imminent ebullition of a new spirit, the 
flowering of a fresh manhood. Sri Subramania Bharathi, 
the poet of national awakening, who came close on his 
heels, took up the trail and our literature has become a 
ferment of confused changes. The impetuous youth in 
him had the better of him; and was but too ready with ever 
new suggestions and ideals; and their velocity and volume 
refused to be bound within necessary literary limits. He 
had not been partly responsible for the beautiful confusion 
in our literature. Political pressure, visionary ideals un- 
ceasing anxieties left his thoughts in a wilderness only to 
be scattered, unsettled and riotous. His was the riotous 
license of a prodigal son rather than the mellowed libera- 
tion of a soaring poet. A careful and unbiassed, detached 
and critical study of his poem is bound to reveal the pro- 



gressive mellowing of his intellect and some of his early 
songs do no little violence to Tamil literary forms. They 
look like scattered rubies over a field (cf. his viruthams 
and venbas are no more than puerile versifications). His 
"Kannan Pattu" not the whole but the majority, has 
found proper haven. Some of them have attractive forms 
and arresting ideas, touching the very fringes of the sub- 
lime. Students of Modern Tamil literature, in their im- 
patience fcr things novel, too often err on the side of indis- 
criminate generalisations; for them the parts are the whole. 
Instead of a scrupulous analysis, they view them as an 
amalgam and grievously falter; in the midst of the wood 
they fail to see the trees. 

After Bharathi, Mr. Desikavinayakain Filial of Putheri 
is the Tamil poet to be reckoned with in our literature. His 
is a valuable contribution to an atrophied literature like 
Modern Tamil. The significance of his poems lies not in the 
deluding transparency of his form and style, but deeper 
still. The fusion of the literary spirit with the comrnonfolk 
dignity; the endowment of the common intelligibility with 
a classic significance and cultured elegance; he has thus 
with extraordinary success, evolved out a useful literary 
compound. With Bharathi's literary morbidities and emo- 
tional excesses well chistled; thfc classic age, its rigidity 
hammered out, grammatical conventions relaxed, in its 
pristine elegance and pure; Sri Pillai's vivacious imagina- 
tion flooding the field with his effulgent rays; these have 
made his poetry a regulated whole, where the parts har- 
monise into a simple and significant unity, presided over by 
a supreme imagination. 1 "He recreates it and charges the 

1. Translations from the "Light of Asia" and Gitanjali and 
"The River " 


fact itself with the Poet's own sense of ultimate values." 2 
He feels largely and intensely, thus they smoothly flow in 
metric dance to merge into a general significance. 

New patterns and textures have their attraction when 
produced by a mil] and the mind of an artist as well. The 
new-found glamour blinds lovers into a sense of security 
and self-love. This promiscuous propensity has been res- 
ponsible for the birth of a few heresies in the Tamil litera- 

The heresy that matter is superior to the manner of 
self-expression has not outgrown the stage of profuse pole- 
mics. For either side the protagonists are not wanting. 
There is also a liberal school of thought that strives to strike 
a golden mean. Agreed as it is, it is idle to deny the im- 
portance of form in literature as elsewhere. Do we not find 
it a distinct pleasure, intellectually apprehended when we 
quote a stanza from Kamban? Compare this mental state 
with the frame of mind when we express Kamban's idea 
not in Kamban's verbal form, but in our own language. 
The difference in the effect is understandable. To be suc- 
cinct, form is not a non-existing abstraction, but an inte- 
gral abstraction that inheres in the poem as such. 

Another heresy, too common with us, is simplicity of 
style. The heresy of simplicity is being overdone. It is in 
the "imperceptible blending of the plain with 
the ornate that a great writer is distinguish- 
ed. He uses the simplest phrases without triviality, and 
the grandest without a suggestion of grandiloquence." 
"Without overflowing full" is the law of simplicity, and 
plainness does not mean frugality but unity. Intelligibility 

2. Abercrombie: Epic, p, 54, 


is an attribute of simplicity and intelligibility 
in literature is different from apprehension in journalism. 
The two offices differ in their material operation. In litera- 
ture anything of worth shall be intellectually apprehended 
to live the piece and be in the spell, while Journalism does 
not share these elegant literary manners. Literature, in as 
much as it is refined thought, is, by its very nature, pre- 
cluded from making a common cause with the public pro- 
phylactics-journals-which are incapable of being worked 
up to those ecstatic regions of intellectual and imaginative 

With the rapid march of political events an idea has 
been set afoot that political education an euphemism of 
high danger in itself could be easily had if a standardisa- 
tion could be achieved in the field of letters; something 
like a socialistic doctrine, but applied for a different pur- 
pose; a case of political theory tried in literature. Not 
going too deep into this 'standardisation' fover, we cannot 
but be amazed at the sponsors of the idea. It is really a 
brain-wave. In literature the instruments of operations 
are too deHcate and subtle things, but never brittle. "Words 
are not like iron and wood, coal and water, invariable in 
their properties calculable in their effect. They are 
mutable in their powers deriving force and 
subtle variations of force from very trifling change 
of position; colouring and coloured by the words which 
precede and succeed; significant or insignificant from the 
powers of rhythm and cadence/' 3 The form of matter is 
the form of thought and the thought is mutable with the 
change in the subject-matter. Description varies from nar- 
ration and the differentia is not supererogatory but suffi- 

3. G. H, Lowe: Success in Literature, p. 135, 


ciently essential. "What are we to say to a man who spends 
a quarter's income on a diamond pin which he sticks in a 
greasy cravat? A man who calls public attention on him 
and appears in a slovenly undress." 4 This standardisation 
is bound to bring things to a dead level, which is neither 
proper nor preferable. Style is the man and the variety is 
but the irrefutable assertion of Nature wedded to beauty 
against the artificiality of mortal exertions towards a dead 

The realistic school is the counterpart of the romantic 
school in English literature. This school maintains with 
little consistency that anything in literature must corres- 
pond to the actual and real in nature. This, obviously un- 
tenable, is the upshot; of a comprehensive ignorance of the 
connotation of the term "Realism" as applied in matters 
literary. Realism and intelligibility in literature almost 
point at the same. Anything intellectually lived, felt and 
enjoyed is a literary reality. We delect in Ilango's portray- 
al of Kannagi and the burning of the beautiful city of 
Madura. True, the emanation of the God of fire and his 
implicit obedience to Kannagi are what we may call super- 
natural. All the same we feel we are not in a strange 
world when we skip over "Cilappathikaram." The genius 
of the poet weaves into the body of his poem a strange ele- 
ment, but in the high voltage of his imagination it turns 
into a real light, contributing to the general significance. 
This realism as apprehended imaginatively, sends a thrill 
into our being; we pulsate with a new life of appreciation 
and pleasure; we spring into regions of ecstacy and subli- 
mity where life is a smooth-flowing stream of sweet dreams 
and lovely ideals; it is a dateless world, 

4. Ibid,, p. 125. 


Yet another controversy that has succeeded in generat- 
ing more heat is the question of language and dialect. The 
confusion of the distinct departments of these two has 
led to strange notions about style. The impropriety of 
raking up the dialect to the sanctimonious pedestal of a 
language is a sure sign of its decaying manhood. The deve- 
lopment of the Malayalam language provides us with the 
needed corrective. Before the 10th century A.D. Malayalam 
language was not born. The language of the Cheranadu 
was Tamil, and by the passage of time, the local dialect of 
Tamil hac! grown into a distinct language. Thus a long 
sweep of land had been seceded to Malayalam, and Tamil 
had boon harnessed to a tiny corner. This historical aspect 
must ho truly grasped by Tamil critics. 

The historical sonsc has boon sorely neglected to the 
disadvantage of all. South Indian history, till very recent- 
ly, had been but an anomalous hoap of disjoined specula- 
tions. Thanks to the untiring efforts of Prof. P. T. Srini- 
vasa lyonrar and Dr. S. K. Ayyangar, the ico is slowly 
giving way. The want of an historical sensibility has been 
the cause of too many wrong notions. The reactions of 
unbridlod activities in English literature during the days 
of the Reformation, to the utter disregard of the past, are 
well-worth noting. "The worst of Renaissance, as of any 
great general movement, was that ideas were taken up by 
people who did not understand them. 'But one hath seen 
and all the blind will see/ And the blind and the deaf 
went on happily composing arguments about imagination 
and poetry: so that before long in a century or two from 
the beginning of the revival of learning, poets were ham- 
pered, not by the ancients themselves, but by the doctrines 
about the ancients." 5 

5. K. P. Ker: Form and Style, pp. 195, 196. 


Modern Tamil literature is an ocean of storms and 
eddies. Ideas, ever new, ever changing enter the portals of 
our language. Tamil is caught in the vortex of a struggle 
between the old and the new. People read more about 
literature than literature itself. They glean in their sur- 
vey of alien literatures ideas often too attractive and novel 
and there is a strong impulse for their indiscriminate appli- 
cation into Tamil literature. Votaries of Sanskrit and 
other learning, writing of modern Tamil literature neglect- 
ing the peculiar genius of the Tamil language, are thinking 
not of poetry in Tamil, but of such English or Sanskrit 
poetry as was written by Shakespeare or Kalidasa and the 
conflict of ideas and emotions continue, leading us no- 

The absence and the presence of imagination makes 
all the difference between a good and a bad literature. Well 
may the naturalistic school gloat on its religious convic- 
tion that literature must inevitably reflect and radiate the 
contemporary thoughts and movements, answering to the 
lines and tones seen in nature. Obviously they fail to re- 
concile their sense of frustration with the "higher reali- 
ties" as squeezed into a poem a poetic world, an imagina- 
tive sphere. This "righteous disdain" for thoughts not in 
tune with nature is partly a product of confused thought; 
a false identification of two distinct qualities. This qualita- 
tive confu?ion of imagination and exaggeration is responsi- 
ble for this heresy "Not manipulation, but imaginative 
transfiguration of material; not invention but selection of 
existing material appropriate to his genius; and complete 
absorption into his being; that is how an artist works." 6 
Exaggeration is morbid and sickening. The poetic world 

6. Abercrombie: Epic. p. 53. 




The identity of Bhavabhuti, the author of three plays in 
Sanskrit, with Bhattomveka, the commentator on 
Kumarila Bhatta's Slokavarttika and Mandanamisra's 
Bhavanaviveka, is still a disputed question among the 
students of Historico-literary Research in Sanskrit. A few 
scholars who are not in favour of this identity theory 
assert that Bhavabhuti is nowhere known as a Mima- 
msaka. It is proposed in this short paper to collect certain 
evidences from his dramas in older to show that Bhava- 
bhuti is well-versed in the Purvamimamsa Sastra as he is 
in other Sastras Vedanta, Nyaya, Vyakarana, Sankhya 
and Yoga. 

In the prologues of the Uttararamacarita and Maha- 
viracarita Bhavabhuti speaks of his Sastraic attainments 
by the rare honorific epithet TC^PPwrotr . It means 
that he is well-versed in the three Sastras <WBT 
Vyakarana, WFRTW Mimamsa and JRmw Nyaya. 

This reference would prove that Bhavabhuti is a master- 
mind who has acquired high proficiency in the three 
important Sastras Vyakarana, Mimamsa and Nyaya. 

Again, Bhavabhuti makes mention of his Sastraic erudi- 
tion in the verse found in the prologue of the Malati- 


The utter disregard paid to the proper literary back- 
ground, has been responsible not to a few inexactitudes in 
our literature. The indiscriminate application of the can- 
nons of western literary thought to our literature, without 
a correct appreciation and deep acknowledgement of the 
native genius of Tamil, corrodes this cherished progress 
ever more. 9 Literary, unity and respect for native forms, 
with progressive but reasonable modification, in tune with 
its genius, the recognition of a literary Tamil, evolved out 
of the fusion of the classic and modern language, as apart 
from the language too often indulged in by the Tamil 
journals these aspects need engage the ardent contem- 
plation of every true Tamil lover and scholar. This done, 
the first flesh of a dim dawn shall soon break into a broad 
day light. 

9. Tagore: Reminiscences, pp. 183, 184. 





The identity of Bhavabhuti, the author of three plays in 
Sanskrit, with Bhattomveka, the commentator on 
Kumarila Bhatta's Slokavarttika and Mandanamisra's 
Bhavanaviveka, is still a disputed question among the 
students of Historico-literary Research in Sanskrit. A few 
scholars who are not in favour of this identity theory 
assert that Bhavabhuti is nowhere known as a Mima- 
msaka. It is proposed in this short paper to collect certain 
evidences from his dramas in order to show that Bhava- 
bhuti is well-versed in the Purvamimamsa Sastra as he is 
in other Sastras Vedanta, Nyaya, Vyakarana, Sankhya 
and Yoga. 

In the prologues of the Utlararamacarita and Ma/ia- 
viracarita Bhavabhuti speaks of his Sastraic attainments 
by the rare honorific epithet TORWnw . It means 
that he is well-versed in the three Sastras V*$\9 
Vyakarana, 3iwtr Mimamsa and wwrer Nyaya. 

This reference would prove that Bhavabhuti is a master- 
mind who has acquired high proficiency in the three 
important Sastras Vyakarana, Mimamsa and Nyaya. 

Again, Bhavabhuti makes mention of his Sastraic erudi- 
tion in the verse found in the prologue of the 


He asserts that any powerful display of his knowledge 
of the Vedas, the Upanisads, the Sankhya and Yoga 
systems in a drama would not contribute to its success, 
thereby implying that he is well-versed in all these 
branches of learning but that he is not going to display his 
Sastraic knowledge in his play. The term Vedadhyayanam 
in the verse is worth our consideration. It does not mean 
merely the memorisation of the Vedic texts, but a critical 
and exhaustive study under a guru with the help of six 

Vedangas and the Purvamimamsa Sastra, as c ^fwf irR^ 1 

would mean the knowledge of the Upanisads or the Upani- 
sadic teaching with the help of the Uttaramimamsa Sastra, 
popularly known as the Vedanta Sastra. The correct 
understanding of the Vedic and Upanisadic texts would be 
possible only if the Vedic student studies these two 
Mimamsa Sastras properly. So says Kumarilabhatta 
about the indispensable nature of the study of the Purva- 
mimamsa Sastra by a Vedic student 


tftorar *vfa n" 

The true knowledge of dharma is arrived at by the 
study of the Vedas with the help of its chief accessory 
Mimamsa Sastra. While speaking of the scope and nature 
of tarka ?n the first Nyayasutra, Vacaspatimisra, in his 
Nyayavari'tikatatparyatika, extolls the Mimamsa Sastra to 
the high rank of the Vedas on the ground that it helps the 
Vedic student to a great extent for properly understanding 


c frsrara 


The first sutra ' sremt *$faron ' in the Purvamimamsa 
Sastra emphasizes the fact that the Vedic student should 
not leave the residence of his teacher soon after his study 
of the Vcdas without the study of the Purvamimamsa 
Sastra. He understands no doubt, with the help of the 
Vedangas, the meaning of those texts in which there is no 
ambiguity or room for any discussion, but in instances 
which admit of more than one interpretation he has to 
resort to the help of the Purvamimamsa Sastra which 
removes his doubt by correctly interpreting the passage in 
question on the basis of certain well-accepted rules of inter- 
pretation. This is the signal service that this Sastra 
renders to the Vedic student who, after returning home 
from his teacher's residence, is expected to marry and per- 
form the duties of a true householder with a correct 
understanding of their nature and significance with the 
help of the Purvamimamsa Sastra. The sutra c srafcf 
OTfaWHT ' literally means that the Vedic student after under- 
standing the Vedic contents in a general manner with the 
help of the Vedangas, the study of the Vcdas being intend- 
ed for the correct knowledge of the Vedic contents, has to 
stay at the residence of his teacher to investigate the 
dharma the chief import of the Vedas by means of well- 
established rules of interpretation. 


This fact explains well that the study of the Purva- 
mimamsa Sastra formed in ancient India an integral part 
of the Vedic study; and it is no wonder that Bhavabhuti 
who claimed birth in the family of great Somapithins and 
pancagnis studied the Vedas and that his Vedic study 
would not have been complete without the study of the 
Purvamimamsa Sastra. 

The description of his ancestors found in the prologues 
of the Malatimadhava and the Mahaviracarita 1 clearly 
indicates that Bhavabhuti has inherited high traditions of 
Vedic scholarship and practice of the Vedic sacrifices, 
references to which are found in abundance in his dramas. 
Dr. A. B. Keith has already collected and published some 
of them in the J.R.A.S. (1914) in a short paper with the 
title 'Bhavabhuti and the Veda! The following instances 
taken from his dramas would give additional weight to the 
view that Bhavabhuti is a great scholar in the Vedas, the 
study of which he would have completed with the study 
of the Purvamimamsa Sastra, as indicated above. 

: WffiF: 

II (M. V. Carita, Prologue). 

: II 

(Malatimadhava, Prologue) . 




(U.R. Carita, I. 8 and M. V. Carita, IV. 33) . 

This Verse explains the well established truth in the 
the Purvamimamsa Sastra that a dvija householder 
is compelled to perform at any cost the nitya and 
naimittika karmas like Agnihotra and Uparagasnana in the 
prescribed time till his death, lest he should be liable to 
divine punishment. 

(2) ^JT:_*lcRl q^ 3TRfof 



(M. V. Carita I, 38) . 
When Rama was commanded by sage Visvamitra to 
kill Tataka he was hesitating to act since he believed that 
no woman should be killed under any circumstances. But 
when sage Visvamitra persisted in his demand, Rama took 
the opinion of the sage as final and acted accordingly. So 
this verse explains the great truth (established in the 
Purvamimamsa Sastra I. 3-3-4) that the opinion of a great 
man which is known by the term atmatushti (intuitive 
knowledge) is an authority on dharma just like the Vedas. 
Sage Visvamitra, according to Rama, is a high personage 
free from all human vices and his opinion is, therefore, an 
infalliable authority on dharma. 

(3) fl*. gjifoft q|*:, ft* 3 

(U. R. Carita, I. p. 42. N. S. Edn. 1911.) 

Rama means by the term aw f *K'that the highly 
eulogistic statements of the citizens about his administra- 
tion should not be taken in their literal sense though they 


are intended as words of praise and compliment. It is 
established in the Purvamimamsa Sastra, (I. 2. 1) that 
the arthavada section in the Vedas should not be taken in 
its literal sense and that it mainly means the praise or con- 
demnation of the thing enjoined or prohibited by the vidhi 
or nishedha vakya generally associated with the arthavada 
in question. 

(U. R. Carita, III. p. 96). 

Rama's remark (noted above) indicates what is esta- 
blished in the Purvamimamsa Sastra regarding the joint 
responsibility (adhikara) of the husband and wife in a 

sacrifice (VI. 1.) '^taasiflwi?: 1 that neither the 
husband nor the wife can perform the sacrifice indepen- 

These references to the Mimamsa doctrines and others 2 
to Vedic passages and sacrificial details abundantly found 
in the three dramas prove that Bhavabhuti is a man of 
high Vedic; learning and culture which he could not have 
acquired but for his mastery over the Purvamimamsa 
Sastra. Would these references not be sufficient to show 
Bhavabhuti's leanings to Purvamimamsa Sastra? 

2. (a) Vide the Uttararama Carita, (N. S, edition, 1911) . 

(1) KRWrflft *ran (p. 12). 

(2) arftfl at ^ niwf +?PftRwrwTrR[at (p. 53). 

(a) SVSPR: auftf sgq$:+frfgsto3 arorn* anw: I (P. 103). 

(4) arrf^R^i + focg3 W t <Kfo (p. 114). 

(5) *irRWR53 R+arwaclfo I (p. 153). 

(b) Vide the Mahavira Carila, (N. S. edition, 1926). 

(6) sr^r smr + i&jtt ^ 5 ^ ( ( p . 20) . 

to. ll? ^* ^ ^ra*wBr:-PW iflr vm 




The endowment of a great place of learning by a 
single munificent and far-sighted patron has been more 
common in the West than in India. The great Colleges in 
Oxford and Cambridge and some of the more important 
universities in the United States sprang from individual 
donations, and appropriately bear the names of their bene- 
factors. In India we have had in modern times only two 
instances of such foundations, both of which owe their being 
to the enlightened liberality of two merchant princes, J. N. 
Tata and the Rajah of Chettinad. The aim of the Indian 
Institute of Science is narrower than that of the Annamalai 
University. The Institute stands for applied science so far 
as it relates to India's economic uplift. The Rajah's insti- 
tution, on ";he other hand, is a University, dedicated to learn- 
ing in all its aspects, and is not a mere research institute 
specialising in applied science. The wider support from 
the state, which these have received after they were 
brought into existence, cannot take away from the honour 
due to the wise founders for providing them. 

In some other respects also the two institutions 
differ. The driving motive of J. N. Tata was to devise a 
powerful accessory for India's industrial progress. The 
Tata Institute's aim is severely practical. Pure science and 
knowledge for its own sake are out of the picture. Work is 
entirely post-graduate. Instruction is subordinated to in- 


vestigation. It is otherwise with the Annamalai Univer- 
sity. It has had within its programmes provision, as funds 
allow, for applied science, and such subjects as oil-chemis- 
try and sugar research have been suggested in schemes for 
an extension of its activities. Primarily it is dedicated to 
knowledge for its own sake, with such adjustments of aim 
as are necessitated by environment and the principle of divi- 
sion of labour among universities. Even when through the 
pressure of financial restriction, some branches have had to 
"axed," the development of the University on individual 
lines, in which it can supplement the work of other uni- 
versities, is receiving consideration. Its bias is to con- 
serve a special culture, which has a claim on it geographi- 
cally and historically. The location of the two academies 
has been dictated by considerations which differ widely 
and reflect the differing outlook of their respective founders. 
For the Institute of Science any place, which possessed a 
suitable climate and access to industrial potentialities was 
good enough. To the new University for the Tamil 
districts, which Rajah Sir Annamalai Chettiar of Chetti- 
nad provided, a location, sanctified by tradition and religion 
was essential. It is noteworthy that the first locality to be 
considered was Madura, which possesses both in an emi- 
nent degree, and Chidambaram was finally selected, be- 
cause it runs Madura close in these respects. Devout Hindu 
as he is, the Rajah of Chcttinad has been true to Indian 
sentiment in attaching the new educational foundation for 
which he became responsible to a famous tirlha and temple. 

T7I <V * 

*or many centuries Indian practice made the teacher 
the centre of educational activity. It was not a place but 
a teacher that attracted pupils. Sometimes, many emi- 
nent teachers, each of whom will be an attraction to my- 
riads of students, gathered together in a single locality, 



drawn to it by its pious associations. This was so in Kasi 
(Benares). It has remained till to-day, the most eminent 
centre of Hindu learning, because every great Hindu 
teacher desires to live in its holy area, and most Hindus, 
learned or unlearned, cherish the wish to drop their mortal 
coil within its bounds. When Lord Cornwallis desired, 
after the provinces of Karra and Allahabad had been ac- 
quired by the East India Company, from the Emperor to 
show the people of Hindusthan that the new power was 
animated by sympathy for her religions and cultures, he 
accepted the advice of Jonathan Duncan, the Resident at 
Benares, to found in the holy city a great Sanskrit College. 
It was to be under the special charge of the Governor- 
General-in-Council, who would display their interest in 
its work by reviewing its activities every year and making 
all its staff appointments themselves. It is also note- 
worthy, as characteristic of the Indian way of thinking, 
that for many years hardly any eminent teachers in Kasi 
could be found to undertake teaching in the new Sans- 
krit College, which was so powerfully supported by the 
Government. At last a modus Vivendi was discovered by 
allowing the professors to impart instruction in their own 
homes. In such conditions, the new institution was 
virtually equivalent to the endowment of individual 
teachers, which had boon a necessary feature of a system 
in which the teachers taught without the expectation of 
fees, solely from a sense of high duty. 

Such attractions as a sacred shrine or tirtha offers to 
teachers may be provided by capital towns of territories 
whose rulers wish to be known as patrons of learning. As 
"man is of all commodities the most difficult to move," it 
would happen that even after enlightened kings pass away, 


the congregation of learned teachers in their capitals con- 
tinues for a long time. In South India, Kancipura (Con- 
jeevaram) enjoyed, from the congregation of sacred 
shrines of all Indian religions and sects within its ambit, 
in some measure the pre-eminent attraction of Kasi. 

The monastery replaced the wandering teacher after 
Buddhism established itself. The primary duty of the 
Brahmana, according to Hindu varnasramadharma, was to 
teach. This obligation remained even when he entered 
the third and fourth stages of life (Vanaprastha and San- 
yasa asrama). A learned ascetic will become a centre 
for the diffusion of learning, by attracting a host of disci- 
ples, who in their turn will become teachers. Books were 
essential to proper learning, even in epochs in which the 
cultivation of the human memory attained unheard of per- 
fection. It would be more easy to collect them within one 
building than allow them to remain scattered in the posses- 
sion of individual teachers. Thus, the monasteries which 
grew around Indian ascetics became in effect colleges of 
learning, perpetuating the teaching of the original sage, and 
preserving within their walls great collections of books. It 
was exceptional for a Hindu ascetic to possess, as the 
famous Kavindracarya did in the 17th century, A.D., a vast 
library, without being a member of a matha. 

The formation of colleges in monastic institutions be- 
gan with Buddhism. It possessed an organization in its 
monastic order, rules of discipline, and congregation 
(samgha) which enabled it to display features of perma- 
nence, so essential for the continued life of an educational 
centre. The earliest groups of scholars and teachers, with' 
a fixed habitation, that we can find records of in India are 


the Buddhist monks 1 . Long before the advent of Buddhism, 
centres liko Benares (which attracted Hindus from all over 
India) had Takshasila in the Gandhara country, (the meet- 
ing place of Hindu and foreign scholars on the frontier, as 
Peshawar to-day it, the meeting place of merchants from 
within and without India) had congregations of scholars, 
some of whom resided permanently in the towns. Many 
famous personages were sent from distant places to study 
at Takshasila. When the restraining influence of the power- 
ful empires which met near the Indian frontier on the 
north-west was withdrawn, and new hordes poured into the 
area and invaded India, Takshasila lost its pre-eminence. 
When Buddhism and Hinduism found homes over the seas, 
places not far away from porls of embarkation (like 
Tamralipti or Taroluk in the Ganges delta or Valabhi in 
Gujarat) became convenient localities where Indians of 
learning and acolytes from over the seas might come to- 
gether. In South India, Kanci and Amaravati (near 
Bezwada) came to have such attractions. The famous 
Buddhist University of Nalanda, in which for ten centuries 
not only Buddhists but even Brahmanas studied, and the 
colleges of Valabhi came to distinction as university cen- 
tres in view mainly of their proximity to sea ports. Once 
they had established their name, as homes of pious and 
learned activity, royal patronage came to their help. For 
royal patronage of Nalanda we have not only the testi- 
mony of the Chinese pilgrims, Hiuen Tsiang and I-tsing as 
well as Hwui Li the biographer of Hiuen Tsiang, but we have 
the evidence of the inscriptions. A hundred villages, and 
according to another account 200 villages, are said to have 
formed the permanent endowment of Nalanda. There were 
occasional gifts and supplementary endowments by rulers 
as well as ordinary persons, over and above the revenue 


of the villages. The munificent donations of the Guptas 
were emulated by the powerful Pala kings. Vast build- 
ings, of which detailed descriptions exist in the accounts 
of the Chinese pilgrims, were erected out of such gifts, 
Besides the viharas, Nalanda possessed a colossal library of 
manuscripts, which was a powerful attraction to the 
Chinese pilgrims who made such prolonged sojourns there. 
According to Tibetan accounts, the quarter in which the 
Nalanda University, with its grand library, was located was 
called the Dharmaganja (Piety Mart). "It consisted of 
three grand called Ratnasagara, Ratnodadhi, avid 
Ratnaranjaka respectively. In Ratnodadhi, which wag 
nine-storeyed, there were the sacred scripts called Prajna- 
paramita-sutra, and Tantrik works like Samaja-guhya 
etc/ 7 (Vidyabhushan, Indian Logic, p. 516). The great 
university was not restricted to Buddhist studies; for, 
Hiuen Tsiang studied Brahmanic scriptures at Nalanda. 
One of its viharas was endowed for the continuance of Vedic 
offerings like bali and earn (Bosch, cited in Nilakanta 
Sastri's Nalanda, p. 175). The comprehensive nature of 
its studies is shown in an enumeration by Hiuen Tsiang's 
biographer: the classics of Mahayana and Hinayana, the 
texts of "the eighteen sects", the Vedas, logic (hetuvidya), 
grammar (sabda-vidyd) medicine (cikitsa-vidya) , works on 
magic (Atharva Veda) and the Samkhya. We are reminded 
that among the eighteen 'sippavidya' (silpa-vidya) , which 
the Jatakas repeatedly say were taught at Takshasila were 
such subjects as medicine and surgery, astronomy and 
astrology, archery and military science, magic and divina- 
tion, accountancy and commerce, and agriculture and cattle 
raising. (Altekar, Education in Ancient India, p. 254 for 
references) . 


The wealth of the library, its princely endowments and 
its sumptuous and numerous buildings were excelled by its 
numerical strength. The monks in residence are put at 
anything between 3000 and 5000, of whom about 1500 are 
represented as competent to expound the Buddhist scrip- 
tures. The number of pupils and acolytes must have 
been greater. The statement of Hiuen Tsiang (Records, 
p. 65) that the number of residents was 3000, must refer 
to the ordained monks only. It is probable that a con- 
siderable number of students found their food and cloth- 
ing, as they now do in pilgrim centres like Benares, at 
choultries endowed by the laity in the adjacent town, or 
in private houses. As the royal donations were lavish- 
ed, as usually they are, on buildings, it is evident, that 
with a traditional obligation to entertain all guests, the 
Abbot of Nalanda must have been hard put, with the 
endowments already named, to meet the expense of even a 
frugal fare for all the inmates, permanent and casual. But, 
this was quite in accord not only with monastic rules, but 
with the Hindu tradition of brah?nacarya, which limited to 
ascetic fare those engaged in the search for knowledge. 

In a vast country, a few centres of learning like 
Nalanda could not have, met even a tithe of the educa- 
tional needs of the population. They must have been met 
by the traditional gurukula system by which a guru 
(teacher) taught and shared his meagre fare with his dis- 
ciples, without expectation of any return. To teach all he 
knew to a deserving pupil and to house and feed him were 
religious obligations of the Brahman ic teacher. The num- 
bers of those who could be taught in colleges attached to 
Hindu and Buddhist monasteries, though very large, when 
individual institutions are considered, must have consti- 
tuted but a small part of the number to be taught. The 


demand was more than the universities and mathas could 
meet. It was therefore necessary to rely primarily on 
individual teachers, particularly on those grouped or 
gathered by accident or the lure of a tirtha or temple, in 
some famous city, or living by themselves at their homes, 
or moving about the country at the head of their pupils, 
wandering, teaching and engaging in public disputations, 
which often brought material recognition and reward to the 
teachers from which they met the expense of feeding their 
pupils. As such a way of life was open only to men, the 
opportunities for the education of women, when the edu- 
cation in the forest home became out of date, led to grow- 
ing female illiteracy. The discontinuance of upanayana for 
girls, to whom according to certain smritis, it had been obli- 
gatory in the distant past (pura kalpa) was obviously due 
to the impossibility of maintaining it in spirit and letter. 
Village education, both primary and advanced, was pro- 
vided for by endowed temples, mathas or viharas, or colo- 
nies of learned men (agrahara). Such colonies were a 
special form of endowment favoured by kings. As we 
may gather from the names of donees in grants forming 
agraharas, the beneficiaries were representative of differ- 
ent sakhas or branches of the Veda, and belonged to differ- 
ent gotras (septs). The object of the last provision was 
to provide for intermarriage within the agrahara or 
colony, so as to fix the inhabitants to it. When such colonies 
were distributed through a province, they served as well as 
schools do to-day. 

The Hindu temple emerges in history as a place of edu- 
cation later than the Buddhist or Jain monastery. A trend 
began to manifest itself to regard the surplus income of 
well-endowed temples as lawfully available for educational 
purposes. The maintenance of pathasalas from temple funds 


then begun. It was also more convenient to make educa- 
tional endowments in the first instance to a temple, as there 
was less likelihood, in an age of faith, of such funds being 
misappropriated than funds set apart for secular objects. 
A temple or a village community had also a continuity of 
life, which exceeded that of the oldest ruling dynasty. 
Hence, just as endowments for pious purposes used to be 
made over to village communities or village guilds, so 
endowments for education were also made to temples. The 
problem of buildings for lecture rooms and libraries was 
solved by using temple buildings. In Salotgi in Bijapur 
district, for example, the minister ot the Rashtrakuta ruler 
Krishna III endowed in A.D. 945 a college for about 200 
students, who, along with the teachers, were housed, cloth- 
ed and fed from the income of the endowment. The Col- 
lege fell into ruin and was rebuilt by a pious and rich per- 
son some generations later. (Altekar, op. cit. pp. 284-285). 

The endowment ot the Sanskrit College at Ennayiram 
(Ashtasahasram) in South Arcot is now famous. Its 
details are disclosed in the South Indian Epigraphist's 
Report for 1918. As many as 340 students were provided 
for in this endowment, along with 16 teachers. It was 
primarily a Brahmana college teaching the Vedas, 
grammar, rhetoric, Mimamsa and Vedanta. We know of 
smaller pathasalas attached to temples like Tirumuk- 
kudal in Chingleput district (Epigraphia Indica, XXI, 
No. 185) with 60 students, and Tiruvottiyur (Rep. on S. I. 
Epigraphy, 1912, No. 212) with many more students. 
These accounts relate to endowments of which the records 
have been discovered by accident. The number of such 
foundations must have been very large. Their existence 
is not open to doubt, since none of the endowments which 
have survived claims to be unique. 


The maintenance of both primary literacy and of higher 
learning was thus due firstly, to the obligation to teach laid 
on the first varna and to teach gratis', secondly to the obli- 
gation to learn laid on the first three varnas, a vocational 
bias being given to the studies of the second and third 
varnas; to devolving the duty of free teaching on grihas- 
thas and sanyasins, both of whom were restricted in regard 
to the wealth they could own; to making pupillage ascetic 
in its discipline and way of life, so as to reduce its cost; to 
providing various means by which the hereditary teachers, 
who had to teach free and feed their pupils, might be 
remunerated indirectly or endowed, as by sacrificial fees, 
and religious gifts (dana) ; and lastly, to the endowment of 
monasteries and the foundation of colonies of house- 
holders (grihastha)- who could both teach and perform 
sacrifices. By the Hindu code of life, a sanyasin could not 
own wealth, and a householder could not hoard more than 
what was just enough for three years' expense. 

All asramas for the Brahmana were thus dedicated to 
spare living or poverty. If wealth came to him in any one 
of the asramas, it could neither be hoarded up nor used in 
luxurious living. It could only be expended for the benefit 
of others, i.e., those whom it was the duty of the Brahmana 
to teach free and feed free. One can appreciate, in the 
light of these rules, the injunctions of the smritis (law- 
books) giving the first varna alone the privilege or duty of 
accepting gifts of a pious nature (dana-pratigraha) . The 
acceptance of a gift (dana) meant undertaking certain 
religious obligations which would purify the donor. Un- 
less therefore the recipient of a gift had sufficient spiritual 
and personal merit, the acceptance will prove a spiritual 
drag on him. In works on Dharmasastra dealing with 
religious gifts much stress is therefore laid on the deter- 



mination of the fitness or unfitness of the donee. A gift 
to an undeserving person will not only miss its mark by 
not getting for the donor the anticipated spiritual merit 
(puny a) but it will bring him load of sin (papa). The 
burden of finding a deserving person is laid upon the donor 
himself. It is noteworthy that among the qualifications 
laid down in various smritis and puranas for a proper reci- 
pient of a gift, birth is only one. Learning and every type of 
virtue, must be possessed by the donee. According to 
Vasishtha-smriti (III, 11-12) "an elephant made of wood, a 
stag made of stuffed hide, and an unlearned Brahmana 
are only nominally what they appear to be. In any king- 
dom, if what is designed for the enjoyment of the learned 
is used up by the unlearned, there springs fear for the 
country and failure of the rains/' The acceptance of a 
gift does not give the donee the power to make a bad use 
of it. According to a verse of Manu, cited by Lakshmi- 
dharain the Danakatpataru (p. 43 ed. Rangaswami) "the 
Brahmana, who, having the qualification for receiving a 
gift, receives but distributes it to the undeserving, to him 
nothing should (thereafter) be donated; and he who 
(having received a gift) merely hoards it (sancayam 
kurute) and does not put it to pious uses, will not attain 
ultimate happiness". 

The result of the rules relating to gifts in the smritis is 
two-fold: it compels the affluent e.g., kings, wealthy officials 
and opulent merchants, to seek spiritual merit on various 
specified occasions in which a gift to a deserving learned 
and virtuous Brahmana leads to the acquisition of puny a 
and the reduction of sin; and it also compels the recipients 
to use the gifts so obtained not for selfish enjoyment but 
for pious purposes and the fulfilment of duty as srotriya, 
i.e., performing yajnas, studying and teaching. The elabo- 


rate rules defining the different types of gifts, as sixteen 
major gifts (mahadana) etc., and laying down minutely 
the numerous occasions on which the making of gifts is a 
duty or a privilege to the economically well-endowed, 
virtually ]eads to this, viz., provision of a wide stream of 
benefaction whose benefits accrue ultimately to students and 
acolytes. In this sense, all dana is really vidyadana, the gift 
of knowledge. The drift of all the smriti rules on the sub- 
ject is to provide for the public support of free education, 
upto the highest standards possible. This is implicit in the 
entire dana literature, and it redeems it from aridity and 
ritualism. It is only those who view it superficially who 
will miss its purpose and regard it as a cunning device to 
make easy money for a privileged class. 

Vidyadana is used in the Hindu smritis in another and 
narrower sense. In that sense, a large chapter is devoted 
to it in the Danakalpataru of Lakshmidhara, the learned 
guru and prime minister of King Govindacandra of 
Kanauj (A.D. 1109-1155). This chapter has been 
"borrowed" intact and reproduced with minor additions by 
later nibandhakarah (digest-writers) like Candcsvara, 
Hemadri and Madanasimha.* The original work has 
hitherto been inavailable, and seems to have been so for 
centuries. In South India and the Dakhan, mediaeval 
rulers relied largely on Hemadri's Danakhanda (which is 
based on Lakshmidhara's) to justify or describe the value 
of their frequent pious donations. At one time, to make 
all the mahadanas (chief gifts) in accordance with 
Hemadri was declared in inscriptions to be a duty admitted 

*The works on Candasvara and Madanasimha are unpublish- 
ed. I have used Mss. of these works in preparing my edition of 


as such by every Hindu king. The incidence of the per- 
formance of the "sixteen major gifts" <?r other minor gifts 
was always the same, till the spirit of the institution was 
lost, arid gifts were made, as a matter of routine, to per- 
sons whose only qualification was birth, in the face of the 
specific and clear warnings against the dangers of making 
indiscriminate gifts, without making sure that the recipients 
possessed besides birth the requisite spiritual, mental and 
moral worth. 

Vidya is explained in relation to the rules of gifts 
(danavakya) as both learning and books. Bhatta Nila- 
kantha in his Danarnayukha (erl. Chowkhamba, p. 244) 
classifies vidyadana as (1) the Rift of books (pustakadand) , 
(2) the gift of pictures or ikons (pratimadana) and (3) 
the gift of knowledge by teaching (adhyapanam) . The 
last is dealt with in our digests nnr] smritis the duties of 
the members of the first varna. The second seems to refer 
to the gift of ikons of Vidya-devi or the goddess Sarasvati. 
Nilakantha himself deals in his very brief section (cover- 
ing only a page as against a wholo chapter of Lakshmi- 
dhara's and fifty closely printed pages, 
pp. 492-542, of Hemadri's Danakhanda ed. Benares) with 
only the merit of giving away some kinds of books. The 
difference between the earlier arid later writers is signifi- 
cant. The former wrote in epochs in which books, so neces- 
sary for the preservation and propagation of knowledge, 
were few and difficult to get, as compared with the heyday 
of the Mughal empire in which Nilakantha wrote. Lakshmi- 
dhara's eulogy of the valim of great collections of books (i.e. 
manuscripts) will bring joy to modern bibliophils and libra- 
rians. The calligraphist is raised to a high social position. 
He is to be rewarded not only by gifts but with public 
marks of honor. The stylus, writing material, indelible 


ink and the writing desk are all meticulously described, 
and with marked gusto. The completion of the transcrip- 
tion of a great book was to be celebrated as a public event, 
as the Italians of the Middle Ages used to celebrate in civic 
processions the painting of a Madonna by a painter of 
eminence like Cimabue. 

Books become indispensable when the old methods of 
oral instruction, for several years continuously, by a single 
teacher, give place to instruction by several teachers, and a 
change of literary form which makes books less easy to 
memorise and to transmit orally. The multiplication of 
books, anr! reliance on books in preference to the old pub- 
lic disputations for the communication and publication of 
new knowledge, will also explain the increased stress laid 
on the gift of books not only to scholars and teachers, but 
to temples and mat has. The praise of the new type of 
vidya-dana is to be found in the later puranas and 
upapuranas, from which the citations in the digests are 
made. Even in such passage, the references to vidya are 
so worded as to suggest both instruction and aids to study 
in the way of books. The Mahabharata (Anusasana 
Parva, LXTX, 6, cd., Citrasala) lays down that he who utters 
(i.e., teaches) to a pupil the divine word (i.e. the Veda) 
and the righteous (dharmyam) sastras (Sarasvati) 
enjoys a spiritual merit equal to the gift of lands and cows." 
The sentiment is repeated in another chapter of the same 
epic (LXXV, thus: "Having studied the Vedas, if one gifts 
it (by teaching) to a person able to discriminate between 
right and wrong (nayaavit) he has discharged the great 
duty of a teacher (gurukarma} and will, after death, revel 
in Heaven." The gift of the knowledge of the different 
sciences and arts (kala) either by teaching or by books is 
repeatedly justified on the ground that a mastery of the 


knowledge on which, for good and evil, the whole universe 
'depends, should bo ensured to a supplicant: 
Sastre yasmaj-jagat-sarvam samsritam ca subhasubham \ 
Tasmac-chastram praytnuna datavyam subhakarmana \ \ 


The same sentiment is expressed in other words in the 

Vidyaya vartate loko dharmadharma ca vindati \ 
Tasmad vidya sad deya drishtadrishtaphalarthibhih \ \ 

"Faith is dependant upon mastery of knowledge. Dis- 
crimination of right and wrong is the gift of learning. 
Hence, promulgate learning" repeats the same purana. 

A list of the subjects to be taught, in which manus- 
cripts beautifully transcribed are to be given away, will be 
of interest. Such a list will include the Vedas and their 
auxiliaries (anqani), the Siddhantas (Saiva and 
Vaishnava doctrinal works), Moksha-sastra, the Ramayana 
and the Mahabharata, the tantras of Garuda, Bala and 
Bhuta, Astronomy, Medicine, the 64 Arts (kola), poetry 
(kavya), music and dancing, philosophy (atma vidya), 
silpasastra (the Fine Arts), Agriculture, Logic (tarka- 
vidya), Mimamsa, Dharmasastra and the Puranas. The 
catalogue is merely illustrative and not exhaustive. The 
intention is to make vidya synonymous with the whole 
body of accessible knowledge. The gift orally of such 
knowledge is to be made attractive by proper enunciation, 
and musical intonation. The professional reader (an 
artist who is commemorated in Bana's Harshacarita and still 
survives) and his requirements are carefully described. 
The sections on vidyadana, in the narrower sense, supply 
material, till now not adequately utilised by those who have 


written of ancient Hindu education. But, in the wider or 
narrower senses of the term, the gift of knowledge was deem- 
ed a paramount social duty, and was enforced not only by a 
unique form of social organization into varna and asrama 
but by an elaboration of the donative principle and its trans- 
figuration till it became the fundamental basis of a system 
for the preservation and transmission of knowledge. The 
recognition by modern founders of colleges and universities 
of this great social duty is all the more welcome in our 
country to-day when the old systems have decayed and 
with them has gone the sense of ancient obligation. But, 
their number is still so inconsiderable that apart from 
the spiritual benefits that a Hindu hopes to derive from 
such enlightened munificence, a duty rests on us to com- 
memorate so pious a service to learning as that of the Rajah 
of Chettinad. 



SIR K. V. REDDI, K.C.I.E., D.LITT., M.L.C., 

V ice-Chancellor, Annamalai University. 

This subject is of great topical interest to India just 
now. The importance arises out of the fact that on the 
advice of Mr. Gandhi, Congressmen have started a 
Satyagraha movement breaking the law of the land and 
causing embarrassment to the Government during the pre- 
sent critical time. The reason why this movement has been 
started is not that Indian leaders were not consulted when 
India joined the War. It is not based on the ground that 
Britain has not yet granted Dominion Status to India. It 
is based on the sole ground that liberty of speech and the 
Press is being restricted. The Congressmen plead that the 
liberty of speech and liberty of the Press are being restrict- 
ed by the Defence of India rules and as Liberty of Speech 
and liberty of the Press are of the very essence of Demo- 
cracy they must assert their right to that liberty. These 
arguments are absolutely untenable and perverse. They 
plead "The British say they are fighting for the sake of 
liberty, liberty of speech, of the Press, of Association and 
of Faith. Why not the British Government allow us to 
say what we want to say? We must be allowed to express 
our opinions." Perfectly true. But liberty is not license. 
There is a difference between the two. There -may be 
occasions in the history of a nation when it will be almost 
criminal to allow this full amount of liberty to indivi- 
duals. Liberty is good, liberty is sacred, liberty is the 


birthright of everyone; but liberty abused, liberty turned 
into license, liberty used for the advantage of the enemy 
is undoubtedly criminal Mr. Gandhi and his Congress- 
men do not seem to have recognised the difference between 
peaceful times and wartimes. They do not seem to have 
realised that full liberty of speech in wartime might cause 
great rnisjhief. It may help the enemy to make use of it. 
It is not necessary to detail how in every civilised country, 
in every democratic country during the last war this liberty 
of speech and liberty of the Press had to be curtailed at least 
to some extent. Take for instance the country where 
liberty is identified almost with God. The people of the 
United States of America claim that their country is the 
birthplace of democracy and that liberty of speech and of 
the Press is of the very essense of democracy. They further 
say that it is the priceless gift which their ancestors have 
bequeathed to^them in their Constitution. 

But let us for a moment examine what had happened 
in America in the World War of 1914-18. Students of his- 
tory are aware of the Constitution of America. When the 
Constitution was drafted, what is known as the Bill of 
Rights was introduced as an amendment to the Constitu- 
tion and the Bill of Rights was made part of the Constitu- 
tion of that country. The very first clause of that Bill is 

"Congress shall make no law respecting an establish- 
ment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; 
or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the Press; or of the 
right of people peaceably to assemble and to petition the 
Government for a redress of grievances." 

But let us see what the United States of America and 
their Congress have done with regard to the liberty of 



speech during the war. The very Congress which is 
prohibited by the Constitution itself to abridge the free- 
dom of speech and of the Press passed a number of laws 
in one way or other restricting the freedom. I shall instance 
a few of these laws. 

1. The Espionage Act of 1917 prohibited the 
"gathering and dissemination of information regarding 
National Defences, which may be useful and utilised by the 
enemy." "False statements intended to aid the enemy 
and interference with military discipline, and with recruit- 
ing or enlistment in the military services" were made penal. 
The punishment provided for such offences were staggering, 
the maximum being, a fine of $10,000 and imprisonment 
for twenty years. 

By the same Act any written or pictorial matter which 
transgressed the provisions of the Act was declared non- 
mailable, thus placing great restrictions on the freedom of 
the Press, 

The Espionage Act is still in force. In 1940 a new Act 
was passed greatly increasing the penalties under it and 
providing punishment for "harbouring or concealing any 
person who has committed or is about to commit any 
offence under it." 

2. While the Espionage Act was under consideration 
several amendments were introduced in both Houses 
for Censorship but they were all rejected. In the same 
year 1917, however, the Trading with the Enemy Act was 
passed under which "direct power of censorship over 
communication between the United States and any 
foreign country" was granted to the Government. This 
Act also imposed many restrictions upon Foreign Language 


Newspapers. Such newspapers were prohibited from 
"publishing any item concerning the Government of the 
United States or any Nation participating in the War or 
concerning the War itself, unless they had previously filed 
transactions with the Post-Master General. Such items 
were not only made non-mailable but also the distribution 
of such items was made unlawful. 

3. Next came the Sedition Act of 1918. Under this 
Act "making a false statement to interfere with the suc- 
cess of the National Forces, obstructing the sale of Govern- 
ment Bonds, inciting various forms of disobedience in the 
military forces, obstructing enlistments, disloyal abuse of 
Government, the Armed forces and the Flag, language 
showing contempt of the form of the Government of the 
United States or the Constitution or the military forces or 
the Flag or the Uniform of the Army or Navy, promoting 
the cause of the enemy or displaying the enemy Flag, inter- 
ference with production necessary to the conduct of the 
War, advocating any of the prohibited acts and favouring 
by word or act, the cause of any country with which the 
United States was at war and opposing the cause of the 
United States" were made punishable. 

4. On the top of this there was the Conscription Act 
which compelled people to join the Armed forces of the 
Country. The American Protective League consisting 
purely of private citizens was given various powers. There 
were one Jakh of members for this League in 1917 and two 
and a half lakhs in 1918. They watched and discovered 
the ablebodied persons who were evading Conscription 
Act. They made enquiries into suspicious activities. They 
detected spies, Fifth Columnists, and persons likely to 
commit sabotage. 


5. TKe Congress of tHe United States also authoris- 
ed their President to have absolute control over all com- 
munications such as the Telephone, the Telegraph, Cable, 
Radio and Mails. 

These laws and activities were no doubt very much 
represented in America where they value the liberty of 
speech and of the Press so much. But the laws were obey- 
ed by the bulk of the nation and those who infringed them 
were severely punished. And yet these laws were repug- 
nant to the very Constitution of the country. Several laws 
affecting alients are even now being passed imposing enor- 
mous restrictions on their liberty of speech and associa- 
tion and even their rights to be employed in Mills and fac- 
tories are being taken away, 

Now, what is there in the Defence of India Rules 
against the liberty of speech and the liberty of the Press 
which goes beyond the laws of the United States, Mark 
the words in the above Acts: "disloyal abuse of the Govern* 
ment and the armed forces" "showing contempt of the 
existing forms of government" "any statement which 
would aid the enemy or which interferes with recruitment 
or enlistment." These are punishable under the American 
laws. Do our own laws go further than these. It would 
be easily admitted that the Defence of India Rules are cer- 
tainly milder than the laws of the United States which as 
stated above worship the very idea of democracy and the 
liberty of speech and of the Press, Why were these restric- 
tions imposed in America which defies the liberty of speech 
and of the Press so much. What was it that made the 
United States pass these laws. The reason is simple and 
clear. The liberty of the individual is nothing compared 
with the safety of the whole nation. If a time comes when 
to allow liberty of speech and of the Press to the fullest. 


exten? might mean 'the 'destruction of the country or the 
subjugation of the whole nation to a foreign power no 
government, with the slightest sense of responsibility can 
allow such liberty to the individual The liberty of the 
individual can never be more important than the liberty of 
the whole nation. When a country is defeated and becomes 
subject to a foreign power, where will be the "liberty" of an 
individual? In fact, it is in the interests of the liberty 
of the individual that such liberty should be curtailed if 
by such curtailing the danger to the nation can be averted 
or reduced, That is why, in times of war speeches and 
newspaper publications which are detrimental to the in- 
terests of the country are strictly prohibited. Various 
nations enforce various degrees of restriction of the liberty 
of speech and of the Press in times of war. 

The present Satyagraha movement is based on the 
ground that freedom of speech is not allowed to the 
people. This movement is doing a distinct disservice to 
our country. They will be giving a handle to Hitler to 
magnify it and carry on propaganda that there is a great 
revolution in India against the British rule and that Indians 
are not behind the British in their struggle against Ger- 
many. It will give him an impression that this country 
is full of only passive registers and hunger-strikers and that 
he will have an easy time in invading India. The policy 
of satyagraha, if followed for some more months, may 
result in a calamity. It is beset with grave dangers. It 
would adversely affect recruitment to the Army. It would 
reduce the collection of subscription to the War Fund. It 
would obstruct the sale of War Bonds. The country's 
powers of defence will thus be crippled. All this is likely 
to happen if unrestricted liberty of speech and of the Press 
which helps the enemy and endangers the safety of our 


own country be allowed. Such a liberty in War time and 
in a crisis like the present will be simply suicidal. 

The law of all civilised countries protects the indivi- 
dual from slander and libel even in peace time. Much 
more, therefore is the necessity for the law to abridge in 
wartime the freedom of speech and of the Press, which may 
endanger the safety of the whole nation. 



PROF. K. R. R. SASTRY, M.A., M.L., 

Law Dept. University, Allahabad 

Very often the basis of paramountcy comes in for 
examination. Paramountcy of the British Crown over 
Indian States "appears to present a peculiar case of con- 
quest operating by assumption and acquiscence." 1 

In order to examine the question of legal basis of 
Indian States it is necessary to remember that there are 
at present 601 Indian States, principalities, estates and 
Jagirs. 2 They have been variously classified in respect of 
their de jure and de facto Status: 

Lord Oliver's classification is very sound: 

I. Quasi-Sovereign States with treaties in which 
Sovereignty and rights of internal Government have never 
been surrendered. 

II. Those in which certain rights of interference 
have been established by treaty and whose independence is 
thus partial and subject to effective supervision. 

III. Great number of petty States the Sovereign 
Control of which has been taken over by the transference 
of their vassalage from some other Indian Sovereign 

1. Westlake, "Collected Papers," p. 214. 

2. Vide Memoranda on Indian States, 1940. 


States which previously exercised or claimed dominion over 
them. 3 

In respect of their membership of the Chamber of 
Princes, the Butler Committee divided them into three 
classes. Sirdar D. K. Sen divided them into seven classes. 
The Veteran Indian administrator A. B. Latthe suggest- 
ed a three-fold classification in a dynamic setting: 

I. States which have or may have as full powers of 
internal autonomy as possible^ 

II. States which have or may have the same 
powers of full internal autonomy consistently with their 
being grouped together to form such units of a Federation. 

III. States which have limited jurisdiction and 
powers of legislation even at present and are not entitled 
by treaty or usage to full jurisdiction and unlimited powers 
of legislation. 4 


Many Indian States had maintained an independent 
existence for hundreds of years and some States as Tra- 
vancore, Jammu, Orchha, and Hyderabad and many of the 
Rajput and other States have never been conquered or 
annexed. It is true that some of the Indian States "had 
been able to establish themselves in a position of practical 
independence, yielding only a nominal allegiance to the 
Emperors of Delhi and were able later to secure recognition 
from the British Power." 

3. Foreword to K. M. Panikkar's work on "Relations of 
Indian States with the Government of India, p. VII. 

4. A. B. Latthe "Problem of Indian States," pp. 7 and 8. 


The Status of some important Indian States at 
the time when Treaties or Sanads were contracted with 
them may here be indicated. 

At no time was Travancore conquered and the 
"Treaties were on the basis of two Sovereign States con- 
tracting with each other, one of which no doubt was much 
more powerful than the other and obtained favourable 
terms." 5 

Cochin though a friendly State had the Treaty of 1809 
after Britain suppressed the insurrection against the Bri- 
tish power. 

The Nizam of Hyderabad vis-a-vis the Moghul 
Power had the Status of the Elector of Brandenbury or 
Bavaria. He was treated as a "perpetual Ally" Nay, the 
East India Company bowed in compliment by offering 'bags 
of gold' to the Great Moghul till 1842-43. 

The Mysore Ruler owes his Status to a restoration 
made by Britain Solely in virtue of the powers of the 
British Government got through Conquest. 

The Gaekwar of Baroda, except with reference to the 
province of Okhamandel and the island of Bate wherein 
Sovereignty was obtained through the grant of the East 
India Company, was de jure Sovereign in his territory 
through the right of Conquest and through functioning as 
the "farmer" of revenue of territories under the Suzerainty 
of the Peishwa. 

Gwalior had a separate existence in law since the 
Treaty of Salbai (1782) and the East India Company enter- 

5. Reply of Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Aiyar dated 5th August, 


ed into a treaty of alliance and mutual Defence (1803) 
with Scindhia. 

Rising in his stature from a soldier of fortune to that 
of a de facto and de jure Sovereign of territories conquered 
the Holkar of Indore had once a Status in law sufficient to 
exact tributes from Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah, 
Bomdie, and Karanli. 

Dhar rebelled in 1857 and it was later restored after 

Bhopal's Status in 1817 was that of a Sovereign de facto 
and de jure. 

Orchha is the only State in Bundelkhand which was 
not held in subjection by the Peishwa. The Treaty of 1812 
recognizes the ancient Sovereignty of the "possessions" 
of the Rajah of Orchha. 

With reference to the Rajaputana States they were 
taken into 'protection' by the East India Company in their 
attempt to erect a "barrier against" the Pindarees. These 
Rajput States had thrown off the Shackles of control by 
the Moghul Sovereign at the earliest time when it got weak. 
Udaipur had continued her Sovereignty in spite of plunders 
and exaction of Chauth, while she was taken into the pro- 
tective system. Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bikaner, and Alwar, 
had separate Sovereign existence when they became allies. 

Maharaja Ghulab Singh's title to Jammu, Ladakh 
and Baltistan was through conquest; he acquired 
Sovereignty over Kashmir by purchase, (Vide Art I and II 
Treaty of Amritsar, 1846). 

The Phulkian States of Patiala, Jind and Nabba had 
'Sovereign' existence. They got further territories from 


the British Government through Sanads for acts of 
loyalty during the Mutiny (1857-58). 

Of the Orissa States (26) owing to administrative 
grouping the Superior States of Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj 
had not received sufficient recognition in later Sanads 
issued to them unilaterally. 

The Kathiawar States have been classified into five 
classes. The Company's Sovereignty over them had to 
start with a dual source flowing from the Peishwa and the 

The Mediatized Chiefs of Central India were formerly 
under tributary obligations to Scindia, Holkar, or the 
powers of Dhar and Dewas and sometimes to all these 
chiefs. These chiefs owe their present individuality to the 
big arm of Britain. 


The legal basis of all Treaty and Sanad States thus 
rests on prior Sovereign Status or rendition and restoration 
by the Paramount Power. (Examples of the latter: 
Mysore, Jhalawar, Benares) . 

There is authority in legal theory for the view that a 
weak State which in order to provide for its safety places 
itself under the protection of n, more powerful one and 
engages to perform in return several offices equivalent 
to that protection without however divesting itself of the 
right of Government and Sovereignty, does not cease to 
rank among the Sovereigns. (Vide Grotius, Pufendrof and 
Vattel for this view)". 

It can only be stated tHat Indian States in different 
degrees and varieties of internal Sovereignty have long 


ago lost their recognition as persons of international law. 
With Shreds of Sovereignty intact, with Rulers who have 
some rights of foreign Sovereigns while travelling abroad, 
with subjects who are British Protected Subjects while 
travelling outside their States, the Status of Indian States is 
quasi-in ternational. 

While such is their legal basis, it is quite another 
matter essentially political cum administrative whether 
in the present posse of affairs national as well as inter- 
national paramountcy should continue to be a "hospital 
with numerous patients incurable but undying." No 
violence would be done to treaty, Sanad, or engagement 
if the existing 601 States are reduced to 200 as many petty 
estates and Jaghirs have been the results of British Protec- 
tion. That would be a matter for determination and deci- 
sion by a Royal Commission appointed by the British 




Hindu sara, the father of Asoka, was a warlike emperor 
whose achievements fell short of the conquest of Kalinga 
or Orissa and were to some extent neutralised by a 
confederacy of Tamil princes a league which was power- 
ful till its dismemberment about 165 B.C. He died about 
273 B.C., and Asoka's career as a militarist followed. Bud- 
dhist literary tradition emphasises his bloody fratricidal 
struggle to secure the imperial throne of Pataliputra, and 
represents him as Chanda (fierce) -Asoka in contradistinc- 
tion to his later role as Dhamma (pious) -Asoka. Even 
those who discredit that tradition will have to regard him 
as an undiluted militarist in the light of his own account 
of the Kalinga war waged by him about 261 B.C. 


Asoka's Rock Edict XIII describes the terrible carnage 
resulting from his war with Kalinga and regards its dire 
consequences as inevitable on the ground that that country 
was "an unconquered country." He docs not tell us why 
he attempted a conquest unattempted by his father or 
grandfather. Reading between the lines of the edict in 
question we are justified in thinking that the Kalinga war 
was one of pure aggression. The people of Kalinga are not 
stigmatised in that record as rebels, and if they were rebels, 
Asoka would have made their rebellion a peg on which to 


hang his moralisirgs. Therefore the theory of Kalinga's 
revolt is ruled out, and that emperor in the early period of 
his reign was responsible for a war of unprovoked 


The unmerited sufferings of the people of Kalinga and 
particularly of those practising Dhamma threw Asoka 
into a reflective mood. He sincerely wept over the woes 
of Kalinga and realised the criminality of aggressive 
warfare, What is the character of Asoka's repentance? 
How far did he abjure militarism and turn pacifist? It 
is generally supposed that he became an unqualified 
pacifist, that his new role affected the military strength 
of the Maurya Empire adversely, and that his successors 
inheriting his unwarlike policy became its victims; in 
short, Asoka's unalloyed pacifism destroyed the roots of 
India's national existence. Our question is whether he 
hankered after peace at any cost, whether he regarded 
aggressive warfare alone as sinful, or all warfare includ- 
ing the defensive and punitive varieties of it. If he was 
only against aggression, all the deductions from the 
wrong interpretation of his new role are untenable. It is 
hard to believe that Asoka, a militarist to the core on 
the eve of the Kalinga war, was transformed out of recog- 
nition by that war, that consideration whipped the offend- 
ing Adam out of him completely, that in his case reforma- 
tion came in a flood, and that his "Hydra-headed wilful- 
ness" disappeared without leaving its marks on him. 
Apart from probabilities, what are the facts of the case? 


Several considerations militate against the assumption 
that Asoka was transmuted by the Kalinga war into a paci- 



fist sans phrase. No doubt he became a sadder and a wiser 
man and eschewed aggressive warfare. He gave much 
attention to the establishment oi beneficent administra- 
tive norms, particularly in Kalinga in order to heal its 
wounds. His outlook on life changed substantially, and 
the empire as a whole was the beneficiary of that change. 
Still Asoka did not cease to be an imperialist. He never 
contemplated the rendition of Kalinga, the conquest of 
which had rounded off the Maurya Empire. In Rock 
Edict. XIIT he says: "Devanampriya (Asoka) thinks that 
even (to one) who should wrong (him) what can be forgiven 
is to be forgiven .... (The inhabitants of) the forests . . . 
are told of the power (to punish them) which Devanampriya 
(possesses) in spite of (his) repentance, in order that they 
may be ashamed (of their crimes) and may not be 
killed."* In the special Jaugada Edict II it is said with 
reference to the border tribes of Kalinga that "the king 
will forgive them what can be forgiven." Further, Asoka 
exhorts his descendants not to make any navam vijayam or 
new conquest. Thus his new-born passion for dhammavi- 
jaya, or conquest by righteousness (not by the sword), was 
not undisciplined, but strictly controlled by the needs of 
an extensive empire. Morevcr, he stresses this world and 
the next in his edicts. Therefore during the major part 
of his long reign (c. 273-c. 232 B.C.) he stood for non- 
aggression but not for absolute pacifism, and his sane 
imperialist outlook, which was the outcome of the 
Kalinga w r ar, maintained the balance between the spiritual 
and non-spiritual factors in life a balance indispensable 
to the progress and stability of civilisation. 

*Dr. E. Hultzsch, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, I (1925), 
p. 69 Ibid., p. 117. 





In ancient times the question of the right to work did 
not arise at all, since the worker was a slave. During the 
Middle Ages also things were almost the same. It was only 
in modern times that some attempts were made to esta- 
blish this right to work. Thus we find Robert Owen and 
Fourier making this right one of the important items 
of socialist agitation. Similarly in the Revolutionary 
period, French workers were loud in their demand for the 
right to work. But nothing was done in this direction. The 
earlier Declarations of Rights in France and U.S.A. at the 
end of the 18th Century do not contain a reference 
to the Right to Work. Thus the French Declaration of the 
Rights oi Man said "Men are bom and always continue 
free, and equal in respect of their rights. Civil distinction 
therefore can be only on public utility. The end of all politi- 
cal associations is the preservation of the natural and im- 
prescriptible rights of man and these rights are liberty, pro- 
perty, security and resistance to oppression." The American 
Declaration also runs on similar lines. They did not stress 
the right to work, probably because the problem of 
employment had not become acute at the end of the 18th 
Century. With the dawn of the Industrial Revolution the 
nature of industrial organisation completely changed. Pro- 
duction was no longer carried on in the cottage to order, the 


instruments of production being owned by the worker him- 
self. It was carried on in anticipation of demand. Due to 
the introduction of machinery thousands of workers were 
thrown out of employment. This problem of unempoyment 
has become still more acute in the post-war period due to the 
maladjustment brought about by the Great War. The 
acuteness was further aggravated by the great depression, 
and the following figures of unemployed men in the principal 
countries in 1930 will clarify the position: 

U. S. A. 8-3 millions 

Germany 4*89 millions 

England 2 '66 millions 

France 0-85 millions 

Italy 0'75 millions 

Total in the principal countries: 17*45 millions 

This phenomenal figure of the unemployed led everyone 
to think of the necessity of recognising the importance of 
the right to work and the need to guarantee it. Thanks to 
the constitution of the U.S.S.R. which guaranteed the right 
to work by Article 118 of the Constitution the Right to 
Work is now assured by the socialist organisation of the 
national economy, by the steady growth of the productive 
forces of Soviet society, by the elimination of the possi- 
bility of economic crisis and by the abolition of unemploy- 


The right to work can mean in the words of Laski "no 
more than the right to be occupied in producing some 
share of the goods and services which Society needs." It 
does not mean the right to some particular work. A Prime 



Minister who has been overthrown has not the right to 
be provided with the labour of an identical character. 
Society cannot afford each man the choice of the efforts 
he will make. It also means that the man who is deprived 
of the opportunity to work is entitled to the equivalent 
reward of that opportunity i.e., when an individual is 
thrown out of employment and no work can be found for 
the time being, it is the duty of the State to provide him 
with a maintenance. Every well-ordered State should have 
a system of unemployment benefit to which the working 
people themselves would make some contribution. In 
Laski's judgement "the principle of insurance against un- 
employment is integral to the conception of the State." 
To be his best self, man must work and absence of work 
means provision, until employment again offers the 
opportunity to work. (ibid). But a bonus or allowance to 
which the individual himself has not contributed a certain 
share does not commend itself to us. It is bound to in- 
crease pauperism and demoralise the Working Classes. 
The lot of the pauper is not to be made better than that 
of the hard-working independent labourer. 

A man has not only the right to work but he has also 
the right to be paid an adequate wage for his labour, i.e., 
a wage necessary for "creative citizenship." All men need 
food, clothing and shelter, a certain amount of leisure 
and opportunity for education and culture for the deve- 
lopment of the best that is in them and no one should be 
allowed to fall below this standard. "The right to an ade- 
quate wage" says Laski "does not imply equality of income, 
but it does imply that there must be a sufficiency for all 
before there is superfluity for some." 

The right to safety and security, leisure and education 
are all corolaries to the right to work. Conditions of safety 


to prevent any accidents during work is of utmost import- 
ance. Material security in old age and also in case of sick- 
ness or loss of capacity to work ought to be guaranteed. A 
certain amount of leisure and education are also essential. 
Thanks to the Factory Acts which guarantee these to some 
extent, all these privileges now enjoyed by the workers will 
ultimately result in the increased efficiency of the great fac- 
tor of production labour. In addition to all these, it is 
better that the worker is also given a share in the govern- 
ment of the industry, because otherwise economic freedom 
will be incomplete, 

Finally the right to work also implies the duty to work. 
No doubt the worker has several rights over the State and 
the Employer. But he must also remember that he has got 
a duty to the employer arid the community. He must be 
ready to work and continue at work until the contract is at 
an end, while the employer is also under the same obliga- 
tion to continue until tho contract is lawfully put an end 
to. He has a duty to be reasonably competent and fit for 
his work rind position. Ho has a duty to be honest i.e., he 
should not take secret commissions or discounts or exploit 
his knowledge of the employer's business for his own 
aggrandisement. He has to perform his work in a spirit 
of sympathy and co-operation as far as possible. Lastly 
he has also a duty to maintain reasonable economic peace 
by not resorting to Strikes on flimsy grounds. 


At the present day the importance of guaranteeing the 
right to work is established beyond doubt. In spite of this 
view, the Capitalist Society has not been found competent 
to meet the right demand of the worker. So long as man 
continues to live he must have the necessary resources for 


existence. Work alone provides the great majority 
of mankind with means of subsistence. But 
the apparently inexorable laws of capitalist economy 
drive a considerable section of the working classes 
to a state of unemployment in a world which is 
seemingly governed by economic lunacy. Many millions 
of people live lives of semi-starvation and unemployment 
because States will not organise access to the natural re- 
sources of the World. Vast portions of the World's surface 
are left untilled because of the false sense of economic 
nationalism. Similarly until internationalism reaches the 
stage where international trade is controlled by the Econo- 
mic Council of a powerful League of Nations, it will be 
criminal for any country to neglect to develop to the ut- 
most its own national resources and to leave its population 
to shift for themselves on the precarious circumstances of 
foreign markets. The problem of unemployment can be 
solved only by the provision of more work. But this is 
possible only when there is an effective demand for the 
goods and services produced by labour. Unemployment is 
capable of solution by the scientific organisation of produc- 
tion and distribution by rendering effective the demand of 
the bulk of the population for the commodities produced; 
by stopping national expenditure on unremunerative pur- 
poses; by the better equipment of industrial workers of all 
grades; by the fuller development of the resources of the 
world; by the removal of artificial barriers to the free flow 
of international commerce and by the disarmament of all 
nations by a powerful supernational League of Nations. 
The International Association of unemployment organised 
in 1910 should get more support from all. There should 
be provision in every country for compulsory insurance 
against unemployment to which contributions will be 


made by the State, the Employers and the workers. Ger- 
many under Bismarck led the world in this direction by 
the provision of Unemployment Insurance by the Act of 
1894. By the National Insurance Act of 1911, unemploy- 
ment insurance was secured in certain groups in England. 
In the post-war period it was greatly developed in all coun- 
tries and in 1924 the labour government in England adopted 
a scheme to solve unemployment. In short compulsory 
unemployment insurance has been the main future in the 
post-war period. 

Labour should be accorded ready access to em- 
ployment by establishing employment bureaux subsidised 
by the State for workers. The earliest private establish- 
ment of this kind was started in Germany in 1865. Later 
on between 1893-1900, 85 such bureaux were erected. 
Berlin Re^ster established in 1883 worked successfully and 
in 1908 it secured work for 120,000 men. In 1909 Mr. 
Churchill introduced the Labour Exchange Bill and by 
1915 there were about 401 such exchanges. 

"Home Lodging Houses" and "Public Relief Stations" 
were also started in Germany to improve the lot of the 
workers during periods of unemployment. Such organisa- 
tions should be popularised everywhere. 

The crux of the problem is, can any economic system 
guarantee this right to work? Capitalism, in which unem- 
ployment is inherent, is the negation of the right to work. 
Under Capitalism production is carried on in anticipation 
of demand and the only motive is profit. There is no cen- 
tral planning. Hence economic crises are inevitable, and 
this results in unemployment. In spite of this great 
handicap capitalism can try to do something by a careful 
public works policy and a suitable monetary policy and by 


providing unemployment insurance etc. But the real pro- 
blem will still remain unsolved. 

Is the Socialist system then better for tackling the 
problem of unemployment and for guaranteeing the right 
to work? According to Pigou a Socialist system with its 
central planning is better than Capitalism for this purpose, 
because factors of production can be easily adjusted in a 
nationalised economy. But this advantage of Socialism 
over Capitalism is nullified by other drawbacks of Social- 
ism. The proper balance between State authority and 
individual initiative is entirely and ruthlessly suppressed 
by Socialism which stands for the omnipotence of the 

Strange as it may sound Socialism is not social. 
It is even aggressively anti-social. The summary 
abrogation of even the most elementary human rights and 
the starving wages that it pays to its enslaved labourers in 
Russia are facts made known to the World by convinced 
Socialists and Communists on their return from the so- 
called paradise of Soviet workers. Men who went to 
search for truth in Russia were all bitterly disappointed 
and disillusioned when they saw the horrors of the Soviet 

Another anti-social aspect of socialism is the class-war 
which if its object materialised would mean the end of all 
economic organisation. Class-war is an artificial engine, 
not the natural outgrowth of a working economic system 
since economically "capital cannot do without labour nor 
labour without capital." 

Above all, under Socialism the incentive for work is 
lost and consequently there will be a fall in the national 


income. The per capita income will go down and the posi- 
tion of the poor will not be universally improved even when 
you transfer wealth from the rich to the poor. We are one 
with Sidgwick when he says "I object to Socialism not be- 
cause it divides product badly but because there will be so 
much less to divide." 

Neither Capitalism nor Socialism can, as they exist 
to-day concede the right to work. Various and varied 
have been the suggestions of the Economists. The corpo- 
rate idea seems to come nearest to conceding this right to 
work. The corporate State in Italy is based on the idea that 
the Marxian interpretation of a class- war in Society is 
fundamentally wrong. Workers and employers are to be 
considered partners in performing one social function name- 
ly, production. And therefore an attempt should be made 
to bring together labourer and employer in institutions 
recognised and directed by the State. It is an attempt to 
abolish the evils of Capitalism not by abolishing private 
property but by regulating it in the interest of the com- 
mon good. At present the experiment works because of 
the dictatorship behind it. It is too early to say whether 
it can work without the power of the State behind it. But 
its principle collaboration between Capital and Labour 
and not antoganism is sound. 

The corporative Society which results from private 
initiative of free men organising themselves with the 
approval of the State, like the one in Portugal is said to 
be the best. According to this idea individuals have the 
freedom to associate into groups representing profes- 
sions recognised by the State. Such corporative bodies are 
autonomous bodies and stand midway between Individual- 
ism and complete State control They should represent 


both employers and employees in equal number and should 
receive guidance at the hands of the State. These associa- 
tions may form themselves into national guilds and may 
be given the authority to regulate wages, hours of work, 
marketing, insurance and other things which are of com- 
mon interest. The professional interest can be incorporac- 
ed into common interests with the necessary amendments 
which the State may deem necessary. It must be simple, 
intelligible and free from all undue control from the State. 
Though even here there are difficulties human as well as 
technical, they can be avoided if the scheme is worked with 
proper goodwill on the side of the State and citizens on the 
one hand and on the bonds of common interests of the em- 
ployers and employees on the other. Then only the worker's 
needs arid in particular his right to work will be better under- 
stood both by the employers and by the State in order that 
this long cherished right to work might be safeguarded. 


The worker with his right to work has now become a 
force to be reckoned with. In Mexico and Russia, he even 
succeeded in capturing political power, while Labour Par- 
ties were occasionally successful in establishing their govern- 
ments in some democracies like England and France. The 
most potentially powerful movement in the coming gene- 
rations might be organised labour. There is now a definite 
swing towards socialism in all countries. Radical labour 
opinion is veering round to communism. If communist dic- 
tatorship is to be averted the present capitalist system 
must be cleansed of its anamolies. Corporative democracy, 
containing the salutary features of corporativism and 
Socialism is the only solution for the future polity and 
economy of the World. Corporative democracy will be a 


synthesis of the best elements of all political doctrines, 
allowing the Capitalist and the worker a large measure of 

In conclusion it must be said that the case for the 
right to work is immense and it is the duty of the State, 
whatever economic system it may have, to guarantee this 
right to the worker. The nature and functions of the State 
have undergone a thorough change and it is no longer a 
Police State of the 18th Century. The Social-Service State 
of the 20th Century is under the obligation to guarantee 
this right to work in order that it may fulfil its mission. 


(Garbha-Upaniskad to Entwicklungsmechanik) . 


"The One Spirit's plastic stress 

Sweeps through the dull, dense world, compelling 

All new successions to the forms they wear" Shelly. 

Life presents many wonders and riddles, but the 
greatest of them all is the power of individual development 
possessed by living creatures. A minute drop of living 
jelly or protoplasm floating on the top of the yolk in the 
hen's egg takes gradually the form of the bird and hatches 
out as the chick in three weeks. The minute fertilised 
egg or ovum of the elephant gives rise to the baby elephant 
as a result of a creative differentiation of six hundred and 
fifty days during which new elephant tissue appears at the 
rate of fourteen pounds a day. Mouse and man alike have 
similar minute, and apparently insignificant beginnings. 
The fertilised ovum of the mouse differentiates itself into 
the baby mouse in twenty one days at the average rate of 
one-fourth ounce of mouse tissue per day. The human 
egg, almost invisible to the naked eye, being a mere blob 
of living matter of about 0*13 mm. in diameter 
passes through a series of kaleidoscopic changes to 
attain the human form and organisation in nine months, 
and is ushered into the world as the seven pound baby. 


How does the simple, often microscopic egg, in 
which no trace of its future destiny can be detected, deve- 
lop into the complex organisation of the adult? What 
brings about the differentiation of the various organs 
of the future adult? And how do the several parts that be- 
come differentiated in development get integrated into the 
unified organism? How comes about the co-ordination of 
the various events of development in space as well as in 
time? These questions, which Constitute the subject of 
embryology, have puzzled laymen, scientists and philoso- 
pers alike in all ages, and various theories, fanciful and 
speculative, philosophical and scientific, have been invent- 
ed in all ages to explain the mystery of development how 
the unborn becomes the born. 

Among the ancient Hindu writers, the authors of the 
Garbha-Upanishad, and also Charaka and Sushruta, refer 
to the problem of human development. The Garbha- 
Upanishad describes the development of the human 
embryo as follows: "It is semi-fluid in the first night; 
in seven nights it is like a bubble; at the end of half a month 
it becomes a ball. At the end of a month it is hardened; 
in two months the head is formed; in three months, the 
region about the feet; and in the fourth month the region 
about the stomach and loins and also ankle is formed; in 
the fifth month, the back (or spinal) bone; in the sixth, the 
face of the nose, eyes, and ears; in the seventh it becomes 
united with Jiva ( Atma) ; in the eighth month, it becomes 
full (of all organs) ; in the ninth, it becomes fatty." 

It will be interesting to compare this account of the 
development of the human embryo with the findings ^ of 
modern embryology. Human embryologists distinguish 
three main periods during the intra-uterine period of 


development: the period of the ovum or egg, from fertili- 
sation to the formation of germ-layers, lasting for about 
ten to fourteen days, the period of the embryo, until the 
embryo has assumed a definitely human appearance, till the 
end of the second month; and the period of the foetus. 
None of the very young developing eggs have ever been 
observed, the earliest stage that has been observed being 
about eleven days old. Modern accounts of the very 
early development of the human embryo are to a large 
extent inferences from the study of rabbit, monkey and 
other closely related animals. It is therefore all the more 
remarkable that the Garbha-Up.'inishad should have des- 
cribed the appearance of the early stages by suggestive 
and fairly correct comparisons. "Like a bubble" in seven 
nights, "Like a ball" in a fortnight are fairly apt compari- 
sons of the early mammalian embryo. At the end of a 
month the human embryo is about 6 mm., and 
shows an increase of about fifty times in size and 
eight thousand times in weight. In the second 
month the human embryo (8 mm. to 25 mm. in length), 
develops what is unmistakably a human face, and 
a very markedly distinct head which forms about one-half 
of the entire body. "In three months the region about the 
feet," is quite a correct statement, for the feet become well 
diffrentiated and are no longer paddle like as in the pre- 
vious stages. During the fourth month the external sex- 
organs develop from an indifferent neutral stage to those 
characteristic of each sex; the head is about a third of the 
body, for the region about the belly increases in size; 
the arms and legs are rotated into their final positions, 
in which the elbows point backward, the knee forwards, 
and the soles of the feet face downward and away from 
the body/ "In the fourth month the region about the 


stomach and loins and also the ankle is formed." In the 
fifth month the body axis is straightened, the head is per- 
fectly erect and the back is "almost unbelievably" straight, 
more straight than it ever will be. In the sixth month the 
eyelids, fused since their formation in the third month, 
open. "The sixth month foetus, if born, will breathe, cry, 
and squirm;" it will live for a few hours. "In the seventh 
month the embryo becomes united with Jiva". The 
seventh month embryo is frequently able to survive 
premature birth; the nervous system is sufficiently deve- 
loped to meet the demands of independent life; the cere- 
bral hemispheres develop to such an extent that they 
cover almost the whole of the rest of the brain; they begin 
to show fissures and grooves. Moreover the embryo of 
the seventh month is sensitive to touch, possesses the sen- 
sation of taste, and can probably perceive the differences 
between darkness and light. The eighth and ninth 
months are concerned mainly in giving the finishing touches 
to the foetus preparatory to being ushered into a new 

One cannot fail to be impressed by the soundness of the 
observations of the Garbha-Upanishad. They could not 
have been the creations of mere fancy. But the same 
cannot be said of the account of Charaka and Sushruta ( and 
Dhanvantari too) who held the view that in the egg or 
fertilised ovum all the organs of the adult organism were 
present, and that development was merely the unfolding 
of what was already present in the egg. A similar view, 
the preformation view as it is called, was held by many of 
the European Scientists till about the nineteenth century. 

Interesting as some of the observations of the ancient 
Hindu writers are, they do not constitute the science of 


embryology, and we do not seem to have any references to 
the development of animals. Regarding the causal fac- 
tors, the prevalent view was that Life or Prana is an inde- 
pendent principle which regulates the development of the 
ovum. "The Life is prior to the senses, for it regulates the 
development of the fertilised ovum which would putrefy 
if it were not living, and the sense? with their apparatus 
develop subsequently out of the ovum" Sankara, Sari- 
raka Bhasya, Chapter II, Pada 4, Sutra 9. 

For the foundations of Scientific cmbroyology we have 
to look to Greece, and in particular to Aristotle who took 
all knowledge for his province and is recognised as the 
father of Zoology as of other branches of knowledge. Aris- 
totle's "De Generatione Animalum" deals with the deve- 
lopment of animals. Though the observations embodied 
in it are not all accurate Aristotle's insight and interpreta- 
tion of the phenomena command our respect. We must 
mention in particular his criticism of erroneous 
theories like the preformation theory and the theory of 
Pangenesis. It is interesting to note that these theories 
were revived later in Europe, and that Charles Darwin was 
the exponent of the latter theory. 

After Aristotle, the study of the development of 
animals received no attention, all through the eras of 
fettered thought, and even long after. It was only during 
the thirties of the last century that the foundations of 
modern embryology were laid by the publication of Von 
Baer's treatise on the Development of animals with obser- 
vations and reflections. The publication of Darwin's 'Ori- 
gin of Species' gave an additional impetus, and a host of 
'distinguished workers investigated the various animal 
types and revealed a wealth of extremely interesting facts 


relating to the development of animals. And it came to 
be recognised that no division of Biology is more fascinat- 
ing than Embryology. In the words of Minot "The stories 
which embryology has to tell are the most romantic known 
to us, and the wildest imaginative creations of Scott or Du- 
mas are less startling than the innumerable and incredible 
shifts of role and change of character which embryology has 
to entertain us with in her life-histories." 

The story of animal development is briefly as follows: 

i. All animals except the lowest begin as fertilised 
egg, or zygote, as it is called. The egg itself is the result of 
the union of the sperm or male germ cell and ovum or female 
germ cell. There are a few cases of animals developing 
without fertilisation of the egg, which are spoken of as 
Virgin birth' or 'parthenogenesis.' The eggs of some ani- 
mals can be induced artificially to develop without fertili- 

ii. The fertilised eggs vary in size, and in the amount 
and distribution of reserve food material or yolk contain- 
ed in them. The eggs of birds are large owing to the 
enormous amount of yolk in them. The eggs of most 
animals are very small. 

iii. The first steps in the development of the egg are 
more or less the same in all animals. The egg divides into 
smaller and smaller cells without growing in size at all, till 
there is a ball of small cells instead of a single cell. This 
process is called segmentation or cleavage and forms the 
first chapter of development. 

The pattern of cleavage, however is not the same in 
all animals, but varies much, being dependent on the 
amount and distribution of yolk in the egg. The bird's 
egg which has a large amount of yolk does not segment as 


a whole; only the superficial patch of protoplasm divides 
and forms a little plate of cells, the blastoderm. Eggs with 
little or no yolk like the human egg or sea-urchin's egg 
divide as a whole and into equal parts. In some other 
animals the egg may divide as a whole, but the products 
of the division, the blastomeres, as they are called, may 
not be equal. 

iv. The ball of cells resulting from cleavage is usu- 
ally hollow, enclosing a central cavity, and is termed a 
blastula. In some animals the blastula is a solid ball, and 
in others as in the bird it is represented by a plate of cells. 

v. The cells forming the blastula next begin to 
arrange themselves to constitute the chief foundations of 
the future organism. By the tucking in of some portion, 
or by the growing over of some of the cells over the rest, or 
by the splitting of some portions, the cells move into 
new positions, and a two-layered and then a three-layered 
embryo is produced. The outer is the ectoderm, the 
middle is the mesoderm, and the inner the endoderm. 
These three layers form the material out of which the dif- 
ferent organs are subsequently built up. 

vi. Next begins the mysterious process of differentia- 
tion of tissues and organs. Imagine a lump of plastic material 
plastic marble, if that were possible moulding itself into a 
group of bricks, the bricks arranging themselves gradu- 
ally into foundation stones, basement structures, then 
pillars, walls, arches, etc., and finally shaping themselves 
into a noble and magnificent edifice like the Taj Mahal. 'A 
miracle' you would say. What the embryologist sees is no less 
marvellous. The three germinal layers, the ectoderm, meso- 
derm, and endoderm, become moulded by foldings, 
ingrowths, outgrowths, thickenings, and finally give rise to 


the rudiments of tissues and organs. Out of the ecto- 
derm or outer skin of the embryo arise gradually the ner- 
vous system, sense organs, and skin; out of the mesoderm 
the muscles, blood vessels, heart, the ovaries and testes, and 
the skeletal structures. Jn the development of every 
animal these various processes occur in orderly sequence. 
To take but one instance, the first indication of the ner- 
vous system is a thickening of the middle region of the 
back of the embryo from one end to the other. This is the 
nerve plate or neural plate. The sides of this thickening 
rise up as folds, grow, meet above and form a tube. The 
tube sinks beneath the outer skin or ectoderm. 

The front portion of this tube the nerve tube swells 
up, and later undergoes many changes to form the brain. 
The remaining portion of the tube is transformed gradually 
into the spinal cord. Whether it is the embryo of fish, frog, 
snake, bird or man, the same orderly sequence of events are 
seen in the early stages of the development of the brain. 

vii. Generally as one watches the development of the 
animal from the apparently simple homogeneous egg into 
the complex organism, one cannot help the impression that 
the panaromic representation of the various stages is all 
preordained, and that the embryo is travelling to a definite 
goal, the formation of a replica of the parent. Development 
is an intricate web woven by the three Sisters, the three 
Fates. At every stage, development is seen to have spun out 
of the past, and also to be enmeshing the future. The 
various stages, blastula, gastrula etc., are merely cross- 
sections in time of one organic process of development. 

In some animals the path of development instead of 
being straight, is devious and the embryo has to assume 
temporary forms and structures quite different from those 



of the adult and unconnected with the main line of deve- 
lopment. The butterfly's eggs developing into cater- 
pillar and chrysalis or pupal stages before attaining 
the form of the butterfly, and the eggs of the frog 
developing into fish-like tadpoles are familiar examples of 
this kind of indirect development. There are many other 
examples of animals travelling a tortuous road in develop- 
ment. It is not always easy to explain why the develop- 
ment should be complicated by the interpolation of larval 

Development is generally one of progressive differen- 
tiation and increasing complexity of the organism; but 
this is not always so. Some organisms, after a period of 
initial differentiation retrace their steps, and undergo 
de-differentiation or retrograde development. The most 
striking example is that of the Ascidian or sea-squirt. The 
adult creature shows no trace of semblance of an animal 
It is like a sac, leading a vegetating existence attached to 
some rock in the sea. The eggs of the Ascidian develop 
into tadpole like creatures, with the distinct organisation 
of the back-boned animals. After a period of free-swim- 
ming life, the creature settles down on a rock, and a 
thorough overhauling of the organisation takes place, in 
which important members of the larval body like eyes, the 
supporting structure the notochord etc., are discarded. 
Thus the tadpole like creature is transformed into the 
Ascidian. Many parasites and sedentary animals complete 
their development in a similar manner by putting back the 
clock of development. The study of the development of 
various animals reveals another interesting feature. The 
early embryos of the fish, lizard, bird and mammal are 
very much alike. The resemblance is not merely in the 
general form, but also in the presence of some of the in- 


ternal organs, and in the general development of the 
various organs. A human embryo of about four or tive 
weeks is provided with gill slits like those present in the 
sharks. Such resemblances led to the formulation of the 
famous Recapitulation theory or Biogenetic law of Haeckel. 
This hypothesis explains the resemblances between the 
embryos of the various groups by supposing that develop- 
ment is influenced by the evolutionary history of the race, 
and that the developing embryo repeats in a general way 
and in a certain measure the history of the race. The 
resemblance of the tadpoles of the frog to the young 
stages of the fish is explained by the fact that the Amphi- 
bians or frogs and their allies are evolved from fish-like 

Such are the general features of animal development. 
There are endless variations in the details of each and 
every process in the different groups of animals. But all 
these do not explain the mystery of development. By 
saying to at the egg becomes a blustula or that the brain 
is formed out of the outer skin of embryo, the mystery is not 
solved. Till about the eighties of the last century, students 
of development concerned themselves mainly with the des- 
cription of the kaleidoscopic series of transformations 
undergone by the embryo in the progress of development. 
The more orthodox adherents to the recapitulation theory 
interested themselves in interpreting development as an 
historical process, and investigations on the development of 
animals served only to reconstruct their genealogy, or 
visualise their hypothetical ancestors. "Hypotheses" said 
Goethe, "are the cradle songs with which the teacher lulls 
his pupils to sleep, " and the Recapitulation hypothesis of 
Haeckel was no exception. But, in the year 1880 Wil- 
helm Roux broke away from the established tradition of 


embryologists and initiated the experimental enquiry into 
the causal factors of development. He plunged a hot needle 
into one of the two blastomeres in the two-celled stage of 
the developing frog's egg. By this action, which he com- 
pares to the dropping of a bomb on a newly started factory, 
the uninjured half of the egg developed into a half-embryo, 
and later on became a complete embryo. The significance 
of this result does not concern us now. What 
interests us now is the inauguration of the experimental 
method or Entwicklungsmechanik as Roux christened it or 
the "causal embryology" as Brachet termed it. Thousands 
of experiments have been made since the time of Roux on 
the embryos of animals to analyse the developmental pro- 
cesses and discover the causal factors underlying the pro- 
cesses. The place of honour among the investigators of 
experimental embryology is held by Spernann, the Nobel 

The new school of embryology has developed a very 
delicate technique, requiring great skill on the part of the 
operator. Micro-surgical operations on the minute em- 
bryos, like cutting the minute segmenting egg into two or 
more bits, removing a small part of the embryo, or rudi- 
ment of an organ, and grafting it in another place in the 
same embryo or in another embryo of the same species, or 
even of a different species, and sometimes into the body 
of the adult, cultivation of the embryos in vitro or artifi- 
cial cultures with normal environment or with modified 
or controlled environment, inducing the growth of organs 
in abnormal situations in the embryo, inducing the 
production of monstrosities, treatment of embryos 
with poisons to detect the susceptibility of the different 
parts of the embryo to poisons, these are the chief methods 


employed by the investigators in the study of causal 

The results of the experimental school of embryology 
have given us a better insight than before into the organi- 
sation of the egg and the latent factors of development. 

With regard to the organisation of the fertilised egg 
we no longer regard it as simple and unorganised as it 
appears at first sight. But we do not imagine with Sush- 
ruta and the seventeenth and eighteenth century pref orma- 
tionists that a miniature replica of the adult organism is 
concealed in it to jump out of it like 'Jack in the Box', or to 
unfold like the petals of a flower bud, or 'develop' like the 
exposed photographic plate. 

The visible organisation of the egg includes the 
double set of chromosomes in the nucleus, and sometimes 
there is patent a regional differentiation in the cytoplasm 
surrounding the nucleus, which may be due to the unequal 
distribution of the yolk and pigment. The chromosomes 
carry the hereditary factors or genes which are contribut- 
ed jointly by the paternal and maternal germ cells, the 
sperm and ovum. But one set of chromosomes alone are 
sufficient so far as development is concerned, as we can see 
from cases of virgin birth or parthenogenesis. These genes 
are potential hereditary characters which can find an ex- 
pression only in the later stages of development and in the 
adult. They do not seem to be responsible for initiating 
the early stages of development. 

We must look rather to the cytoplasm for the factors 
which are known to convert the apparently static egg into 
the dynamic embryo. In the case of some animals like the 
frog, even the unfertilised egg shows a differentiation into 


a pigmented animal pole, and a light coloured heavily 
yolked vegetative pole. The distribution of the yolk and 
pigmentation, the position of the nucleus etc., bring about 
such a differentiation. In the frog the animal pole 
indicates the future head end of the animal, and the 
vegetative pole the tail end. This differentiation into poles 
is called polarity and is the primary expression of the egg's 

How does the egg get differentiated into the animal 
pole or potential head end, and the vegetative pole or 
potential tail end? In some animals, at any rate, this dif- 
ferentiation is due to a high rate of oxidational or meta- 
bolic activity at one end, and a very low rate at the other. 
Between the two ends there is a graded difference in the 
metabolic rate. This is spoken of as the axial gradient. 
Yolk which is readily oxidisable is confined to the region 
of the lowest metabolic rate, which becomes the vegeta- 
tive pole, and the opposite end becomes the animal pole. 
The axial gradient in its turn is due to another factor, 
which however is not in the egg but outside. This is the 
proximity of the egg to the blood cells in the ovary of the 
mother. Thus an external factor determines in the egg 
which is to be the future head end and which the future 
tail end. 

The next step of differentiation we refer once 
again to the frog's egg is the establishment of bilateral 
symmetry. This is possible only when the dorsal and 
ventral sides are determined, and this is done by the entry 
of the sperm into the egg in the act of fertilisation. When 
the sperm enters the egg on one side, the pigment on the 
opposite side is sucked up, and a grey crescent appears ex- 
actly opposite to the point where the sperm enters. This 


grey crescent is the future dorsal surface. The dorsoven- 
tral axis represents another axial gradient, the dorsal side 
being the region of the highest metabolic activity. There 
is yet another gradient formed in the egg, from the surface 
to the centre. Thus the fertilised egg is a complex system 
with a definite organisation indicated by the axial gradients. 
The egg is now set for further development, for with 
fertilisation the dynamic nature of the egg becomes mani- 
fest. It is not as yet visibly differentiated into different 
structures. Only the different parts show a quantitative 
difference in the metabolic rate. The next step is the 
establishment of a qualitative difference between the dif- 
ferent portions, so that each will develop into a particular 
structure. The visible change that comes over the egg next 
to fertilisation is cleavage, as we have seen already. The 
American school of embryologists led by Wilson have 
carried out painstaking investigations into the history of 
each cell or blastomere of the dividing egg, and revealed 
the meaning of the process of cleavage. The egg becomes 
a mosaic of blastomeres each of which seems to be set apart 
for the formation of some specific part of the embryo. The 
experiment of Roux was made to see whether one of the 
blastomeres in the two-celled stage would give rise to a full 
embryo or half embryo. In some animals, even as late as 
the thousand-cell stage, any one blastomere, if isolated, 
may give rise to a complete embryo. In other animals 
each of the cells in the two-celled stage can give rise only 
to a half -embryo. These observations lead us to infer that 
the material for the formation of the specific portions of 
the embryo is separated or set apart at a very early stage 
in the development of some eggs, but much later in others. 
The former are called mosaic eggs and the later regulation 


What is it that brings about the differentiation during 
cleavage? Is it the nucleus? Can it not be that differences 
between the nuclei, due to unequal divisions bring about 
the differentiation during cleavage? Spemann performed 
a very interesting experiment which shows that the nucleus 
is not responsible for this differentiation. He tied a hair 
round the fertilised egg of a newt pinching it into a dumbell- 
shape in such a way that the nucleus came to lie at one 
end, while the other end was without the nucleus. In 
course of time the end with the nucleus segmented while 
the other end did not segment. After several divisions had 
taken place, he loosened the loop and allowed a nucleus 
lying nearest to the end without a nucleus to pass into it. 
Then the loop was tightened again. This second end now 
began to segment, and it developed not into any special 
part of the embryo, but into a whole embryo, though it 
contained, as compared with the other portion only a frac- 
tion of the nuclear material to start with. Thus the poten- 
tiality of one or many nuclei seems to be the same. 
Recently Dalcq has put forward an hypothesis to explain 
how the egg is roused to activity. He supposes that the 
nuclear sap mixes with the cytoplasm while the ovum is 
ripening, and partly diffuses into the outer part or cortex 
of the egg. The cortical portion has some inhibiting in- 
fluence on the egg, which is changed at the time of ferti- 
lisation. At fertilisation the cortical substance is split up 
and provides the substances which bring about differ- 
entiation, segregation etc. Leaving alone the details, 
what we have to note is that the cytoplasm contains the 
factors for the differentiation during cleavage. 

When the frog is in the blastula stage, no differentia- 
tion is visible in it except in the size of the blastomeres and 
the pigmentation of the cells of animals and vegetal poles. 


The smaller dark coloured cells are destined to give rise to 
the ectoderm and the larger light coloured to the endoderm. 
But at this stage the egg is 'plastic' except in the region of 
the crescent, and the parts are interchangeable. A por- 
tion of the pigmented region the potential or presumptive 
ectoderm can be transplanted into the .light coloured region 
or region of the presumptive endoderm. In the same way 
the presumptive endoderm can be transplanted into the 
dark coloured region, and it will grow into the ectoderm. 
In other words what is to become the outer skin may be made 
to grow into the inner skin, and vice versa. But this 'plas- 
ticity' is lost when the blastula becomes a gastrula, and the 
ectoderm cannot be exchanged for the endoderm, or the 
endoderm for the ectoderm. The embryo is at this stage 
invisibly marked out into a number of regions chemically 
different from one another. In other words there is a 
qualitative differentiation now, and the fate of each part 
of the embryo is now fixed. This is usually spoken of a 
chemodifferentiation. In the eggs of the regulation type 
this occurs late as in the frosj, but in the eggs of the 
mosaic type this takes place very early. 

Though the epg is analysable into a number of chemi- 
cally different fields, there is as yet no visible differentia- 
tion into different structures. There now appears a new 
feature which brings about a visual organisation in the 
embryo. Gastrulation in the frog takes place by the 
appearance of a lip-like structure in the region of the 
grey crescent. This is called the dorsal lip of the blasto- 
pore. We are not concerned with the details of gastrula- 
tion f but we must remember this dorsal lip, for it is a re- 
markable structure. Normally, the nerve plate, the axial 
supporting: rod of the embryo, the notochord which officiates 
as the 'backbone' in the embryo, all these axial structures 



are formed in the meridian of the dorsal lip of the blasto- 
pore. But if the dorsal lip is transplanted into some 
abnormal place, the nerve plate and the notocord are deve- 
loped there under the influence of the dorsal lip of the blasto- 
pore. There are two kinds of newts, one with dark colour- 
ed eggs, and another with light or white coloured eggs. 
Spemann took the dorsal lip from the light coloured egg and 
transplanted it into a dark coloured egg. Thus the dark 
coloured embryo had two dorsal lips, one its own, and the 
other the transplanted one. The embryo now developed two 
notochords, nerve plates (or brains) , one set its own and the 
other 'imposed'! And it was from the tissues of the dark 
coloured embryo that the light coloured blastopore organis- 
ed the organs. The dorsal lip of the blastopore is there- 
fore called an organiser, for it organises the embryo 
wherever it is placed. It is the focus about which the embryo 
is organised. It has been found out that the organising 
power of the organiser is due to a chemical substance pre- 
sent in it. Another interesting feature is that the organiser 
from a toad will organise the axial structures in the newt. 
And foreign tissues or agar after being in contact with the 
organiser for some time become infected with organising 
capacity, and may be used for organising the axial 
structures in an embryo. But the organiser can act only 
on competent tissues. In the particular case under con- 
sideration, the tissues are competent at the time of gastru- 
lation. Provided the tissues are 'competent' in this sense, 
it does not matter whether it is ectoderm or endoderm 
or mesoderm on which the organiser is acting; the organi- 
ser will induce the formation of the embryonic structures. 
But the power or effect of the organiser will vary accord- 
ing to tHe region on which it is acting. The front end of 
the nerve plate will be induced to develop into the brain, 


the hinder part into tiie spinal cord, and so on. The 
chemical substance extracted from the organiser will 
'evoke' the formation of the nerve plate, but will not effect 
this 'individuation' into brain, spinal cord etc. So it is 
assumed that there are two factors in respect of the action 
of the organising centre. One is the 'evocator', a chemical 
substance which will merely induce the formation of a 
nerve plate from competent tissue, and the other is sup- 
posed to be the 'individuation field' which determines 
what part of the nerve plate shall be induced. Through 
its evocator a chemical substance the organiser brings 
about induction, through its 'indivicluation tielcT it effects 
organisation of that which is induced. 

A central military authority may issue from its head- 
quarters a general command for the mobilisation of troops 
for defence, but the particular form of defence which has 
to be organised and into which the command has to be 
translated will depend on the regional relationship of the 
troops. The mobilisation which is due to the command 
from the central authority is like the 'induction' of the 
'evocator' of the organising centre in the embryo. The 
organising of the form of defence with regional variations 
depending on the regional relationships is like the 'indivi- 
duation' depending on the 'individuation field' of the orga- 
nising centre. 

Another feature which the above analogy will explain 
is the self-differentiation of the different regions of the 
embryo, when once they have been started on the road to 
differentiation by the organising centre. After receiving 
the general command each corps in the army will decide its 
own details of action while in the thick of the fight. This is 
like the self -differentiation of different parts of the embryo 
after 'induction' and 'individuation' have taken place. The 


early rudiment of the leg bone of the chick, while it is still 
a shapeless mass of mesodermal tissue, may be cut out of 
the embryo and grown in an artificial culture after it has 
started its self-differentiation; and it will continue to self- 
differentiate developing every detail of structure. 

After the primary organiser has done its work, second- 
ary and even tertiary organisers may appear, and bring 
about further differentiation of the embryo. The eye-cup 
.which grows out from the brain tube in the embryo acts an 
organiser, inducing the ectoderm to form a lens. It may 
be cut and removed from its natural position and trans- 
planted in the side of the embryo or in some other abnor- 
mal position, and it will induce the formation of the 
lens in an abnormal position. 

After the organisers have done their work, the outlines 
of the embryo and the various organs are visible. The 
embryo is by now well on the road to the realisation of the 
form of the young organism. Functioning of the organs 
brings about further differentiation. Other factors internal 
as well as external, guide it along the road, and the heredi- 
tary factors or genes will lead it to its goal, the attain- 
ment of the form characteristic of the species. Environ- 
mental deviations may lead to developmental aberra- 
rations as in the case of the fish Fundulus which develops 
a cyclopaen eye, when magnesium cholride is added to the 
sea-water in which it lies. 

Thus the young science of 'Causal Embryology' or 
'Entwicklungsmechanik' has revealed to us new land marks 
of differentiation in the development of the organism. 
Regional differences of metabolic rate in the egg establish- 
ment of axial gradients, determination of the future head 
and tail regions, determination of the dorsal and ventral 


surfaces and establishment of bilaterality, transformation 
of the embryo into a chemical mosaic by the differentia- 
tion of a number of chemically different fields, the appear- 
ance of the organiser on the scene, with its evocator and 
individuation field and which, like Mother Carey in 
Kingsley's 'Water-babies', who made things make them- 
selves' organises the parts of the embryo about it to self- 
differentiate into tissues and organs, these are events of 

The survey of animal development presented above, 
briel and incomplete though it be, will suffice to indicate 
what a complex process development is. The new embryo- 
logy does not claim to have explained away the process 
of development, but its brilliant results have given us a 
better insight into the complex of development. They 
have analysed the big riddle into smaller riddles. It is be- 
side the point to raise the question whether this causal 
embryology will ever be able to solve the riddle of deve- 
lopment, or whether the developmental processes can be 
explained ultimately in terms of physics and chemistry. 

Several theories of development have been formulated. 
To mention but a few: there is the vitalistic theory of 
Driesch who imports into development an undemonstra- 
ble factor, the entelechy; there is the mechanistic theory 
whose exponents hold that the 'causal postulate is per- 
fectly applicable to living organisms, and can be satisfac- 
torily applied to the biological order of things, irrespective 
of the possibility of biological phenomena being reduced 
to physico-chemical processes/ Other exponents of the 
mechanistic outlook would assume the possibility of the 
physico-chemical explanation of all biological phenomena 
as a useful hypothesis, with the reservation that biology 


may discover new and unsuspected properties of life and 
living matter. In justice to the upholders of the mecha- 
nistic hypothesis, it must be stated that they do not hold 
development to be explicable in terms of the old laws of 
classical physics and chemistry, or by analogy to man-made 
machines. We have also ihe organismic theory which with 
its Holistic orientation aims at steering clear of both the 
vitalistic and mechanistic theories, and whose apostles 
like Bertalanffy would declare an autonomy for biology to 
enable it to develop its own concepts independently of 
physics, under whose shadow, they complain, Biology has 
languished like a plant deprived of light." It is not pro- 
posed to present here a critique of the several thories of 
development. For theories and hypotheses let philosophers 
contend, while we watch and admire the beauty of co-ordina- 
tion, both spatial and temporal, of the developmental 
processes, and the panoromic succession of forms which 
the embryo wears as time 'bites' into it. 

''The one Spirit's plastic stress . 

Sweeps through the dull, dense world, compelling 

All new successions to the forms they wear" 


1. Benoy Kumar Sarkar. The Positive Background of Hindu 
Sociology, vol. i. 

2. Bertalanffy and Woodger. Modern Theories of Develop- 

3. ( Current Science 9 Special Number 'Organisers in Deve- 
lopment. 1 

4. Dalcq. Form and Causality. 

5. De Beer. Experimental Embryology. 

6. Gilbert. Biography of the Unborn. 

7. Huxley and De Beer. Elements of Experimental Em- 


8. Locy. Makers of Biology. 

9. Keith. Human Morphology and Embryology. 

10. Me Dougall. The Riddle of Life. 

11. Narayanaswami Aiyar. Thirty Minor Upanishads. 
(Translation) . 

12. Needham. Order and Life. 

13. Russel. The Interpretation of Development and Heredity. 

14. Spemann. Embryonic Development and Induction. 

15. Waddington. How Animals Develop. 

16. Woodger. Biological Principles, 



(Madras University.) 

"The days of roj^al patronage are gone/' said 
Nammalvar the greatest of Vaishnava saints. The same 
sentiment is expressed and illustrated by Saint Sundarar 
in one of his sacred hymns. 1 These seers were obviously 
dissatisfied with the general degeneracy of poetic taste in 
high circles and the consequent lack of response to the call 
of the Muse. The former feels the pang so much that he 
entreats the gifted poets to live by the sweat of their brow 
instead of courting the princely gaze that used to follow 
them in palmier days. 2 He seems to recollect the golden 
age in which the crowned kings and nobles of the Tamil 
land deemed it a privilege to honour the votaries of the 

The memory of some of these illustrious patrons is 
preserved in the classical poems and place-names of the 

Quueor jp/u> 9 


Loesrgv) i>esflffiB 

iT 1 jpuzQiuL o/gpfta <s&Qffingi 


Tamil country. The early Pandya kings were delighted to 
associate themselves with the activities of the literary men 
who adorned the royal academy (Sangam) at Madura and 
honoured them with handsome gifts and presents. The great 
Chola king Karikala gave a magnificent gift to the poet who 
pictured in a lovely poem the grandeur of Pum-Pukar, 'the 
city beautiful/ 3 The exemplary patronage extended to the 
literati by some of the contemporary noblemen exalted them 
into an illustrious order (eluvallal) in the estimation of the 
country. 4 By common consent the place of honour among 
them seems to have been assigned to Pari, the ruler of the 
hill-fort of Parambu surrounded by three hundred villages. 
He is extolled as the model of munificence by Saint Simda- 
rar. 5 Tradition has it that the three kings of the Tamil 
country beseiged his fort and assasinated him by treachery. 
The country of Pari is considered to be Parambanad f a 
division of the Pandinad, wherein the existence of a vil- 
lage called Pariccaram is disclosed by epigraphical evi- 
dence. 6 Kapilar, the towering poet of 'the Augustan age 
of Tamil literature' was a great friend of Pari. This poet 
was born at Tiruvadavur situated in the south Paramba- 
nad. 7 It is possible that temperamental affinities and 
territorial patriotism bound the poet and his patron in an 
indissoluble union. 

uL-Lq-eoru unrSfeu 

- GeSaSSpffULUreBsfl) 198. 

4. c urrift <ifl fs&rerR erW? 

/f 125. 

5. ' GtsirQ&QGtirrprryssTu utrrflQuj Quj&rjp 

6. South Indian Inscriptions, Vol. VIII, p. 227. 

7. Ibid., p. 222. 


Another nobleman of the Illustrious order of Seven* 
honoured in songs is Adikan or Adikaman. He ruled over 
a considerable extent of territory between the Pennar and 
Vellar. The fortified city of Takadur, the modern Dharma- 
puri, in the Salem district, was his capital. He appears to 
have been generous to a fault. His gift of an ambrosial 
fruit to the poetess Avvai in grateful appreciation of her 
poetic genius elicited universal admiration. 8 His territory 
was invaded by a powerful Chera king who succeeded in 
destroying the fortified city of Takadur. In honour of his 
signal victory the Chera styled himself "the conqueror of 
Takadur" 9 and his military exploit forms the theme of an 
ancient Tamil poem entitled "Takadur Yattirai" 

The memory of Adikaman survives in the names of 
cities either founded by him or in his honour. Five miles 
south of Dharmapuri there is a place called Adaman Kottai 
which is obviously a corruption of Adikaman Kottai. 'The 
outline of the old fort wall still exists and the position of 
the temples within the ramparts indicates the former ex- 
tent of the town/ 10 Possibly, Tiruvatikai, the modern Tiru- 
vati, on the river Gadilam, which is associated with the 
devoted services of the saintly sister of Tirunavukkarasar, 
is a classical abbreviation of Adikanur, the city of Adikan. 11 

The inimitable generosity of Kumanan of Kongunad 
has endeared him to the high and the low alike. This great 


10. Gaz. Salem, p. 196 


man deprived of his estate by the greediness of his wicked 
brother and wandering in the jungle as an exile was found 
by a poet in dire need. The pathetic words in which the 
poet pictured his poverty melted his heart. 12 He handed 
his sword to the poet and meekly offered his head on which 
his brother had set a price, for the relief of his unmerited 
poverty The poet was stunned by the offer. Sword in 
hand he rushed to the cruel brother who banished such a 
noble soul, described the incident in moving terms and 
reconciled the brothers. The place known as Kolumam in 
the Coimbatore district is considered to be a corruption of 
Kumanam called after his noble patron. 13 The poet who 
has enshrined his fame in immortal verse is Peruntalai- 
cattan. The prefix in the name probably denotes the place 
of the poet. Peruntalai was the original name of the vil- 
lage now called Peruntalaiyur in Coimbatore. 14 

This golden age of royal patronage passed away and 
it was followed by a period of apathy and confusion, which 
was deplored by the great seers. During this period the 
principal religions of the Tamil country were preparing for 
a battle royal. The validity of the Jaina and Buddhistic 
doctrines was challenged by the Saiva and Vaishnava 

12/r L^.Jl 64, 165. 

13. I. M. P. Vol. I, p. 563. Kolumara in Karaivalinadu is 
eleven miles south-east of Udumalpet. SewelFs Antiquities, p. 222. 

14. It is probable that Peruntalai, denotes the place of the 
poet, just as Cittalai is associated with another Cattan and Kalat- 
talai with another Sangam poet. The village Peruntalaiyur is 20 
miles north east of Satyamangalam (Coimbatore). There is an 
old Siva temple with many inscriptions on the walls one of which 
is dated the 23rd year of Sundara Pandya Deva's reign. Ibid, 
p. 216. 


saints which provoked 'the great war of religions.' The 
saints toured the country from one end to the other, sing- 
ing sacred hymns at every shrine and infusing religious 
fervour in the masses. They lifted the mind of men from 
material pursuits to the gracious feet of the Lord, and 
exhorted those who had the gift of poesy to sing the praise 
of the Maker and not of the mortals. 15 Thus they ushered 
into existence what may be called the age of spiritualised 
poetry, which was naturally succeeded by the age of philo- 
sophy. Religious institutions were started for the conser- 
vation and propagation of spiritual knowledge. The kings 
and nobles deemed it an act of great religious merit to 
construct new temples or renovate the old fanes glorified 
in the sacred hymns. Thus came into existence the great 
temples of southern India, the architectural beauty of which 
command the admiration of the modern world. 

The advent of European civilisation and especially the 
spread of English education shifted the emphasis from reli- 
gion and philosophy to arts and science. Eradication of 
mass illiteracy and encouragement of higher learning and 
research are now deemed more beneficial to the community 
than the construction of temples and establishment of 
charitable institutions. This time spirit is reflected in the 
songs of the popular Tamil poet of the modern age. 'Better 
far' says Bharathi, 'to initiate a poor soul in the rudiments of 
knowledge than to endow a thousand choultries and erect 


QurruJLbetDLD ujfrstretoffu uirLrrQp ais 


ten thousand temples/ 16 The religious institutions of 
southern India are slowly adjusting themselves to the con- 
ditions and requirements of the modern times. The en- 
lightened head of the Tirupanandal Mutt has initiated the 
admirable policy of awarding an annual prize to the best 
Tamil scholar of the University of Madras. 17 The founda- 
tion of a residential University near Chidambaram offering 
instruction in all that is best in the culture of the east and 
west, marks a new epoch in the cultural history of the 
Tamil country. In grateful appreciation of the generous 
gift of the Rajah of Chettinad which brought the Univer- 
sity into existence, the temple of learning and the sacred 
place where it is situated are named after him. In close 
proximity to the sacred hall of Cirrambalam where the 
mystic dance of the Lord explains the principles of cosmic 
life, the Annamalai University will stand for all time as 
the source of light and inspiration to countless genera- 
tions of students and lovers of learning. 


<*. 126. 

17. His Holiness Srilasri Kasivasi, Swaminatha Thambiran 
Swamigal Avergal of Tirupanandal has made an endowment yield- 
ing an annual interest of Rs. 1,000 " which is paid in cash to the 
candidate who stands first in the first class in Tamil in the Oriental 
Title examination (Vidwan Final) with Tamil alone as the sub- 
ject." The prize is styled as ' King George V Memorial Tamil 


T. N. SlQUEIRA, S.J., 

The Sashtiabdhapurthi of Sir Annamalai Chettiar 
deserves more than the customary recounting of a kind 
man's benefactions. He has used his great wealth not in 
scattering largesses to deserving causes but without 
altogether neglecting other appeals for his help in one 
very definite kind of philanthropic work, in fact the one 
which deserves the name if any work does, for it aims at 
making men: higher education. He has founded and 
maintained a university in the twentieth century! And 
though the Government has donated an equal 20 lacs of 
rupees towards its foundation and an annual grant of a lac 
and a half, the initiative of this noble project came from 
this great son of India. 

The Annamalai University was the result of a long- 
felt need of a centre of higher learning in the Tamil Nad. 
A state university was eagerly asked for by the advocates 
of Tamil culture but the attraction of the established order 
and the fear of a loss of prestige in a smaller and less exten- 
sive university prevailed. It was at this time that Sir 
Annamalai came forward and offered to found and keep up 
a unitary residential teaching university. 

That was in 1929. Twelve years have passed, and 
the Annamalai University has grown in numbers and 
prestige till it has about a thousand students and its 
degrees are not considered inferior to those of other 


universities, It might therefore be a not unworthy way of 
honouring its founder to examine how far it embodies the 
idea of an Indian University. 


Newman has for all time embalmed in his measured 
prose the true Idea of a University. That ideal of a 
school of universal knowledge acquired by the study of lite- 
rature and art and of all the sciences in their due degrees 
rising up to theology their queen is true of all times and 
places because it is based on the very nature of things. A 
university, in any part of the world which is fit for one, 
ought to be in some way universal, as far as circum- 
stances allow (not less) reflecting the manyfacetedness of 
God's own knowledge and the manykindedness of man- 
kind. It does not, therefore, seem that there can be such 
a thing as an Indian university as distinct or different from 
an American or African or German university, for there 
cannot be a limited university. 

But if there is no limit to a university's scope in 
regard to persons as well as subjects, there is a difference of 
approach and of spirit a difference of emphasis, which 
corresponds to and is an effect of the difference of 
climate, surroundings, history, economic condition, 
language, culture (which includes art, philosophy, 
religion, customs and manners) of each university's area. 
In studying the same Economics, for example, a different 
emphasis will inevitably be placed in an agricultural area 
like Travancore or Mangalore from an industrial part of the 
same country like Ahmedabad or Calcutta; and, tak- 
ing India as a whole, a different spirit will inevitably per- 
vade the teaching of, say, English poetry here from what 
would in Japan or France, 


This obvious but seldom understood fact could be 
expressed in terms of a country's personality. Just as each 
individual boy or girl, though possessing the same human 
nature, possesses it in a different way (i.e. in a different pro- 
portion between the various faculties of body and soul 
which make up human nature), so too though all nations 
are made of men each has a different history, a different 
sum-total of experiences down the ages geography and 
climate, food, wealth or poverty, occupation, art, conquest 
and independence, trade and communications, philo- 
sophy, religion etc. Every element of environment, in 
fact, and every event favourable or unfavourable moulds 
and completes and thus changes the personality of a people 
no less than of an individual. The Indian of 1941 is cer- 
tainly not the same as the Indian of 1931, and still less is he 
the same as the African or the New Zealander or the Dutch- 
man of 1941 or of 1931. 

It is unintelligent and beside the point to ask which 
nation or individual is superior. They are different the 
longer and richer and better their experience, 
the better and more complex their 'personality'. 
But most of this does not depend on them, for it 
is the work of extrinsic causes. . The consequence for edu- 
cation is that just as each child has to be educated in terms 
of his own personality, so too each people has to be educat- 
ed in terms of its own personality taking this word in the 
less strict but no less true sense I have explained. 

This does not mean that what is taught and learnt by 
each nation (or individual) should be different, but that 
the way it is taught and learnt, the emphasis on the differ- 
ent elements which enter into the process, the approach to 
the faculties, the spirit of the entire undertaking should be 
different and adapted to each different 'personality'. 


Applying this to university education, with which we are 
chiefly concerned here, it means that there should be in an 
Indian university a distinctly Indian spirit, an Indian 
method of approch to universal knowledge. There should, 
of course, be no restriction of knowledge to things Indian, 
for that would be the very negation of education, whose 
property is to broaden and deepen the wells of our common 
human nature. But the processes of knowledge should 
begin from things known i.e. Indian and not from 
unknown quantities; what is under our very eyes and be- 
fore our very doors should be first observed at first hand and 
recorded and impartially examined and only then should 
our conclusions be compared with those of visitors friend- 
ly or unfriendly, partial or impartial. 


My idea of an Indian university is that it is a seat, be- 
sides other subjects, of the study of Indian history in a first- 
hand and thorough way. Is it not a standing disgrace to 
the nearly-a-contury-old universities of India that the only 
largescale Indian History so far attempted has been in 
Cambridge? And perhaps even a great disgrace is that 
Indian History is not even a compulsory subject in the His- 
tory groups of Indian universities and, at any rate, is not 
as popular as English or Greek and Roman History? The 
Patna University has recently formed a plan for the bring- 
ing out of a serious History of India. 'But there will 
be many a pause in the work for want of continued support 
and appreciation of the importance of the undertaking. 
Indeed, the writing of a competent and first-hand History of 
India requires a thorough re-research and re-study of each 
period and should therefore be portioned out among the 
different universities, so that each Province may study at 
close quarters the events in which its own past was chiefly 



forged and the whole of India. A body such as 
the Inter-University Board or an All India Editorial Board, 
may co-ordinate the work of the various Universities and 
bring out a History of India worthy of India. 

In this work of research and collaboration the 
Annamalai University would have to play an important 
part. Being as it is the only residential university of 
the Tamil Nad and situated near some of the most interest- 
ing sites in all history, it is a duty it owes to India to ascer- 
tain and make known the facts of the past as they were and 
drew the right lessons from them. Messrs. C. S. Srinivasa- 
chari and R. Sathianathan have indeed done some work in 
this direction. But how little interest and encouragement 
has been shown to them and how few facilities have been 
given them for actual research as distinct from mere teach- 
ing! When highly paid scholars from foreign universities 
covet the riches of our history, is it not regrettable that our 
own able and willing workers are so few and so little 
encouraged? If an Indian university does not do this 
work, what university will? 

The scientific teaching of the Indian languages, too, is 
an important part of an Indian, university's duty. These 
languages contain treasures of literature and philosophy 
and even in their earliest works reveal a real genius for 
synthetic and rounded thought. And yet Sanskrit is still 
in many ways an undiscovered mine and its riches are 
hardly suspected by the vast majority of Indian graduates. 
It is left to Schooenhauer and Max Muller and Rhys 
Davids and F. W. Thomas to grow lyrical over India's 
heritage while Indian universities are content to praise 
Sanskrit and starve Sanskritists. If the Bhandarkar 
Institute were transplanted, to Harvard it would get 


much more concrete encouragement than it does in Poona 
in spite of the ungrudging services of men like V. S. 
Sukthankar. If a critical edition of the Mahabharata were 
decided upon in any other country it would not languish for 
want of support as it does in the one country which can call 
itself Bharatavarsha. 

And the Annamalai University, which is the univer- 
sity of the Tamil Nad has the sacred trust of studying and 
developing the Tamil language. This ancient and supple 
language is rich in possibilities; it has to be bent to modern 
needs of quick communication, science, public life. 
Where can a body of able scholars be found fit and willing 
for this great taskon which the progress of the Tamil Nad 
and through it of all India depends if not in the nearest 
approach we have to a Tamil Nad University? If the 
staff is so burdened with the work of ordinary teaching that 
it has little energy left for research and creative writing, 
the very primary purpose of an Indian university would 
seem to be defeated. 

It is not in this direction, therefore, that retrenchment 
is needed. If it were at all needed, it might more easily be 
made in those Departments which do not distinguish an 
Indian university from a European or an American, or 
which do not distinguish a university in South India from 
one in Bengal or Bombay. The note of universality of 
courses (universitas rerum} should of course be kept. 
But is it more costly to preserve in the twentieth century 
than it was in the Middle Ages when Paris, Bologna, 
Oxford and Cambridge, Nalauda and Takshasila first 
embodied the idea of a university? 

Another subject which one expects to be taught and 
studied in an Indian university is Indian art. In the 
welter of foreign imitations in music, painting, dancing and 


architecture which have followed in the wake of western 
education, India's special contribution to the world's art 
is in danger of being smothered by her own children. The 
debasement of Indian music, Carnatic as well as Hindus- 
tani or Bengali, by the depraved taste of the groundings 
in the cinema has been frequently pointed out in the Press 
but in vain. The introduction of cheap foreign instru- 
ments (like the harmonium) \vhich are out of keeping 
with the spirit of our music, has uslo been deplored by true 
musicians in vain. The style of dancing, building and paint- 
ing has also been affected by unthinking imitation of 
uncongenial foreign models. Against all these evils it is the 
function of an Indian university, with its staff of experts 
and its atmosphere of detachment from sordid gain and 
the confidence it enjoys with the public at large, to fight- 
not by vapid denunciation which provokes a denser 
obstinacy, but by positive study and demonstration of the 
beauty and adaptability to modern conditions of Indian 
artistic motifs. 


Of the spirit of an Indian university it is easier to feel 
than to spetk. It consists in a general attitude of apprecia- 
tion and respect for things Indian, a general initial disposi- 
tion to examine them fairly and improve them if possible 
rather than condemn and disown them out of hand, an 
enlightened love which wants the true good of the country 
and is not stopped by petty partisanship or narrow pro- 
vincialism in acknowledging and correcting wrong. Such a 
spirit seems to exist, to a certain extent, at Santinikatan 
where one breathes the atmosphere of India in the mango 
groves, the open-air classes, the frescoed library, the Kala 
Bhavan. There is something of this spirit in the Anna- 
malai university, too, and especially in the recently opened 


school of Indian Music where in sound-proof rooms strains 
of vocal and instrumental Carnatic music are produced 
from early morning till late at night. 

More than all this, however, the Indian University 
should draw to itself and keep as in one family teachers and 
students from every race and province and language and 
religion, so that living and working together they may 
grow in self-knowledge and mutual knowledge and 
appreciation. In a well-known but never sufficiently 
known passage in The Idea of a University Newman says: 

"If I had to choose between a so-called University 
which dispensed with residence and tutorial superintend- 
ence and gave its degree to any person who passed an 
examination in a wide range of subjects, and a University 
which had no professors or examinations at all but merely 
brought a number of young men together for three or four 
years and then sent them away. . . .if I were asked which 
of these two methods was the better discipline of the intel- 
lect. . . .if I must determine which of the two courses was 
the more successful in training, moulding and enlarging the 
mind, which seat out men the more fitted for their secular 
duties, which produced better public men, men of the world, 
men whose names would descend to posterity, I have no 
hesitation in giving the preference to that University which 
did nothing, over that which exacted of its members an 
acquaintance with every science under the sun." 

This may seem strongly said. But it points a lesson 
which we in India need more than anywhere else, for our 
name is Disunion. Our universities should therefore 
above all insist on the universities personarum the living 
together of different students and teachers, eating 
together, playing, discussing, studying and writing 
together, so that mutual knowledge may breed 


mutual appreciation which casts out mistrust. 
In the removal of communal mistrust, which is 
the chief and perhaps only obstacle to India's progress, our 
universities must play the greatest part. For it is there 
that the future leaders of India are formed. And mutual 
confidence, without; which no democratic government can 
stand, can neither be brought nor commanded but must be 
patiently deserved by common life. The value of hos- 
tels and, above all, of hostel life (which means as much 
common life as is possible?) cannot therefore be overstress- 
ed in any scheme of university education. School boys and 
girls may be too young to profit by a full measure of hostel 
life. But in the university the mixture of different stu- 
dents and professors on a familiar and equal plane is essen- 
tial more than anywhere else in a country as vast and 
heterogeneous as India is. 

The place of a residential university in India is 
therefore very high. The smoothing over of religious, 
communal, and caste differences which the Annamalai Uni- 
versity has achieved in a few years in the heart of the Tamil 
Nad would alone more than justify its existence and even 
the gratitude of India to its founder, even if it did nothing 
for the advancement of research and higher learning. But 
it has done much more, arid it has much more to do still for 
the fulfilment of the idea of an Indian and particularly a 
South Indian University. It has to cultivate in its alumni 
those habits which mark the truly educated man the spirit 
of impartial inquiry and calm examination, the spirit of 
understanding and independent judgment, the spirit of 
openmindedness and appreciation of whatever is true and 
good and beautiful wherever it may be found, the spirit of 
universal love and service towards God and men. Sir 
Annamalai will have the consolation of having made all this 





There are vast possibilities in this district for preparing 
agricultural and vegetable products for more profitable 
export. A lot of work is still to be done, in improving 
agricultural methods, for co-ordinating labour and capital, 
and for starting new mills and cottage industries, to cope 
adequately with the agricultural resources and to provide 
work for the mainly agricultural population for more 
months in the year. 

Paddy, groundnut, sugar-cane and cashewnut consti- 
tute a few of the most important agricultural produce 
of South Arcot district. The methods at present in vogue 
for preparing the produce for the market are far from satis- 
factory. Also, paddy husk, cashewnut shell, groundnut 
shell and bagasse are still to-day wasted or burnt unecono- 
mically as low grade fuel. In some places only an attempt 
is made to extract the corrosive liquid from the cashewnut 
shell by antiquated, crude and highly inefficient charring 

Casuarina and croton sparsiflorus are two other unex- 
ploited potential resources. The climate and backwater 
soil are ideal for casuraina (Casuarina equisetifolia) . The 


ubiquitous crofon sparsiflorus is as much of a pest to the 
agriculturist as the water hyacinth (Eichorina crassipes) 
is in the Bengal province, Tanjore and South Arcot dis- 
tricts. The seeds of the plant provide a high grade drying 
oil of commercial value. 

We are not concerned so much with the agricultural 
methods in this district which here as elsewhere in the 
province leave much scope for improvement. The bulk of 
the agricultural population consists of small land holders, 
poor, conservative and incapable of following the expert 
experimental advice of the Agricultural Department. To 
give only one example, the annual loss to the Madras Presi- 
dency due to poor quality of exported groundnuts has been 
estimated at 52 lakhs of rupees. 1 

About 40% of acreage in this district is under rice 
cultivation. Rice bran is rich in vitamin B complex and in 
mineral salts especially manganese. At present the bran 
is used only as cattle food. If industrial solvents are 
available at cheap rates it is possible to extract the oil 
out of the bran and use it in soap industry. Bran could be 
concentrated and standardised and vitaminised food pro- 
ducts manufactured from it. Experiments have shown that 
charcoal from paddy husk would be as efficient as bone- 
charconl in the clarification of sugar cane juice. The essen- 
tial quality in an adsorptive charcoal is high porosity which 
is found in this charcoal. The ash from this husk contains 
nbout 90% of silica and 7% of calcium oxide and has never 
been tried for the manufacture of glasses, silica wares and 
silica gel. If experiments with this ash should prove suc- 

1. Groundnut by Dr. B. V. Narayanaswami Naidu and 
Hariharan (Annamalai University Publication). 


cessful, paddy husk would prove to be a cheap source of 
pure silica. Nature separates for us pure silica through 
the rice plant; it would be impossible to economically 
purify clay and yet we have been allowing paddy-husk- 
ash to go to waste. 

Groundnut is the second important agricultural pro- 
duce of this district and about 28% of the total area is 
under cultivation (425,725 acres in 1938-39). South Arcot 
of all districts in the Presidency stands unique as the largest 
producer of groundnut, the loose soil being best suited for 
its cultivation. The bulk of groundnut is exported after 
decortication. A moiety only of the kernels is worked by 
crude presses for the valuable oil. The hulls which consti- 
tute 29% of the pod contain 17-20% of furfural yielding 
material, that is, mainly Xylose, a reducing sugar, which 
can easily be obtained by extraction with 0*2 N sulphuric 
acid. The average composition is as follows: 

Moisture 4 '69% 

Ash 3-16% 

Ether extract 3 -22% 

Pentosans 16-03% 

Reducing sugar 1'63% 

Cellulose 50 60% 

We would recommend the utilisation of the hulls for the 
preparation of activated charcoal, furfural, paper pulp and 
other cellulose products. We can but mention a few of the 
many uses and modem industrial applications of the 
groundnut oil which in our presidency has been used 
mainly as an adulterant of ghee and sesame oil. Apart from 
the manufacture of a poor quality of soft soap, hydrogenat- 
ed products, margarine, rubber substitutes, lubricating oils, 
motor fuel and glycerine could be prepared from the oil by 


suitable processes. Due to the present war India has been 
deprived of markets (Germany, Italy and Netherlands) 
consuming nearly 8 crores of rupees worth of groundnuts. 
We would therefore urge the importance of a hydrogena- 
tion plant at Mettur in conjunction with the alkali industry 
as the by product hydrogen is sufficient to hydrogenate 16 
tons of groundnut oil per day to start with. The glycerine 
content of the oil is next only to that of cocoanut oil and 
dynamite glycerine can easily be manufactured from it. 
Also claims have been made for the application of India 
rubber substitutes prepared from groundnut oil in the 
manufacture of dynamite itself, in place of kieselgur. 
Besides the nitrated oil mixes easily with nitrocellulose. 
According to Chopra, groundnut oil is comparable with 
olive oil as a nutrient and food, and can be given in wasting 
diseases. In our opinion it is more palatable than olive 
oil; artificial ghee, closely simulating the natural product, 
can be prepared from the oil by incorporating the vita- 
mins, diacetyl and ethyl butyrate in standard amounts and 
the food value thereby considerably enhanced. 

The cake (groundnut meal with oil content of 5-8%) 
can be used as a substitute for wheat flour for the manu- 
facture of bread, delicacies and biscuits. It is a valuable 
cattle food with the highest protein content 46 '4%. The 
cakes from damaged and mouldy nuts alone, need be used 
as manure. The easily extractable protein of the cake can 
find application as a binding medium in the paint i